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The Finger Print Code:


... example, he introduced the use of charts to show air pressure in weather patterns. ... Galton's Photo Album. A young Galton, while attending Cambridge ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Finger Print Code:

The Finger Print Code The Story of Francis Galton
Who Was Francis Galton?
  • A British Scientist
  • Creator of Eugenics
  • An Explorer
  • A Mathematician
  • A Pioneering Meteorologist

  • Whenever you can, count.Quoted in J R
    Newman, The World of Mathematics (New York 1956).
  • 1822-1911

During the 1820s
  • President James Monroe asks Congress to recognize
    several newly independent republics in Latin
    America, among them Argentina, Mexico, Colombia,
    and Peru.
  • John Quincy Adams is elected president (1824-28)
  • First American railroad completed in Quincy,
  • Noah Webster publishes American Dictionary of the
    English Language.
  • Information Retrieved from http//guweb2.gonzaga

February 16, 1822
  • Born in Sparkbrook, England
  • The youngest of seven children
  • A middle-class family of Quaker faith.
  • His grandfather on his mothers side was also the
    grandfather of Charles Darwin making Francis and
    Charles cousins.

During the 1830s
  • U. S. population 12,866,020
  • Birth of Emily Dickinson (d. 1886)
  • Britain prohibits slavery in her colonies.
  • Texans capture Santa Anna at the Battle of San
  • Removal of 15,000-17,000 Cherokee Indians from
    Georgia on the "Trail of Tears" results in 4,000
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote Nature

Destined to Medicine
  • In 1838, at the age of 16, Galton was apprentice
    to the house surgeon at the Birmingham General
  • A year in the medical department at Kings
    College followed.

During the 1840s
  • Oregon Trail Opened- On May 22, 1843. Nearly
    1,000 settlers began an overland trip to the
  • Telegraph Began -The first inter-city telegraph
    was presented by Samuel Morse.
  • Oregon Treaty The United States and Great
    Britain ended their dispute over the Oregon
    Territory with a compromise.
  • Gold Discovered in California -In January 1849,
    President Polk announced that gold had been found
    in California.
  • Information from http//

From Medicine to Math
  • In 1840 Galton attended Trinity College in
    Cambridge. He had intended to get a degree in
    medicine, but he became more excited about
  • However, his father became ill, and Francis spent
    more time caring for him. So, he was unable to
    continue his studies.
  • His father, Samuel, died from a fatal illness in

A Gentleman is born.
  • After his fathers death, Galton inherited a
    steady income that allowed him to be free from
    continuing formal education. However, Galton
    found himself in sad times, and after traveling
    to Egypt for awhile, he settled into life as a
    country gentleman.

During the 1850s
  • California Gains Statehood-On September 9th 1850
  • In 1852, the novel Uncle Tom's Cabin was
  • Oil Well Started
  • In May 1851 the Erie Railroad reached Dunkirk New
    York on Lake Erie.
  • First National Women's Convention- The first
    national Women's Conference was held in
    Worcester, Massachusetts.

An Emerging Scientist
  • Galton, restless, read many books and continued
    his exploration and travel. In 1850 he decided
    to focus on exploring the continent of Africa, a
    hobby that landed him a special place in the
    British scientific world and a member of the
    Royal Geographical Society.

His Talent Developed
  • Galton then became dedicated to science and made
    several contributions to the fields of
    meteorology and anthropology.
  • Galton felt that intelligence and character in a
    person was a result of genetic makeup and not
    environmental factors. This led him to discover
    what he is most noted for Eugenics

Eugenics A Controversial Idea
  • While the definition of eugenics has varied
    slightly over the years, the idea of eugenics is
    selective breeding. Francis thought that people
    should marry and have children with people who
    had desirable genes such as knights, nobles, and
    other upper class citizens.
  • This idea meant that marriage would be more like
    an interview. People would select their mate
    based on characteristics that they wanted in
    their future children.

  • Not everyone agreed with this, of course! Galton
    wanted to eliminate unfavorable characteristics
    which, according to him, could be anything from
    hair color, size, and intelligence to dance
    ability, voice, and hereditary diseases.

During the 1860s
  • Pasteurization Introduced In 1861, thanks to
    Louis Pasteurs work on microorganisms,
    pasteurization was introduced to milk and other
    foods to preserve them.
  • The Civil War begins. Fort Sumter refused to
    surrender to the Confederates.
  • Battle of Gettysburg
  • On April 7th, Lee's surrounded (and hungry) army
    was forced to surrender. The civil war ends.
  • Lincoln Assassinated -Just six days after the
    South surrendered, President Lincoln was shot by
    an assassin while attending a play at Ford's

A Famous Scientist
  • The 1860s saw Francis Galton as a leading
    scientist in Britain and highly regarded in the
    scientific community.
  • (It wasnt until 1909 however, that he was
    knighted for his scientific findings!)

During the 1870s
  • Charles Dickens died in 1870. Dickens was a
    prolific English writer who wrote some of the
    most enduring stories written in the English
  • Franco Prussian War
  • Chicago Fire- On October 8th, a fire broke out in
    the west side of Chicago. The fire lasted two
    days, killing 300 people, and destroying most of
    Chicago. Property damages were estimated at 200
    million dollars.
  • On March 1st 1875 the Civil Rights Act of 1875
    was passed.
  • On March 10, 1876, Alexander Graham Bell
    successfully tested the first telephone.

During the 1880s
  • President Garfield was shot on July 2nd as he
    walked through the waiting room of the Baltimore
    Potomac Railroad in Washington.
  • The British invaded Egypt in response to
    anti-foreign riots.
  • The Japanese received their first written
  • Modern American Navy Begun- On March 3, the US
    Congress approved the construction of three steel

During the 1890s
  • Eiffel Tower -In 1890 the Eiffel Tower was
  • Van Gogh Dies -On July 29, 1890 Vincent Van Gogh
    the Dutch painter dies. During his lifetime he
    sold only one painting becoming successful only
    upon death.
  • Womens Suffrage Groups Merge-The nation's two
    largest women's organizations, the National Woman
    Suffrage Association and the American Women's
    Suffrage Organization merged to form the National
    American Women's Suffrage Association. NAWSA was
    dedicated to obtaining the vote for women
  • Ellis Island Opens -The flood of immigration
    forced the federal government to open up a new
    center for immigrant processing in a new center
    in New York harbor.

Turn of the Century 1900s
  • 76,000,000 Americans in 48 states 
  • 8,000 cars - 10 miles of paved roads 
  • Average worker made 12.98/week for 59 hours
  • By 1906, 15 states had speed limits of 20 miles
    per hour.
  • During this decade, safety in food processing and
    the environment became issues and laws were
  • These years also saw the establishment of
    National and American League of Baseball (leading
    to the birth of the World Series),
  • Information From http//

During the 1910s
  • Vacation  12 day cruise  60
  • Milk .32 / gallon
  • Population  92,407,000
  • The Progressive Era lasted from 1895 until World
    War I.  This was a period of unrest and reform.
  • A commission found that up to 20 of the
    children living in cities were undernourished,
    education took second place to hunger, and while
    children worked, only one-third enrolled in
    elementary school and less than 10 graduated
    from high school. 
  • Sinking of the Titanic on April 15, 1912 when
    more than 1500 people lost their lives.

Galtons Contributions
  • Galton made many contributions to the field of
    science besides his ideas of eugenics. For
    example, he introduced the use of charts to show
    air pressure in weather patterns.

Galton the Detective?
  • Galton also made a huge contribution to science
    by discovering a method of identification by
    using peoples fingerprints. This is widely used
    today by many detectives including the F.B.I.,
    police, C.I.A., and many other agencies worldwide
    to identify criminals and suspects.

A Scientist Remembered?
  • Galton died on January 17, 1911.
  • Galton, some historians say, is not credited
    enough for his scientific discoveries. This
    could be a result of his controversial views
    about race, culture and selective breeding.
  • While everyone will not agree with his theories,
    he is, inarguably, a pioneering enthusiast to the
    field of science.

Galtons Photo Album
A young Galton, while attending Cambridge
  • This handsome man is Galton, featuring a very
    stylish outfit that was customary of the times.

Galton, just before departing for Southern
Africa, in his late 20s.
Francis Galton, at age 28.
Wife Louisa Jane Butler and Francis Galton
Galton with wife Louisa in their early marriage.
  • Galton in the 1880s or 1890s

  • At age 38


Francis Galton, age 66
Galton with Karl Pearson, age 87.
A Legacy
  • Francis Galton left so many contributions to
    science and math behind, it is impossible to
    mention them all!
  • Check out the link below for some interesting
    facts and figures about Francis Galton!
  • http//

Wait A Minute!!
  • What about those fingerprints?! Galton published
    his findings on identifying finger prints in
  • Would you like to learn more? Lets learn about
    finger print identification!!

Chocolate Fingerprints
Observation is the gathering of information
through the use of any of the five basic senses
sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell.
Classification is the process of grouping objects
on the basis of observable traits.
  • Observation Look at the fingerprints on the
    piece of paper weve given you. Look at your
    neighbors fingerprints. How are these
    fingerprints different? How are they the same?
  • 2. Classification - Place your fingerprints into
    groups based on the similarities and differences
    youve observed.

Four Basic Types of Fingerprints
Tented Arch
The Case of the Chocolate Fingerprints
Use your new skills! Who stole the chocolate
Tented Arch
We observe and classify every day!
  • Food Groups

School Subjects
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