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Pediatric Cardiac Surgery in India

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Title: Pediatric Cardiac Surgery in India


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Get Free opinion from Best Top Doctors in
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Affordable Pediatric Cardiac Surgery at Best
Hospital in India Paediatric Heart Surgery in
India with the Best Paediatric Heart surgeons in
India is what you would want if your little one
is suffering from any heart ailment. MyMedOpinion
affiliate Paediatric heart surgeons in India are
among the top paediatric heart specialists and
offer best in paediatric heart care. Affordable
Pediatric Heart Surgery in India at Best Cardiac
Hospitals with Top Pediatric Cardiac Surgeons in
India with MyMedOpinion.
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Sometimes heart surgery in children is required
for repairing defects in the heart which a child
might have born with (known as congenital heart
defects) and heart diseases which he gets after
birth, which require surgery. Pediatric Cardiac
Surgery deals with operative procedures in the
newborn and unborn children and youngsters
suffering from cardiac dysfunctions, structural,
functional and rhythm-related issues of the heart
also. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery often deals with
heart problems in children, the cause of
congenital heart diseases which are common heart
ailments among new born children and involves
deficiencies like structural defects, congenital
arrythmias and cardiomyopathies, which result in
different kinds of abnormalities related to the
heart. Congenital heart disease is a cause of
improper growth of the heart or blood vessels
before birth.
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  • Heart Treatment in India for Major Heart Ailments
    in Children
  • The most common cardiac defects in children are
    the following
  •  
  •   Atrial Septal Defect
  •   Ventricular Septal Defect
  •    Fallot's Tetralogy
  •    Valvular defects
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Atrial Septal Defect An atrial septal defect
(ASD) sometimes referred to as a hole in the
heart is a type of congenital heart defect in
which there is an abnormal opening in the
dividing wall between the upper filling chambers
of the heart (the atria). In most cases ASDs are
diagnosed and treated successfully with few or no
complications. When an atrial septal defect is
present, blood flows through the hole primarily
from the left atrium to the right atrium. This
shunting increases the blood volume in the right
atrium which means more blood flows through the
lungs than would normally. If left untreated,
atrial septal defect may cause problems in
adulthood. These problems may include pulmonary
hypertension (which is high blood pressure in the
lungs), congestive heart failure(weakening of the
heart muscle), atrial arrhythmias (which are
abnormal rhythms or beating of the heart) and an
increased risk of stroke.
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Ventricular Septal Defect VSD have a hole in
the wall of their heart between their right
ventricle and left ventricle (the two lower
chambers, where the blood leaves the heart).
Normally, blood cannot pass between the
ventricles. But when there is a hole between the
sides of the heart, some oxygen-rich blood leaks
from the left ventricle into the right ventricle
and goes back to the lungs. The hole may be small
and cause no symptoms, or it may be large and
cause serious problems with blood flow. If the
hole is large, too much blood will be pumped to
the lungs, leading to congestive heart failure.
Also, the heart will have to work harder to pump
blood to the body. As a result of the extra work,
the heart can get bigger.
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There are two main techniques to correct the
disorder Intra-Cardiac Technique - is an open
heart surgery under general anesthesia , whereby
the child is attached to an external heart-lung
machine. This heart lung machine performs
circulatory and respiratory function during
surgery. The heart is directly accessed and the
defect is sutured. Trans- Catheter Technique -
this is a minimally invasive technique through
which surgical instruments are passed through the
catheter inserted in the femoral artery. The
catheter is slowly guided up towards the point of
defect to close it. Both the procedures are
quite successful. Which one is best for your
child can be ascertained by the paediatric
cardiac surgeon in India after the examination of
the child.
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Fallot's Tetralogy Fallot was a doctor who
spotted this particular type of heart defect.
Tetralogy means fourfold there are four defects
found together. These four problems are 1.
Pulmonary stenosis - Pulmonary means of the
lungs. Stenosis means narrowing. Pulmonary
stenosis is a narrowing at or below the pulmonary
valve. 2. Ventricular septal defect
-Ventricular means of the ventricles the wall
between the right and left sides of the
heart . 3. Over-riding aorta -The entrance to
the aorta, which should only take red
(oxygenated) blood around the body, lies over the
VSD, allowing the right ventricle to pump
some blue blood directly into it. 4. Right
ventricular hypertrophy -The right ventricle
becomes thickened as it forces blood into
the narrowed pulmonary artery.
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The heart surgeons perform two surgeries to
correct Fallot of Tetralogy heart defect in the
child Blalock- Taussig's operation is a
palliative procedure performed in smaller infants
to increase blood flow to lungs and to allow the
child to grow big enough to withstand the
corrective surgery. A connection is made between
right subclavian artery and pulmonary artery to
pass more oxygenated blood to the latter. This
relieves the cyanosis to a great
extent. The total corrective surgery is
performed in children within 2 years of age. VSD
is closed with a patch and the narrowed pulmonary
valve is opened. The outcome of surgery is
favorable and most children lead a healthy life
after the surgery with minimum restrictions
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Double valve repair and replacement Valves are
openings between two chambers and also between a
chamber and artery which allows unidirectional
flow of blood. The patency of these valves is
very important for normal flow of blood. The
function of mitral valve (between left atrium and
left ventricle) and the aortic valve (between
left ventricle and aorta) is very important. If
these valves get narrowed, the amount of blood
passing from left atrium to left ventricle
(mitral valve) or from left ventricle to aorta
(aortic valve) is drastically reduced. In this
case the heart will pump blood harder to push it
through the narrowed valves. But the blood will
tend to go upwards back into the pulmonary vein
and finally to the lungs. This will cause excess
blood in the lungs leading to congestion. At the
same time very less blood will come out into the
aorta from the left ventricle which will result
in reduced blood and oxygen supply to all the
body parts.
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Double valve repair and replacement procedure
aims at correcting or replacing these both these
damaged valves (aortic mitral together) with
new functional valves. This is done through the
open heart surgery. The patient is put under
general anaesthesia and connected to the heart
lung machine. This machine takes over the
pumping, circulatory, and respiratory functions
of the heart and lung till the surgical procedure
is going on. The valves are accessed by cutting
open the rib cage and accessing the heart
directly. The old valves are sliced from their
attachments and new valves are put in their
place. The new valves may be obtained from a
cadaveric donor, or an animal (pig) or it may be
made of a nonreactive inert material. The patient
needs to be given anticoagulants or
immunosuppressive to clotting of blood or
rejection of organ. The prognosis of this surgery
is good. It is many a time a life-saving and life
extending surgery.
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  • Why is the Procedure required?
  • If the following warning signs are found in
    children, it indicates that a surgery is
    required
  • Blue or gray skin, nail beds and lips. These
    symptoms indicate that
  • there is not enough oxygen in the blood
    (hypoxia).
  • If the child has difficulty in breathing
    because the lungs are "wet,"
  • congested, or filled with fluid (heart
    failure).
  • If there exists problems in heart rhythm
    (arrhythmias) or heart rate.
  • If there is lack of growth and development of
    a child. And the child
  • is not able to sleep and eat properly.
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FAQ's Pediatric Cardiac Surgery  in India   What
is the cost of Paediatric Heart
Surgery? Paediatric Heart Surgery is amongst the
lowest in the world. The Paediatric Heart
Surgery is about 20 of the cost in the USA. The
low Paediatric Heart Surgery is without any
compromise on quality or success rate.   Are
cardiac surgeons in India well qualified to
perform heart surgeries? Teaching hospitals in
India are of a high standard. Further, many
cardiac surgeons and cardiologists from India
have had further education/training abroad at top
class medical schools and hospitals. The result
is a very high level of academic excellence
amongst cardiologists and cardiac surgeons in
India.
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How experienced are cardiac surgeons in India at
handling complex heart surgeries? The
translation of academic excellence into
outstanding medical results happens only with
practice and experience. Indian doctors acquire a
great amount of experience over a very short
period of time because of the large number of
patients requiring cardiac treatment in India.
  Do surgeons perform advanced heart surgeries
in India? Cardiac surgeons in India are experts
at performing advanced procedures like Heart
Transplants, Robotic Cardiac Procedures, Totally
Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
(TECAB), Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary
Artery Bypass Grafting (MIDCAB), Off-Pump
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (OPCAB), complex
mitral valve repairs, etc.   What success rates
can one expect in India from cardiology
hospitals? It is quite amazing that Indian
hospitals are able to offer a combination of
extremely low cost cardiac treatment in
India along with extremely high success rates as
well. In fact, leading hospitals for cardiac
treatment in India have success rates in excess
of 98, which is absolutely world-class.
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