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ADHD

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ADHD To start out, we just wanted to give you a picture of what we, as Educators, are dealing with when we talk about ADHD: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ADHD


1
ADHD
  • To start out, we just wanted to give you a
    picture of what we, as Educators, are dealing
    with when we talk about ADHD

2
  • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Occurs in 3-7 of school aged children.
  • Is characterized by a pattern of inattention,
    restlessness, and impulsiveness.

3
What doesnt cause ADHD?
  • ADHD is not caused by
  • Bad Parenting
  • Family Problems
  • Poor Teachers
  • Bad Schools
  • Food Allergies
  • Too Much TV
  • Excess Sugar

4
  • ADHD is diagnosed for the following
  • reasons
  • 1.) Symptoms of inattention, restlessness, and
    impulsiveness need to occur often.
  • 2.) Have persisted for the past 6 months.
  • 3.) Be out of place for the childs developmental
    stage.
  • 4.) Some of the behaviors were present before the
    age of 7 and occurred in more than one setting.

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6
  • Students with ADHD often have problems
  • in the following areas
  • 1.) Problem Solving
  • 2.) Organizational skills
  • 3.) Memory
  • 4.) Motor coordination such as poor hand writing
    and clumsiness has also been observed.

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8
  • Genetic factors have been linked to ADHA
  • Twin, family, and adoption studies have supported
    genetic heritability of ADHD to range from
    60-90.
  • One study showed children with ADHD to have
    greater variation in the gene associated with
    dopamine receptors in the brain.

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10
  • Environmental basis of ADHD
  • Prenatal exposure to alcohol can cause
    hyperactivity, disruptive, and impulsive behavior
    in children.
  • Maternal smoking also produces an increased risk
    of ADHA.
  • Other toxins in the environment such as lead and
    PCBs have been linked to ADHD.

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12
  • Brain Imaging
  • Reduced volumes in the frontal cortex, the basil
    ganglia, the corpus callosum and the cerebellum
    have been observed in ADHD patients.
  • ADHD children showed slow brainwave activity
    compared to normal children. Slow brainwave
    activity indicates a lack of control in the
    frontal cortex of the brain.

13
Smaller brain volumes associated with severity of
ADHD symptoms.

14
  • The Reticular Activating System is a complex
    collection of neurons that take in external
    stimuli from the base of the brain and delivers
    it up to the mid brain.

15
Rectilinear Activating System
16
  • ADHD Affects Neurotransmitters
  • Current research suggests that ADHD is caused in
    part by a deficiency of dopamine, and
    norepinephrine in the reticular activating
    system.
  • Drugs such as Ritalin increase the levels of
    norepinephrine and dopamine in the frontal lobes.

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18
Treatment Options for ADHD
  • MedicationsCurrently, stimulant drugs
    (psychostimulants) and the nonstimulant
    medication atomoxetine (Strattera) are the most
    commonly prescribed medications for treating
    ADHD.
  • Stimulant medications for ADHD include
  • - Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta, Daytrana)
  • - Dextroamphetamine-amphetamine (Adderall)
  • - Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat)
  • Stimulants appear to boost and balance levels of
    brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. These
    ADHD medications help improve the core signs and
    symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and
    hyperactivity sometimes dramatically.
    Additionally, the right dose varies from child to
    child, so it may take some time in the beginning
    to find the correct dose.

19
ADHD counseling and therapyChildren with ADHD
often benefit from behavior therapy or
counseling, which may be provided by a
psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker or
other mental health care professional. Some
children with ADHD may also have other conditions
such as anxiety disorder or depression. In these
cases, counseling may help both ADHD and the
coexisting problem. Counseling types include
Behavior therapy. Teachers and parents can
learn behavior-changing strategies for dealing
with difficult situations. These strategies may
include token reward systems and
timeouts. Psychotherapy. This allows older
children with ADHD to talk about issues that
bother them, explore negative behavioral patterns
and learn ways to deal with their symptoms.
20
Parenting skills training. This can help parents
develop ways to understand and guide their
child's behavior. Family therapy. Family therapy
can help parents and siblings deal with the
stress of living with someone who has
ADHD. Social skills training. This can help
children learn appropriate social
behaviors. Support groups. Support groups can
offer children with ADHD and their parents a
network of social support, information and
education. The best results usually occur when a
team approach is used, with teachers, parents,
and therapists or physicians working together.
Symptoms often lessen with age. However, most
people never completely outgrow their ADHD
symptoms.
21
Alternative medicine There's little research that
indicates that alternative medicine treatments
can significantly reduce ADHD symptoms. Some
alternative medicine treatments that have been
tried include Yoga and meditation. While it
might seem to make sense that two calming
activities, such as yoga and meditation, would
help reduce symptoms of ADHD, there's no
conclusive evidence that either therapy does
so. Special diets. Most diets for ADHD involve
eliminating foods thought to increase
hyperactivity, such as sugar and caffeine, and
common allergens such as wheat, milk and eggs.
Some diets recommend eliminating artificial food
colorings and additives. So far, studies haven't
found a consistent link between diet and improved
symptoms of ADHD. Vitamin or mineral supplements.
While certain vitamins and minerals are necessary
for good health, there's no evidence that
supplemental vitamins or minerals can reduce
symptoms of ADHD.
22
Herbal supplements. There is no evidence to
suggest that herbal remedies, such as St. John's
wort, help with ADHD. Essential fatty acids.
These fats, which include omega-3 oils, are
necessary for the brain to function properly.
Researchers are still investigating whether these
may improve ADHD symptoms. Neurofeedback
training. Also called electroencephalographic
biofeedback, this treatment involves regular
sessions in which a child focuses on certain
tasks while using a machine that shows brain wave
patterns. Theoretically, a child can learn to
keep brain wave patterns active in the front of
the brain improving symptoms of ADHD. While
this treatment looks promising, more research is
needed to see whether this treatment works.
23
Behavioral Therapy This type of therapy helps
and individual with ADHD reduce problems at
school and with relationships. Following are
examples that might help with your childs
behavioral therapy Create a routine. Try to
follow the same schedule every day, from wake-up
time to bedtime. Get Organized. Put schoolbags,
clothing, and toys in the same place every day so
your child will be less likely to lose them.
Avoid distractions. Turn off the TV, radio, and
computer, especially when your child is doing
homework.
24
Limit choices. Offer a choice between two things
(this outfit, meal, toy, etc., or that one) so
that your child isn't overwhelmed and
overstimulated. Change your interactions with
your child. Instead of long-winded explanations
and cajoling, use clear, brief directions to
remind your child of responsibilities. Use
goals and rewards. Use a chart to list goals and
track positive behaviors, then reward your
child's efforts. Be sure the goals are
realisticbaby steps are important!  Discipline
effectively. Instead of yelling or spanking, use
timeouts or removal of privileges as consequences
for inappropriate behavior. Help your child
discover a talent. All kids need to experience
success to feel good about themselves. Finding
out what your child does well whether it's
sports, art, or music can boost social skills
and self-esteem.
25
ADHD Facts
  •  Approximately 9.5 or 5.4 million children 4-17
    years of age have ever been diagnosed with ADHD,
    as of 2007.
  • Rates of ADHD diagnosis increased an average of
    5.5 per year from 2003 to 2007.
  • Boys (13.2) were more likely than girls (5.6)
    to have ever been diagnosed with ADHD.

26
Parents of children with a history of ADHD report
almost 3 times as many peer problems as those
without a history of ADHD (21.1 vs.
7.3). Using a prevalence rate of 5, the annual
societal cost of illness for ADHD is
estimated to be between 36 and 52 billion.  It
is estimated to be between 12,005 and 17,458
annually per individual. About 70 per cent to 80
per cent of children with this disorder continue
to have symptoms during their teen years, and
about 50 per cent have symptoms into
adulthood.
27
There are three different types of ADHD,
depending on which symptoms are strongest in the
individual Predominantly Inattentive Type It
is hard for the individual to organize or finish
a task, to pay attention to details, or to follow
instructions or conversations. The person is
easily distracted or forgets details of daily
routines.   Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive
Type The person fidgets and talks a lot. It is
hard to sit still for long (e.g., for a meal or
while doing homework). Smaller children may run,
jump or climb constantly. The individual feels
restless and has trouble with impulsivity.
Someone who is impulsive may interrupt others a
lot, grab things from people, or speak at
inappropriate times. It is hard for the person to
wait their turn or listen to directions. A person
with impulsiveness may have more accidents and
injuries than others.   Combined Type Symptoms
of the above two types are equally present in the
person.
28
The Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Test
  • For each of the following 6 questions, pick the
    answer that best suits you. Your choices are
    never, rarely, sometimes, often and very often.
  • 1. How often do you have trouble wrapping up the
    final details of a project, once the challenging
    parts have been done? 
  • 2. How often do you have difficulty getting
    things in order when you have to do a task that
    requires organization?
  •   
  • 3. How often do you have problems remembering
    appointments or obligations? 
  • 4. When you have a task that requires a lot of
    thought, how often do you avoid or  delay getting
    started? 
  • 5. How often do you fidget or squirm with your
    hands and feet when you have to sit down for a
    long time? 
  • 6. How often do you feel overly active and
    compelled to do things, as if you were driven by
    a motor? 

29
Scoring Your Self Assessment
  • 1. For questions 1, 2 and 3, if you have answered
    "Sometimes", "Often" or "Very Often", give
    yourself one point for each. This means, if you
    score, say "sometimes" for question 1, and
    "often" for question 2 and 3, you now have 3
    points. What if you answered "Never" or "Rarely"
    for questions 1-3? No points!
  • 2. For questions 4,5, and 6, if you answered
    "Often" or "Very Often", give yourself one point
    each. No points are awarded if you had answered
    "Never", "Rarely" or "Sometimes" in this case.
  • 3. Now total up all the points.
  • 4. If your total is 4 and above, you are said to
    have a Positive Score. If the total is 3 and
    below, it is considered a Negative Score.If you
    have a positive score and are ready to undergo a
    full diagnosis, do go and see a doctor who is
    very experienced with ADHD.
  • It should be noted that 80 of adults who
    garnered a positive score turned out to be ADHD
    positive when they underwent a full-scale
    diagnosis.

30
Some Famous People Who Had/Have ADHD
Tommy Hilfiger  Vincent Van Gogh
Magic Johnson Thomas Edison
Michael Jordan Orville Wilber Wright
Terry Bradshaw Benjamin Franklin
Bruce Jenner Leonardo Da Vinci
Jackie Steward Alexander Graham Bell
Jamier Oliver Winston Churchill
Ingvar Kamprad Abraham Lincoln
Will Smith Albert Einstein
Robin Williams Sir Issac Newton
Tom Cruise Ansel Adams
Bill Cosby Henry Ford
Jim Carey Emily Dickinson
Steven Spielberg Ralph Waldo Emerson
Walt Disney Virginia Woolf
Pablo Picasso Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
31
Resources
  • Mayo Clinic
  • http//www.mayoclinic.com/health/adhd/DS00275/DSEC
    TIONtreatments-and-drugs
  • National Institute of Mental Health
  • Attention Deficit Disorder Association
    http//www.add.org/
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • http//www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html
  • http//www.adhdquestionsandanswers.com/ADHD-Checkl
    ist-ADHD-Assessment.html

32
Resources
  • From reinforcement learning models to psychiatric
    and neurological disorders.
  • Maia TV, Frank MJ. Nat Neurosci. 2011
    Feb14(2)154-62. Review.
  • The neurological basis of ADHD. Curatolo P,
    DAgati E, Moavero R. Ital J Pediatr.2010 Dec
    2236(1)79.Review. PMID21176172
  • Dr. Gerald August, Psychology Department
    University of Minnesota
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