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Contemporarily issues in HRM


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Title: Contemporarily issues in HRM

Contemporarily issues in HRM
  • Management of stress

What is stress?
  • Stress has become a major concern of modern times
    as it can cause harm to employees health and
  • Selye has defined stress as the the non specific
    response of the body to any demand made upon it
  • In simple words , stress refers to pressures or
    tensions people feel in life.
  • In these days of competition if one wishes to
    surpass what has been achieved by others, leading
    to an imbalance between demands and resources, it
    causes psycho-socio stress.
  • Stress is a bodys reaction to any demands or
    changes in its internal and external enviorement.

Nature of stress
  • Stress is a dynamic condition in which an
    individual is confronted with an opportunity,
    constraint or demand related to what he or she
    desires and for which the outcome is perceived to
    be both certain and uncertain.
  • Stress is not necessarily bad in itself.
  • Stress is associated with constraints and demand.
  • Two conditions are necessary for potential stress
  • There must be uncertainty over the outcome
  • And the outcome must be important

Two kinds of stresses
  • Eustress and distress
  • Eustress is positive stress that accompanies
    achievement and exhilaration. the stress of
    meeting challenges,.
  • Distress is when we feel insecure, inadequate,
    helpless, or desperate as a result of too much ,
    or too little.

Consequences of different levels of stress
Causes of stress
  • Organizational stressors-
  • Task demands- associated with specific job a
    person performs.
  • Job of surgeons, professional football coaches,
    air traffic controller
  • Physical threats to a persons health, unhealthy
    conditions, mining
  • Job security, during period of lay offs
  • Overload can cause apathy

  • Physical demands
  • Temperature
  • Office design-too much or too little interaction
  • Role demands
  • Set of expected behaviors associated with a
    particular job
  • Role ambiguity
  • Unclear role
  • Poor job descriptions, vague instructions,
    unclear clues
  • Role conflict
  • Roles are clear but contradictory.
  • Intra-sender conflict
  • Inter personal conflict

Life stressors
  • Life change- fired from work, retirement, change
    in residence.
  • Life trauma- any upheaval in an individuals life
    that alters his or her attitude, marital problems
    , family difficulties, health problems

Consequences of stress
  • 3 types
  • Individual consequences
  • Organizational consequences
  • Burn out

Individual consequences
  • Stress is both a friend and a foe. mid level of
    stress is beneficial, but a high level of stress
    leads to harmful consequences.
  • Impact on health- high blood pressure, high
    level of cholesterol, may lead to heart disease.
  • Psychological consequences- anger, anxiety,
    depression, nervousness, irritability and
    tension, these lead to lowering of self esteem,
    inability to concentrate, resentment of
    supervision and make wrong decisions, which
    results in poor performance.

Organizational consequences
  • Low performances
  • Low productivity
  • High rates of absenteeism
  • Turnover
  • Lost customers
  • Destructive and aggressive behaviors
  • Resulting in strikes and lock outs

  • Is a general feeling of exhaustion that develops
    when a person simultaneously experiences too much
    pressure and has too few sources of satisfaction.
  • People with high aspirations and strong
    motivation face it frequently
  • Putting too much of yourself to job.
  • Which results in prolonged stress, fatigue,
    frustration and helplessness.
  • Is mostly associated with mid carrier crisis, and
    close relationships jobs.
  • The dangerous part is its contagious, transform
    from one person to entire group.

Coping with stress
  • Individuals and organization cannot remain in
    continuous tension.
  • Certain measures have to be adopted to cope up
    with the stress using some strategies-
  • Coping with individual stress-
  • Based on self control or do yourself approach.
  • Physical exercise in any form, relaxes
  • conscious analysis of causes and consequences of
    employees own behavior.
  • Avoid people or situation that will put you into
  • Shedding of work overload

Coping with organizational stress
  • Set clear objectives, to minimize scope of job
    conflicts and ambiguity among the employees.
  • Starting OD department for creating meaningful
    and enriching jobs for its employees.
  • Having a flexible organization structure so as to
    accommodate changing socio, economic, political,
    and technological development.
  • Devising plans for career paths and development,
    taking into consideration both individual
    capabilities and aspiration and organizational
  • Engage counselors to guide the employees in the
    matter of career planning, career goals and

  • Jobs can be redesigned to reduce conflicting job
  • OD program should be introduced to improve
    employee satisfaction and performance, through
    improves communication, participation, trust,
    openness, quality of work life.
  • Appropriately select and place individuals in
    positions suitable to their abilities and
  • Impart training to perform his job effectively,
    improve his inter personal competence.

What is conflict??
disagreement between two or more individuals or
groups over an issues of interest. It can range
from small disagreements to violent acts.
Features of conflict
  • Occurs when two or more parties pursue
    incompatible or mutually exclusive goals.
  • Refers to deliberate behavior from attaining
  • Different from competition, interfers with others
    goal achievement but n competition both try to
    win but not interfere with each other

Sources of conflict
  • Organizational change
  • Personality clashes
  • Differences in value systems.
  • Threats to status
  • Perceptual differences
  • Overlapping or unclear job boundaries
  • Inadequate communication
  • Competition for limited resources
  • Unclear policies
  • Unreasonable deadline or extreme time pressure

Process of conflict
  • Potential opposition or incompatibility-
  • Communication
  • Structure
  • Personal variables.
  • Cognition and personalization-
  • Perceived and felt conflict
  • Intentions-
  • Collaborating
  • Compromising
  • Avoiding
  • Accommodating
  • competing

  • Behavior-
  • Partys behavior
  • Others reaction
  • Outcomes-
  • Either increased or decreased group performance

Classification of conflicts
  • The four levels of conflict are-
  • Intra- individual-
  • Conflict from frustration - personal
    limitations- weakness, physical deformities,
    lack of skill, low intelligence
  • Goal conflict
  • Role conflict
  • Inter personal-
  • Johari window
  • Stroking
  • Life positions

Johari window
Feed back
Unknown to self
Known to self
Known To others
Not Known To others
  • Recognition of ones presence by others
  • Strokes may be positive or negative
  • Words of recognition, affection, pat on the back,
    pleasant smile are examples of positive strokes.
  • Criticism, hatred, scolding are examples of
    negative strokes

Life positions
  • It stems from a combination of two view points
  • How people view themselves
  • How they view others

Inter group conflict
  • Task interdependence
  • Task ambiguity
  • Goal incompatibility
  • Limited resources
  • Reward systems
  • Hierarchical conflict
  • Individual versus organizational conflict
  • Functional conflict
  • Status conflict

Resolving conflicts
  • Intrapersonal-
  • Remove barriers
  • Minimize and priorities roles
  • Develop compatibility between personal and
    organizational goals.
  • Win Win strategy
  • Realizing that divided they fall united they

Inter group-
  • Problem solving
  • Organization redesign
  • Expansion of resources
  • Super ordinate goals (common goal for both
    conflicting parties.)
  • Smoothen (bringing down differences and
    highlighting common interests)

Conflict management styles
Assertiveness- desire to satisfy ones own
Cooperativeness-desire to satisfy other persons
External focus
Internal focus
Competing / dominance
  • Power oriented
  • Direct physical aggression
  • Relying on punishment to gain control over
  • Arguments, fights are the weapons.

  • Indifference, apathy, withdrawal
  • Detach themselves from the conflict believing
    that avoidance is more mature and reasonable.
  • Conflict is neither resolved nor eliminated

Accommodating/ smoothing
  • Generous and sacrificing
  • Emphasis on common interest
  • Go along what other person insists don't get
    involved in arguments.
  • Used in temporary situtation

  • Traditional method of resolving conflict
  • No distinct winner or loser
  • Each party expected to give up something of value
  • Involves negotiation and series of sacrifices.

  • Mona electrical India ltd. Is a medium sized
    electrical company situated in one of the eastern
    states in India. the company employees about 800
    workers and 100 supervisory and management staff
    at different levels. Mr. Pandey is heading the
    marketing department with senior marketing
    executives and more than 30 sales executives.
  • Yesterday Mr. Kumar, one of the marketing
    executives, approached Mr. Pandey with a personal
    request to be relieved early from the office as
    he had some urgent domestic problem to attend.
    Mr. Pandey refused Mr. Kumar's request saying
    that he could not be bothered about his personal
    problems at the cost of official responsibility,
    and he should make alternate arrangements to take
    care of his domestic affairs.

  • Critically examine Mr. Pandeys style of managing
  • As a practitioner in human relations, what would
    be your advice to Mr. Pandey to deal with such
    situation in future?

  • It can be defined as two or more people working
    together for a common goal or mutual benefit.
  • The most important essential element of
    cooperation is COMMON GOAL
  • A goal is said to be common when one persons
    achievement of his goals facilitates the
    achievement of others goals.

Main roles of cooperation
  • Develop relationships
  • Recognize each others strengths and contributions
  • Using them for further development
  • Supplementing the EXPERTISE
  • Inculcating team spirit

Basics of cooperation
  • Factors which contribute to cooperation are-
  • Collaborative motivation-
  • To care for, help others and be useful to others.
  • Group norms-
  • Group norms prevailing in a group have a strong
    influence on the behavior of the members and are
    likely to either raise or lower the morale /
    motivation level of them. if collaborative or
    cooperative norms in a group are higher, the
    motivation in the individuals increases

  • Super ordinate goals-
  • The ultimate goal of an organization
  • Goals which are important to all the parties
    concerned and which cannot be achieved by any
    party working alone
  • The goals are sharable as well as desirable to
    all the members
  • Higher pay offs for cooperation-
  • Being rewarded for being cooperative

  • Mutual trust-
  • Trust leads to cooperation.
  • Trust indicates higher chances that individual
    concerned will not be used in a negative way.
  • Perceived power-
  • Power to reward
  • Power to punish
  • People should realize that others also have both
    the positive as well as the negative powers.
  • Powers should be perceived very Cleary and

Benefits of cooperation
  • Stronger individual motivation to complete task
  • Stronger feelings of obligations towards other
    members contribution.
  • Greater division of work
  • Greater coordination of efforts
  • More effective inter personal communication
  • More friendliness
  • More group productivity
  • More ideas and alternatives leading to better
    decision making

  • Nawal graduated from a reputed management
    institute last year and joined his fathers
    business, which employed 2 supervisors, 10
    skilled labour and 28 semi skilled workers. after
    one month his father , a retired government
    officer, called him and said Nawal I have ad a
    chance to observe you working with men and women
    for the past few days. Although I hate to, I
    must say that you are just too nice to people, I
    know they taught you human relations stuff at the
    management institute, but it just does not work
    here. I remember the Hawthorne studies were first
    reported, every one in the academic field got
    excited about them. but believe me, there is more
    to managing people than just being nice to them

  • Do you think Nawals father understood and
    interpreted the Hawthorne studies correctly?
  • If you were Nawal, what would your reaction be to
    your fathers comments?


Meaning of globalization
  • Globalization is an attitude towards the worlds
  • Globalization means a common platform or market
    for products/services irrespective of the
    place/location of manufacturing.
  • Integrating economy with that of the world.9i.e.
  • To treat the whole world as a market (global
    markets target customers are spread all over)
  • It has resulted in cultural changes dynamics.
  • Maximizing profits worldwide
  • Developing competitive advantage excel by
    developing the competitive edge of the
    organization i.e. being the leader or the first

Definition of globalization
  • Globalization is a simple formulation that could
    be described as the increase in volume variety
    of cross border transaction in goods or services
    over a wide international area.
  • A free enhanced movement of international
  • More rapid and widespread international diffusion
    (enhancement of technology)
  • Greater coverage and depth of information
  • Globalization is the most prominent trend having
    a profound impact on today's business
    organization and will continue to be

The changing scenario
  • The political, social, economic, technical all
    the environments of Indian business have changed.
  • Have brought along with them threats and
    opportunities for modern organization.
  • There are certain challenges which are to be
    faced by the HR professionals-
  • Changing international environment, leading to
    free flow of goods and services throughout the
  • Changing needs and aspirations of customers
    rendering the existing processes and products

  • Changing profile of workforce Advancement of
    technologies leading to obsolescence of present
    techniques and skills.
  • Revolution in information technology having far
    reaching effect on every sub system of business .
  • Economic and industrial policy changes leading to
    tough competition from multinational corporations

Globalization has two perspectives
  • Micro (organization)
  • Macro (country)

Impact of globalization can be observed from the
following trends
  • Integration of economies-
  • Opening of vast markets which can be trapped by
    big industries.
  • Possible only when there exists a harmony between
    labor and management, and both the parties strive
    for growth of the industry.
  • Global benchmarking-
  • Globalization has resulted in striving for
    highest qualit of products and processes so that
    they can be competitive in the world market.

  • Change in management styles-
  • Management style is moving towards participative
    management where workers are delegated
    responsibility and involved in day to day
    decision making.
  • Future of public enterprises-
  • Need of radical change in the focus of public
    enterprises in the post liberalization period.
  • They have to increase their efficiency and
    productivity by restructuring the whole
  • After taking into confidence the workers so that
    they can be competitive in the liberal area

  • Management of time space, resources efforts.
  • Management of workforce diversity
  • Management of cultural clashes
  • Handling economic issues of national inter
    national level
  • Handling increasing problems of communication.
  • Managing foreign collaboration like MA,
    takeover. Turn key project- giving a project to
    another company having global standards and after
    the change return it back to the owner
  • Challenges of compensation management- managing
    effectiveness, increased level of stress, change
  • Performance appraisal at international standards

  • Super engineering company was a multi locational
    light engineering company. it had manufacturing
    facilities at Hyderabad, pondicherry and indore.
    the company adopted a budgetary system with main
    emphasis on production and expense budgets. the
    budgets targets used to be set on the basis of
    analysis of production facilities and production
    operations. while two units located in Hyderabad
    and pondicherry were working properly and were
    able to meet their budget targets, indore unit
    was not able to do so.
  • Mr.P.manohar was transferred to indore unit as a
    plant manager. he joined the company about eight
    years back as engineer trainee and became the
    assistant plant manager at the Hyderabad unit.
    the biggest of the three units. manohar was very
    ambitious and a little autocratic. he was a high
    achiever and believed in getting things done. he
    got quick promotions in the company

  • Immediately after joining at indore unit as plant
    manager, manohar made preliminary study of the
    plant and issued instructions to all the
    departments to reduce their expenses by 5.a
    fortnight later, he instructed the departments to
    increase the production by 10.he also instructed
    all the supervisors to strictly adhere to
    budgets. he introduced several new reports and
    watched the operations very closely. He suspended
    2 supervisors in the second month for not meeting
    the budgets targets. subsequently two supervisors
    left the plant.
  • With all his efforts, the unit was very much on
    the right track and within 6months exceeded the
    new budgeted figures by 8.on setting the plant
    right, he was called back at Hyderabad unit as a
    plant manager where vacancy arose. however,
    shortly after he left for Hyderabad, the
    productivity at indore unit fell below the
    earlier level and the budget was again in trouble.

  • Analyze the type of organization climate created
    by manohar at indore unit.
  • Why was there a drop in productivity at the unit
    after manohar left it?

Workforce diversity management
  • Its a simultaneous reaction with globalization
  • Factors responsible for it are-
  • Invasion of mncs
  • Acquiring fresh/qualified people
  • To cope up with change
  • Technology change
  • Need of outsourcing
  • International poaching
  • Increase in education level
  • Change in skill level
  • Age group and aspirations of workers.
  • Need of wisdom workers

  • A large no. of organizations are realizing the
    impact of valuing diversity in workforce which
    can contribute to a companys success.
  • Promote openness
  • Encourage young managers
  • Reduce racial or gender differences

Dimensions of workforce diversity
  • Primary dimensions-
  • Are core factors of a particular person like age,
    gender, caste etc.
  • Secondary dimensions are-
  • Relationship status, income, physical and mental

  • Primary are those dimensions which cant be
  • Together they form individual's image
  • These inborn elements are interdependent
  • Each exerts important influence throughout life.
  • The greater no. of differences between people,
    the more difficult it is to establish healthy
    culture in the organization
  • When we club primary with secondary it will
    enhance the intensity of the problem.

  • Secondary are those that can be changed or at
    least modified.
  • They add an additional layer of complexity to the
    way we see our self and others.
  • they create the need of effective human relation
    management because it becomes more difficult
  • The interaction between primary and secondary
    shapes a persons values, priorities
    perceptions thought his/her personal as well as
    professional life

Challenges ahead of workforce diversity management
  • Generation gap syndrome
  • Fair/transparent systems.
  • Averting gender biasness
  • Culture diversity management
  • Making people understand value diversity

Critical elements of management of WFD
  • Strong visible support from top management.
  • Flexible program for recruitment training
  • Alternate workforce schedule( flextime,
    compressed workweeks, work sharing)
  • Proper communication opportunity
  • Continues efforts to access diversity
  • Programs to accommodate family needs ie day care
    for children, elder care.
  • Diversity training - try to access understand
    to work accordingly, give respect to other
    religion culture.

  • Multi language training
  • Menitoring use of high level managers to guide
    high potential employees
  • Support groups that can help build a conducive
    environment, effective networking, guidance to
  • Efforts to have a fair mobility systems in an
    organization for diverse employees.

Comparison with respect to workforce diversity
  • International Management
  • Beyond qualification, emphasis on individual
    practical implementation
  • Multiple language
  • Heterogeneous
  • Strict regulations
  • Is highly paced
  • Basis General
  • Selection Degree/qualification
  • of employees basic parameter
  • Language Local English
  • Individual Homogenous
  • (socio-cultural)
  • Govt policies liberal regulations,
    rules not hard fast, degree of liberty is
    more at national level
  • Economic its slow paced
  • development

Managing workforce diversity
WFD approaches
  • Organizational efforts
  • Training/education
  • Appraisal/testing/diagnosis.
  • Mentoring/counseling
  • Workforce progress
  • Job sharing
  • Job rotation- enhancing work designing, where
    job rotation interaction with people is there.
  • Effective communication system
  • Fair systems

Individual approaches
  • Learning to learn
  • Develop mindset regarding change inevitable
    diversity, have to work in this organization
    where diversity exists.
  • Empathetic attitude
  • Accepting change

Implications on HRD
  • HR guidelines to manage era of globalization, to
    develop, promote build global HR
  • Develop strategic approach to international
    assignments avoiding hastily concluding
    decisions i.e. improved decision making.
  • Modify performance evaluation system to
    incorporate distinctive conditions of different
  • Clarifying communicating global vision
    values, deriving management development programs
  • Build informal global networks by holding
    international seminars conferences.

  • Develop a shared vision of HR function as a
    source of competitive advantage.
  • Disperse corporate HR expertise into regional or
    local subsidiaries.
  • Transfer HR practitioners between corporate,
    regional local subsidiaries to integrate the
    global network more closely
  • Give Hr practitioners personal and international
    experience to improve their ability to manage
    global assignments cycles
  • Hr functions to coordinate over lapping,
    transactional regulations

Skills required in an HR manager
  • Cultural responsiveness
  • Ability of cross culture collaboration
  • Stress reduction skills, recognize potential
    conflicts, avoiding -ve reactions
  • Re- enforcement- ability to replace pleasurable
    activities with other activities of the home
  • Technical competence- Ability to complete task
    with self confidence and with little or no
  • Relationship skills.
  • Language skills/communication skills
  • Respect empathy for others.
  • High tolerance
  • Open mindedness to accept new ideas

  • Changing world

  • Changes in the environment are causing changes in
    the needs of the changing business.
  • Organization catering to these changing needs
    require changes in the means.
  • These changing means handle the dynamism of the
  • Pertaining a balance between changing needs.
  • Change means there are probability of both
    opportunities as well as risk that an
    organization might confront.

changing world
  • The world is preparing for dazzling changes in
    science, technology, commerce industry.
  • World is undergoing high technological revolution
    India has not kept itself aloof from these

Chief features of the changing worldmanaging
change in the world
  • changing market situation
  • New economic policies prevailing in the global
  • changing technical environment
  • Need for modernization and will become frequent
    and intense in future
  • Cultural, social , psychological environment
  • Continue to pose serious challenges to business
  • Increased level of globalization

  • Massive spread of mass media
  • Revolution in information management. led to
    growth exploration of large new markets
  • Govt. policies
  • Macro level govt policies are integrated with
    macro level policies strategic decisions
  • Continuing need for cost containment
  • Maintain cost at current levels, even in
    situation of pressures. like changes in govt
    policies, inflation
  • Cost containment can be maintained through
  • Downsizing/delayering
  • Joint ventures
  • Outsourcing
  • Substituting technology for people

  • Growing importance of knowledge capital
  • Creativity, talent pool, skills with experience,
  • Changing organizational size from changes in
    organization its people

Case need for change
  • Mr. jain , an entrepreneur, established a firm
    for the manufacturing and marketing of a new
    product. the firm earned a reputation for its
    product. however with the passage of time, the
    monopoly was lost. In view of growing competition
    mr. Jain realized the need of infusing new blood
    into the organixzation. his sons were not
    interested in running the business nor did they
    seem to have sufficient knowledge of
    administration or technical know how. he inducted
    Mr. Gupta. A sincere man with good technical
    knowledge, and with an understanding of promoting
    him as a partner.

  • Trouble started when mr. Gupta insisted on
    admitting him as a patterned and advised wide
    ranging expansion, recruiting specialists etc.Mr.
    Jain tried to escape the issue by delaying
    tactics. the firm showed symptoms of loosing
    business. on his death, one of the firms became
    the proprietor. He tried to run the firm without
    Mr Gupt, and intended t follow his fathers
    policy of not adopting new methods and
    techniques. as a result the business reached the
    dwindling stage .later he compromised took
    Mr.Gupta as a partner., introduced new methods to
    improve the product, invited specialists and
    accepted many other suggestions. The firm
    improved quite a lot , still it is thought by
    many that as a pioneer organization it could have
    achieved greater results with more imagination,
    foresight and by taking advantage of being
    pioneer in the line.

Causes of downfall of the firmhow did
introduction of changes brought
improvements?What forces of environment created
threats for the firm?
Changing attitude and feelings about job
  • The current rate of change in every enivormentall
    dimension creates the need for company to
    rapidly adopt new technologies, business
    concepts, approaches structures that affect
  • The work
  • Type of work
  • Performers and performance
  • Working structures in organization
  • Working style, working philosophies

  • The changes in the above mentioned is also
    causing changes in the attitudes, needs,
    interests, feelings of the workers about their
    organization in return about their work.
  • In this era of change it becomes crucial for
    management to comprehend these needs attitudes
    of employees towards their job.
  • It becomes imperative to seek a state of balance
    between organizational needs desires with that
    of employees.
  • This bring a compelling need for more deliberate
    thought and research on the job, job holders and
    such matters

Objectives of organizational changes
  • To meet organizational requirement i.e. to
    improve efficiency, quality, productivity.
  • To satisfy the need of the employees
  • To identify the interest areas of the job
    holders- having an impact on their performance.
  • Trying to create challenging job or to infuse
    challenge in present task that may have effect on
    their performance/staisfaction / motivation
  • Improving the compensation dsign after having a
    proper analysis of the present compensation
    system the degree of satisfaction employes have
    towards it

  • Sense of achievement can be developed by changing
    a thought or research over the job profiles.
  • To satisfy the needs of the group teams Practice
    of successful self managed teams, should be
  • To identify the reporting relationship to make
    desired changes may help to have a better team
    performance and satisfaction at individual level.
  • To integrate needs of individual with that of
    organizational goals.

Changing mindsets
  • Reflective mindsets- mindset to manage self
  • Analytical mindsets- mindset to manage
  • Worldly mindset- mindset to manage world context
    (how you perceive the world, consider world as
    global market)
  • Collaboration mindset- mindset to manage
  • Action mindset- ready to act to manage change

Changing attitude of both organization employees
  • Working for customer delight
  • Motivating job holders
  • Rules directed to flexibilities
  • Detailing involved in recruitment selection.
  • Cross border recruitment
  • Transferring responsibilities authorities as
  • Changes in salary structure
  • Positions are performance based.
  • Suggestion programs introduced.

Approaches towards change in jobs
  • The emerging scenario the challenges before
    organization its people has made management
    undergo a process of rethinking re training to
    manage this changing organization people
  • Job sharing
  • Job rotation
  • Flexi work weeks
  • Compressed work weeks
  • Computer integrated management
  • Efficiency management program

Factors influencing organization
Causes of change
  • Rapid technical drives
  • Accelerating rate of change
  • Internal competitive market
  • Changing world business practices
  • Short PLC( because of changing needs of
  • Changing in customer preferances

Consequences of change
  • Change in size form of organization
  • Change in nature of business
  • Change in strategies procedures
  • Decentralized yet linked with technology
  • Rapidly adaptable extremely flexible
  • Collaborative with team based strategy
  • Retaining employees is a challenging task

Approaches should be
  • External view point- analyzing the changing
    trends, competitors their capabilities
  • Collaborative approach - cultivate close ties
    with vendors and suppliers , alliances domestic
    as well as international
  • Proactive approach - be entrepreneurs willing to
    seize opportunities .
  • Creative approach - towards alignment of
    organization structure processes and system .
  • Risk taking view point - continues improvement
    and growth .

Existing paradigm new paradigm
  • People first
  • People valuable assets
  • Self cotrol with commitmen90t
  • Consensus decision making
  • High risk , innovative and dynamic
  • Standrad world class quality and services .
  • Flexibility
  • Leader ship from every body (mutual accommodation
  • Concern is speed and responsiveness .
  • Task first
  • People that not important
  • Supervisory control
  • Directive decision making
  • Low risk taking
  • Standard acceptable quality and services
  • Rigidity
  • Leadership from top
  • Size and scale concern

Existing paradigm new paradigm
  • Control of hierarchy and rules
  • Sustainable productivity and profitability
  • Made for certainty and verticality
    (pyramid structure )
  • Doing things right
  • Inward organization focus
  • Corporate independence
  • Vision and mission
  • Constraint reinvention
  • Creativity and horizontality (flatter
    organization )
  • Doing the right things
  • Organization focus is outward
  • Corporate interdependence

  • Creativity in organizations
  • Means explaining as the conceiving of the
    original unique alternatives solution to
  • Is rather mysterious process chiefly known by its
    results and is therefore difficult to define
  • Definition-
  • Creative thinking is the process of bringing a
    problem before ones mind clearly as by imagining
    visualizing ,supposing then originating
    something new.

Features of creativity
  • A process
  • Goal oriented
  • Divergent thinking
  • Leads to production of new ideas
  • Depends upon the knowledge
  • Essential attribute to organization

Need for creativity
  • Vital for decision making(develop unique
  • Solving unique problems
  • Applied for manpower development
  • Novel ways to deal with social interactions
  • Understanding human behavior
  • Coping with changing environment
  • Flexibility needs creativity
  • Strategic importance
  • Forming quality circle
  • Improving RD
  • Purposefully creating new different
  • Cater to changing dynamics of environment

  • Preparation-
  • A hard and concentrated look at the problem in
    order to develop break through solution
  • Individuals gain familiarity with the problems.
    past experience also has influence on it.
  • In the form of education, training, and research
    is essential foundation to creativity

  • Incubation-
  • Is a time of thought and reflection and is
    generally a period when the conscious attention
    is turned away from the problem.
  • Consciousness on problem reduces, sub
    consciousness thinking increases.
  • The idea is that some innovative idea comes into
    mind when you are not really thinking about it.
  • People are given diagnosis about the problem, to
    make them think beyond traditional way, there
    they give their useful ideas.

  • Persistence-
  • Merely providing incubation period does not
    result in creativity.
  • Sometimes persistent effort is necessary
  • Every new idea has to face resistance in the
  • Insight-
  • It is the actual point of break through achieved
    as a result of preparation and incubation
  • Tentative outcome of persistent efforts.
  • It is the EUREKA stage , where the person finds
    what he was looking for.
  • Verification-
  • Now the new idea has to be tested.
  • Kind of critical stage to test that the idea is
    valid feasible

Creativity proceeds innovation
Enhancing creativity in organizations
  • Fluency-
  • Rapid flow of ideas(brain storming)
  • Brain storming is a technique for stimulating
    imaginative and novel ideas.
  • It involves a group of people.
  • The leader defines the problem and encourages the
    participants to suggest as many ideas as
  • The idea of brainstorming is to create the
    climate in which people feel free to suggest
    whatever comes into their minds without caring
    for its feasibility.
  • This free association may lead to some new ideas

  • Originality-
  • Unusual ideas for unusual problems.
  • Questioning-
  • Questioning exiting ideas ways
  • Curiosity-
  • To think in a new way . Away from tradition
  • Information use-
  • Sources..procuring.modification
  • Support intelligence-
  • If someone comes up with intelligent thoughts
    ,encourage him

  • Responsive /stimulant-
  • if a person is not satisfied with existing
    situation then only he will react will think of
    something new
  • Constructive approach-
  • Not only having positive attitude but also having
    contributory attitude towards organization

Killing of creativity
  • Just as an organization can create environment in
    which creativity can be enhanced there are
    factors which can kill creativity.
  • Expected evaluation-
  • Creative people do not operate under the fear of
  • Under evaluation they will be concerned how their
    work will be evaluated
  • Surveillance-
  • People who are conscious being watched as they
    are working will be less creative.
  • Surveillance does cast a suspicious eye and kills

  • Reward-
  • Monetary rewards may be useful incentives to get
    people work but they dont act as motivators.
  • Highly creative people are most interested in
    self recognition and satisfaction rather than
    other tangible benefits.
  • Competition-
  • People who feel themselves to be in direct
    threatening competition with others in their work
    will be less creative.
  • Restricted choice-
  • Creative people must be free to think their ways
    of handling situations and solving problems.
  • People who are restricted are less creative.

Contemporary appreciations
  • Need of new improved products, customer services.
  • New markets, mew marketing methods.
  • New resources , processes , improved quality /
    lower cost.
  • Innovations improvements.
  • Improving skills services
  • New methods to handle/Deal develop HR
  • To compete at global level.
  • New ways of business expansions.

Organizational effctiveness
  • Effectiveness could be defined as the degree to
    which organization realizes its goals.
  • Effectiveness of an organization could be seen in
    terms of survival of an organization.
  • OE is the extent to which an organization, given
    certain resources and means to achieve its

  • Efficiency means the input output rate
  • With how much input we can get the output
  • An efficient organization is not always to be
    effective but an effective organization is
    efficient .
  • Efficiency is the measure of using the output
    input variables its ratio(cost benefit
  • Is more related to economic concept only

Characteristics of OE
  • It implies good performance of organization
  • Higher productivity and profitability
  • How well an organization discharges its
    obligation to internal external environment
  • successfully cope with competition
  • Creative adaptation of strategy
  • Grow and development
  • Futuristic vision

Factors effecting OE
  • Organizational factors - structure technology
  • Environmental factors - external internal
  • Employees factors - morale ,satisfaction,
    performance and security .
  • Managerial policies and practices

Approaches to OE
  • Goal oriented approaches the degree to which
    organization is productive , profitable and self
    maintaining ( but does not consider employee
    development at all)
  • System resource approach views an organization
    as an open system , part of the environment supra
  • Input process output cycle
  • Environment is a supra system and organization
    system exist in this

Maximization and optimization
  • Maximization - economic man , decision govern
    by profits
  • Optimization - administrative man , represents
    real situation of decision making
  • Strategic constituency - controlling critical
    constituent ( what are the critical element of
    the organization , identify those which govern OE
  • Behavior approach - the extent to which
    individual goals are integrated with organization
    goals affects the degree of OE

Reasons of failure of organization in achieving OE
  • Failure of administrators to act when they need
  • Delay in action taking
  • Taking wrong action
  • Lack of sufficient efforts
  • Excessive efforts in relation to the need
  • Wasted efforts

Relevance of theoretical concepts
  • As a part of the companys management development
    programme , a group of managers from various
    functional areas have devoted several class
    sessions to the study of motivation theory and
    the relevance of such knowledge to the managers
    responsibility for directing and controlling the
    operation of his department . One of the
    participants in the programme is ashish chopra ,
    who was been a supervisor in the production
    department for about a year . During the
    discussion session , ashish chopra made the
    following observation

  • motivation theory makes sense in general, but
    there is really no opportunity for me to apply
    these concepts in my job situation . After all ,
    our shop employees are unionized and have job
    security and wage scales that are negotiated and
    are not under my control. The study of motivation
    concepts has given me some ideas about how to get
    my sons to do their courses and their home work ,
    but it has not given me anything I can use on the
    job . Furthermore in a working situation we are
    all dealing with adults , and it seems to me this
    reward and punishment thing smacks of personal
    manipulation that just wont go over with people.

  • Analyse the case showing your acquaintance with
    the various theories of motivation.
  • How far is ashish chopra justified in his
    comment ?
  • Offer practical suggestions to apply motivational
    concept in job situations.

  • Culture is the sum total of the societal
  • Culture non material culture material culture
  • Materiel culture physical infrastructure of an
  • Non material behavior of human ,s values

Characteristics/contextual features of culture
  • Culture is characterizing human product of social
  • It is cumulative- for it is handed over from
    generation to generation in a given society
    thus in an given organization.
  • It is learned by each person in the course of his
  • A basic determinant of personality
  • Depends upon the continued functioning of society
  • But its independent of any individual

Elements of culture
  • Knowledge beliefs-
  • This refers to peoples prevailing notions of
    reality , beliefs ,myths.
  • Ideas-
  • This refers to the society norms, which define
    what is expected ,in a given situation .these are
    norms or guidelines.

  • Preferences-
  • Refers to the society definitions of those things
    in life which are motivating or unattractive as
    objects of desire. organization is affected by
    the society in which it works so organization is
    also a mini society. It may vary from one
    organization to other.
  • Attitude-
  • leadership management styles-

Types of culture
  • Power culture-
  • Influences or gets influenced by the authority
    responsible in an organization.
  • Task culture-
  • It basically deals with the work processes, types
    of work then led by performance.
  • Role culture-
  • It deals with the management philosophies
    styles.(management philosophies guide work
    processes. Thus task culture is guided by role

  • People culture-
  • The treatment given to people in an
    organization.(that signifies how management
    treats them how people intersect with each
    other. their group other activities.)

Organization culture
  • Oc is a system of shared beliefs and attitudes
    that develop within an organization guides the
    behavior of its members.
  • Refers to the social structure integration of
    traits, complex patterns that make up the
    cultural system.
  • Social structures- the web of the organization
    relationships among individuals groups that
    defines their mutual rights liabilities
  • Interaction of traits- a trait is a unit of
    behavior.(how u can deal with people, it is a
    small part of behavior aspect). Integration of
    traits make a set of units of behavior forming a

  • Complex- a system of inter related traits being
    integrated, function together as a single unit.
  • Culture pattern- a number of complexes come
    together to form a culture pattern. a pattern is
    not different from a culture in an organization.
  • The culture traits , complexes, pattern differ
    from community to community thus from
    organization to organization. This indicated the
    complexities involved in a multi cultural business

Changing the culture
  • There are 3 levels at which change in
    organization can take place
  • Change in behavior- it means modification in
    behavior. It can also be at two levels -
    individual organizational level.
  • Change in attitudes- behavior can be seen,
    behavior is covert but attitude is overt, it
    cannot be seen ,is invisible. Employees attitude
    are based upon their perception. Change in
    attitude certainly requires adjustment in the
    mind set .
  • Change in values- basically values are permeated
    from top to bottom. If the boss changes his
    values, then only it will be more effective

Issues in culture
  • cultural shock- a shock in cultural perspective
    . Environmental change s sometimes produce
    cultural shocks i.e. a feeling of confusion,
    insecurity, anxiety, caused by strangeness of the
  • Cultural transmission- elements of culture are
    transmitted amongst the members of the culture,
    from one generation to next and to the new
    members admitted in organization.

Technology technology transfer in organizations
  • It can be defined as a combination of types of
    knowledge necessary to carry out the operations
    for transferring the factors of production into
    products or services.

Categories of technology
  • Information technology
  • Communication technology
  • Process technology
  • Industry product technology
  • Human knowledge- new techniques of HRD
  • Revolutionary evolutionary technique-
  • Any change in obsolete system is revolutionary
  • Starting from the beginning causing changes in

  • Technology plays a very vital role in process of
    restructuring renewal of the organization.
  • Technology is people driven
  • Thus technology innovation advancement depend
    upon people.
  • To get the best technology we have to get best

Technological environment
  • The type of technology used
  • Level of technology advancements
  • The speed with which new technology arises
  • The speed with which new technologies are adopted
  • The type of technology that are appropriate.

  • Universalism-
  • Which have universal acceptance across the world.
  • Particular- contingent according to situation.
  • Neutral - emotions are kept a check, do not
    express them
  • Emotional- you can express what you feel.

Technology transfer
  • Transfer of technologies between firms in
    different countries has become an important means
    of globalization.
  • Earning transferring new technologies between
    different countries.
  • 2 forms of Technology transfer-
  • Internalized
  • externalized

Causes of changing technology
  • Survival
  • Increased competition
  • Managing obsolescence
  • Revolution
  • Geographical barriers bridge the gap of
    different countries leading to globalization.
  • Cost containment (reducing incurred cost)
  • Need for acceleration in business operations
  • Need for faster information its deployement

Levels of technology
  • Operational level-
  • All those structures of the organization that
    deals with the operation of the business.
  • Duplicative level-
  • Two or more departments using same technology.
  • Adoptive level-
  • Acquiring any technology making certain
  • Innovative level-
  • Evolutionary ,coming up with new ideas

Stages of technology transfer
  • Negotiating stage- initial interaction among
  • Setting up stage-detailed design, modification
  • Starting up stage- infrastructure development,
    redeployment of resources
  • Sustaining growth- making the change last in the
    organization. uninterrupted use of technology
    successful adaptation continues up gradation

Issues that need consideration for transfer of
  • Cost factor
  • Type nature of technical assistance
  • Extent of technology assistance required
  • Appropriateness of the technology
  • Extent of obsolescence
  • Affordable dependence
  • Regulations legal aspects
  • Cultural issues

Methods of technology transfer
  • Depends upon the type , nature of extent of
    technology assistance required.
  • Training employment of technology experts

Career development
  • Concept of career- a succession of related jobs,
    arranged in ah hierarchy of prestige, through
    which persons move in an ordered ,predictable
  • Effective career development is necessary for an
  • It considers the activities undertaken by the
    individual the organization to meet the career
    aspiration job requirement

Career development stress
  • The most important requirement of career
    development in the current scenario is that every
    employee must accept the responsibility for
  • Must take initiative in planning developing
    their career
  • Management of challenging career(as per the need
    of the employee)
  • Management of careers at international levels.
  • Coping with the cultural diversity at
    international level

Career stages
  • Exploration-pre employment stage
  • Crises of this stage
  • Where to start from
  • Performance level
  • Reality shock, cultural adaptability
  • Job demands more what they can deliver
  • Not too many opportunities to show talent
  • Establishment-10 years from 25 onwards, tries to
    settle in some job

  • Mid career-35-45 years of age(problematic
  • Crises Tend to loose interest in job
  • Increased expectation at the same decresed
  • Late career-20 years from mid forties(stagnation
    or growth)
  • Decline-forced to step out of limelight. Bad for
    the high achievers
  • Retirement crises future planning ,uncertainty
  • How to invest in retirement fund
  • Manage after retirement
  • Exit policy

Steps of career development
  • Challenging initial jobs
  • Dissemination of career options
  • Job postings
  • Assessment centers
  • Continuing education training
  • Career development workshops
  • Periodic job changes
  • Sabbaticals(leaves grated at intervals)
  • Individual counseling
  • Promotability forecast
  • Succession planning

Actions on employees part
  • Improving job performance
  • Getting exposure to work
  • Acquiring new knowledge self learning
  • Loyalty to career
  • Undergo career guidance

Effective CD role of HRD
  • Identifying challenging initial jobs-
  • Job shall be challenging attract talented
  • Dissemination of career options-
  • Delivering information about new career
    opportunities that you can plan for in the area
    of your interest.
  • Assessment centers career counseling
    periodicallymanagement simulation-
  • Making an environment so that you an identify
    your potential

  • Effective problem solving-
  • Improving mechanism for career switching
  • To introduce related education facilities
  • Information in career planning-
  • Required changes in functions activities
  • Manpower need required qualities
  • Handling problems of mobility-
  • Internal external mobility of personnel
  • Problems of dual career

unit v
  • Ethics
  • Those principles which guide the dos don'ts of
    individuals code of conduct
  • The disciplines dealing with what is good and
    lead what are the moral duties and obligation.
  • Refers to the value system by which the person
    determines what is wrong and right, fair/unfair,
    just /unjust.
  • Individuals conduct is measured against his or
    her own concise but also against some norms of
    acceptability that has been socially,
    professionally, personally determined.

  • Ethical behavior is a major consideration that
    distinct the civilized uncivilized form of
  • Ethics govern individual behavior to deal in the
    most ideal situation which is accepted by the
    society general concerns in all respects.
  • Definition the discipline dealing with what is
    good bad what are the moral duties

Types of ethics
  • Professional ethics-
  • respect for intellectual property, copy
    right, governed by management, philosophy,
    leadership style, decision making style.
  • Personal ethics-
  • are governed by family, society, environment,

Features of Ethics
  • Contains principles of personal professional
  • Ethics do not rest upon the feelings of approval
    or disapproval but an careful examination of
    reality .
  • Ethics set out to criticize test in terma of
    ultimate norms.

Factors governing business Ethics
  • Value forming institutions .e.g.. School,
    religion, family.
  • Organizational goals directly related with
    values expected behavior of its employees.
  • Work career work refers to the jobs, as each
    work has its own values , persons performing that
    work must follow them.
  • Peer groups colleagues behavior standards
    /norms influence peers/ group ethics.
  • Supervisors pressure from supervisor might lead
    to do things which they feel are unethical.
  • Professional codes co-policies, philosophies,
    professional bodies

Philosophical approaches to ethical conduct
  • Deontological approach this approach is based
    upon the premises that duty is independent of
  • Teleological approach/utilitarian approach is
    based on the premises that consequences are more
    important .judgment about consequences determine
    the ultimate utility of an action.
  • Emotive theory suggest that morals ethics are
    just personal view points reflects that moral
    judgments are meaning less, depends on
  • end-aimonistic happiness of the society
    measures the degree of happiness.

Ethics in management/ management ethics/
professional ethics
  • Need-
  • Ethics in organization really begin with
    individuals , it is directly related with his or
    her value system. Code of ethics
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