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Pediatric Surgery

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Title: Pediatric Surgery


1
Pediatric Surgery
  • Childrens Hospital of Fudan University

2
Pediatric Surgery
  • Responsible for the treatment and prevention of
    surgical conditions in fetus 28 weeks of
    gestation to adolescent at puberty.
  • Including the related basic medical theories
    and researches.

3
History of pediatric surgery
  • Establishment of pediatric surgery
  • Aboard end of 1940s,
  • China beginning of 1950s
  • specialties now include
  • general surgery neonate surgery
  • orthopedics urology
  • thoracic cardiac surgery
  • oncology
  • neurosurgery

4
Congenital Abnormality
  • Defects in the abdominal wall (diaphragmatic
    hernia, gastroschisis, omphalocele)
  • Neurological system(brain, spinal cord, etc.)
  • Cardiovascular and pulmonary abnormality
  • Malformation of digestive system
  • Malformation of urological and reproductive
    system
  • Limbs and vertebra abnormality

5
Congenital Posterolateral Diaphragmatic Hernia
(CDH)
  • One of most severe conditions of neonate
  • Defect in diaphragm during early fetal
    development
  • left side most commonly affected
  • content of the hernia
  • small bowel
  • colon
  • spleen
  • stomach
  • liver, kidney, tail of pancreatic

6
?Embryology? week89 division of coelomic
cavity into the pleural and peritoneal cavity by
the diaphragm a triangular area in the
posterolateral site was left open. week1012
herniation occur through this opening into the
pleural cavity at the return of midgut
7
?pathophysiology? 1?Hypoplasia of the lung
Pulmonary weight (ipsilateralcontralateral)?
Alveoli number? Hypertrophy of the media
of pulmonary arteriole Resistance of the
vessels? 2?Pulmonary hypertension Abdominal
viscera into the thoracic cavity ? compression of
the lung, PaO2?PaCO2?? acidosis,
hypoxemia(PHlt7.30)?pulmonary vessels spasm
?vessel resistance?, right to left shunting
through patent ductus arteries and foramen
ovale??aggravate acidosis and hypoxemia in the
body circulation (fetal circulation syndrome)
8
diaphragmatic hernia
Clinical manifestations 1,Severe respiratory
distress,cyanosis, vomit 2,Breath sounds
diminished on the side of hernia 3,Heart sounds
deviated to the contralateral chest
4,Scaphoid abdomen
9
? diagnosis ? Prenatal diagnosis ultrasound
abdominal organ visible in the fetal chest
10
  • diagnosis after birth
  • X-ray film
  • Typical air-filled stomach and bowels in the
    chest, which continues into the abdominal cavity.
  • Diaphram can not be seen at the affected side.
  • Absence or scarcity of intestine in the abdominal
    cavity

11
Treatment
  • Before delivery cortisone could induce the
    maturation of pulmonary tissue
  • Preoperative preparation
  • (1)mechanical ventilation with pure oxygen
  • (2)nasogastric tube to decompress
  • stomach and intestine
  • (3)semi-supine and inclined to
  • the ipsilateral side, keep warm
  • (4) i.v. fuild, correction of acidosis
  • (5)surgical repair

12
Congenital Esophageal Atresia Tracheoesophageal
Fistula
  • Incidence 1/3000
  • associated anomalies common
  • Impediment of recanalization and interruption of
    septation of trachea and esophagus

13
Congenital esophageal atresia
  • Classification

?6, ?2 ,?85, ? 1 ?? 6
14
? clinical findings? 1?drooling saliva, unable
to swallow 2?cough and choke and may become
cyanotic after feeding 3?chemical and aspiration
pneumonia 4?abdominal distention or scaphoid
abdomen
15
? diagnosis ? 1?prenatal diagnosis 2?nasogastric
tube can not reach stomach. 3? X-ray film show
the coiling of the tube in the upper mediastinum
16
Preoperative preparation
  • supine and elevated to 3040º
  • Catheter was put at the blind end of the
    esophagus for continuous drainage
  • oxygen inhalation, incubator
  • i.v. fluid and broad-spectrum antibiotics
  • surgical repair
  • Prognosis 98100 survival rate for the last
    decade (aboard), all of the 60 cases survived
    since 2002 (our hospital) .

17
Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis
  • ?pathophsiology?
  • 1?olive shaped masslength 23.5cm,thickness
    0.40.6cm,pale in color with consistency of
    cartilage
  • 2?Muscular hypertrophy of all the layers of the
    pylorus , most significant in the circular layer,
    causing the stenosis

18
Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis
  • ?symptoms?
  • 1? projectile vomiting onset2-3 weeks after
    birth and progressive with time vomitus
    non-bilious milk and milk curds
  • 2? jaundice deficiency in liver enzyme and
    compression of the biliary tract
  • 3? overall condition dehydration, weight lose,
    hypo-chloride metabolic alkalosis, oliguria
  • 4?abdominal examination distention of
    epigastrium, visible gastric waves, presence of a
    palpable pyloric tumor (unique physical sign)

19
?Diagnosis? 1?typical vomiting and mass in the
epigastrium 2?ultrsound muscular
thickness0.4cm, SDthickness2/diameter50
3?GI for cases with difficulty in diagnosis
?distention of the stomach ?strong gastric
waves ?elongated and narrow pyloric
channel ?delay in stomach emptying
20
?Treatment? Surgery pyloromyotomy
21
Intestinal Obstruction in the Neonate
22
? Etiology ? 1?Malrotation of midgut around the
axis of superior mesenteric artery 2?Intestinal
recanalization anomaly 3?Compromise of
intestinal blood supply 4?Arrest of the
migration of neuroblast derived from neural
crest of epiderm 5?Viscosity of meconium
cystic fibrosis 6?Maternal factors infection,
diabetes, pharmaceuticals
23
? Pathophysiology? 1?Loss of fluid from emesis
dehydration, electrolyte disturbance, acid-base
imbalance 2?Aspiration and abdominal distention
chemical and bacterial pneumonia,
apnea 3?Dissemination of enterobacterium
ischemia, necrosis, perforation and sepsis
24
  • ?Clinical manifestation?
  • Characters of neonate ileus
  • Bilious vomiting
  • Abdominal distention
  • Failure to pass meconium
  • General conditiondrowsy?hypomyotonia?tachypnea

25
?Neonatal Peritonitis? 1?abdominal distention,
abdominal wall erythema 2?tenderness
manifested as crying, flexing legs,grimace
3?guarding reflex not obvious
26
4?abdominocentesis as shifting dullness
unobvious 5?diminished gurgling
soundenteroparalysis 6?abdominal
massnecrotizing intestinal loop?calcification?inf
ection General condition drowsiness,
dyspnea hypomyotonia,oliguria
27
  • Common causes of neonate intestinal obstruction
  • Mechanic obstruction
  • Extrinsic
    Intrinsic
  • intestinal atresia
    ?meconium peritonitis
  • and stenosis 40
  • annular pancreas ? ?milk
    curds obstrution
  • Malrotation 1015 ?meconium
    plug
  • intestinal duplication
  • meconium peritonitis(adhesion)
  • internal hernia, incarcerated external hernia
  • intussuception

28
Functional obstruction Hirschsprungs
disease 2530 Necrotizaing enterocolitis
Left microcolon syndrome Infection Metabolic
29
Intestinal Atresia and Stenosis
30
?Clinical findings? 1?vomiting onset from
first time of feeding to a few days
after birth vomitus bilious or
feculent 2?abdominal distention high
confined to epigastrium low full
abdomen distention 3?failure to pass meconium
normally meconium was passed within the first
24hrs of life and cleared in 2-3 days.
4?General condition
31
? Diagnosis ? 1?prenatal ultrasound 2?Clinical
findings bilious vomiting 24-48hrs after
birth abdominal distention failure
to pass meconium 3?X-ray duodenal
atresia--Double bubble sign jejunal
atresia--triple bubble sign low intestinal
atresia--multiple air-fluid level
32
? Treatment ? The only option is surgery
intestinal septum excision
Intestine resection and anastomosis
33
Congenital Malrotation of Intestine
34
?Definition? Malrotation is the term
used to define the group of congenital anomalies
resulting from aberrant intestinal rotation and
fixation ?Embryology? Week 68
Herniation of midgut into the umbilical cord with
a 180 degree of counterclockwise rotation along
the axis of superior mesenteric artery
Week 10 Return to the abdominal cavity with a
final 90 degree of rotation to complete the
270-degree counterclockwise rotation
35
? Pathology ? Nonrotation and Incomplete
rotation abnormal positioning of the proximal
small bowel and the cecum Duodenum compressed by
abnormal peritoneal band(Ladds band) high
incomplete extrinsic obstruction Midgut
volvulus torsion of the narrow mesenteric
pedicle produces an acute closed-loop intestinal
obstruction and vascular insufficiency. Proximal
jejunum fused to the ascending colon by anomalous
peritoneal attachments
36
Malrotation
  • Pathology
  • Compression of duodenum
  • Kinked and foreshortened proximal jejunum by
    peritoneal band
  • Midgut volvulus

37
?Clinical manifestations? Emesisbilious,
intermittent,occur at 3-5 days after birth or
asymptomatic Abdominal distention confined in
epigastrium, diffuse to the full abdomen in bowel
necrosis Stool normal meconium, bloody stool
suggests volvulus and necrosis Newborn
normal meconium,intermittent vomiting after 3-5
days of birth,no abdominal distention, hard
stool Children and infantasymptomatic since
birth, intermittent onset or sudden onset of
volvulus
38
Clinical manifestations
  • Symptoms of volvulus bloody vomitus and stool,
    abdominal tenderness

39
?X-ray film? 1?Plain X-ray film double-bubble
sign 2?barium enema cecum in the upper or left
abdomen 3?GI incomplete duodenal obstruction
ligament of Treitz not to the left of the
midline abnormal position of the proximal
jejunal loops to the right of the midline
40
Treatment
  • Principles
  • Asymptomatic malrotation
  • most recommend surgical treatment
  • some believe operation only necessary in young
    children
  • High intestinal obstruction
  • operated on promptly, but not necessarily
    emergently
  • Volulus with sign of bowel necrosis
    immediate operation

41
Treatment
  • Ladd?s operation
  • All volvulus is clockwise so the small bowel must
    be rotated in a counterclockwise fashion
  • Expose duodenum by division of the Ladds bands
  • Dissection additional peritoneal bands to convert
    the mesenteric pedicle to a wide plane
  • Alignment of small bowel to the right and colon
    to the left of the abdominal cavity

42
Hirschsprungs Disease
Anatomy 1?distended segment proxiaml colon
enlarged with muscular hypertrophy 2?stenosis
segmentdistal colon spasm 3?transitional
segmentbetween distal and proximal segments
43
Histology 1?lack of ganglion cell in the
neural plexus of the affected segment of
intestine 2?hypertrophied nerve trunk stain
positive for acetylcholinesterase 3?Disarray of
adrenergic fibers
44
?Pathophysiology? Arrest of cranial to caudal
migration of neuroblasts derived from neural
crest precursors along the intestinal tract with
vagal nerve fiber at 6-12 weeks of gestation,
which results in aganglionosis of the distal
bowel. 1?spasm of affected segment no
normal peristalsis 2?internal sphincter spasm
no normal defecation reflex 3?proximal bowel
distended with histologic evidence of muscular
hypertrophy
45
?clinical findings? Neonate 1?emesisbilious
or feculent 2?abdominal distention
3?delayed passage of meconium 4?rectal
examinationtightness of internal
sphincter,rectal emptiness,withdraw brings out
meconium and gas 5?after bowel irrigation,
temporary subsiding of the symptoms Children and
infant 1?History of neonate constipation
2?Malnutrition , anemia 3?Chronic abdominal
distention
46
?Diagnosis? Barium enema Demonstration of
a spasmodic distal intestinal segment with
dilated proximal bowel Failure to evacuate
barium from colon within 24hours simplicity
of the method accuracy in neonate 80
not suitable for short segment type
47
  • Anorectal Manometry
  • Aid diagnosis through identification of the
    rectoanal inhibitory reflex which is absent in
    the vast majority of children with Hirschsprungs
    disease
  • Drawbacks false-positive in older children due
    to masking of the relaxation response by
    contraction of the external sphincter

48
  • Rectal biopsy (Definitive diagnosis )
  • Suction biopsy
  • Biopsy taken at 1-2cm above the dentate line
  • looking for the presence or absence of ganglion
    cells and hypertrophied nerve trunks
  • simplicity, accuracy, absence of complications
  • False-negative (age, mucosal edema, tissue
    quality, experience )

49
  • Histologic staining of mucosa
  • Increased AChE content in the nerve fibers of
    the lamina propria and muscularis mucosae
  • Full-thickness Rectal Biopsy
  • Complexity and complications, possible
    effect on future definitive surgery

50
?Complications? 1?Enterocolitis Most
frequently encountered and life-
threatening from constipation to diarrhea
peritonitis and sepsis fever and
abdominal distention digital exammassive
amount of odorant stool 2?Perforation
Cecum peforation Bowel necrosis and
perforation
51
  • ?Treatment?
  • 1?Colon irrigations
  • isotonic fluid
  • one to two times a day
  • Do not use tape water
  • 2?Colostomy
  • 3?Surgical options
  • Swenson
  • Duhamal
  • Rehbein
  • Soave
    Neonatal surgery

  • Laparoscope's

  • Transanal pullthrough

52
Anorectal Malformations (ARMs)
  • One of the most frequently encountered
  • digestive tract abnormality
  • Frequency is slightly higher in males
  • compared with females
  • Associated anomaly urogenital,another
    gastrointestinal anomaly, cardiovascular,
    vertebra
  • Arrest of the caudal descent of the urorectal
    septum toward the cloacal membrane during the
    fourth week and ending by the eighth week of
    gestation.

53
ARM classification
Wingspread classification according to the
relative position of retal end to the elevater
ani highabove elevater ani
intermediatewithin elevater ani lowpass
through elevater ani Further
classification according to the fistula
54
  • PC line pubococcygeal line
  • I line ischial line

55
ARM treatment
  • AimRebuilt an anus with well functioning anal
    sphincte
  • High and intermediate imperforated anus
  • colostomy at birth
  • definitive surgery at 6-12months of age
  • Low imperforated anus
  • Trans- perineal anoplasty after birth
  • For female with fistula,Dilatation of fistula,
    anoplasty at 6-8 months

56
Hydronephrosis (Ureteropelvic junction
obstruction)
57
symptoms
  • Diagnosis
  • sonograph
  • IVP
  • isotope renograph
  • othersCT?MRU
  • abdominal mass
  • haematuria
  • abdominal pain
  • urinary tract infection
  • others

58
Surgical Principles
  • Always consider pyleoplasty , be very prudent to
    do nephrectomy
  • For bilateral hydronephrosis, pyleoplasty for
    both sides could be carried out at the same
    operation due to a high success rate nowadays
  • Index for nephrectomy
  • Complete loss of function,
  • parenchymal thickness lt3mm
  • sever cases of renal abscess

59

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