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Theory to Practice : Rhetoric to Action

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Title: Theory to Practice : Rhetoric to Action


1
INVITATIONAL EDUCATION
  • Theory to Practice Rhetoric to Action
  • Education is fundamentally an imaginative act of
    hope
  • (Purkey et al, 1996)

2
  • The call for better education in our schools
    now seems almost universal . . . The central
    element of quality education is of course, the
    teacher. Knowledgeable teachers are the core of
    an effective school program. (Stevenson, 1987, p.
    v)

3
  • . . . educational institutions need to reach
    the broadest numbers of students and that they
    must therefore be responsive to different forms
    of learning, performance, and understanding.
    (Gardner, 1991, p. 18)

4
  • . . . too many educational systems develop
    mission statements of eloquent rhetoric without
    following through with the necessary supports to
    enable each and every school to live that
    rhetoric. Or worse still, they adopt practices
    that run counter to their recommended goals.
    (Maaka, 1999, p. 8)

5
INVITATIONAL EDUCATIONhttp//www.invitationaledu
cation.net
  • A theory of practice that addresses the total
    educational environment Social , Physical,
    Cognitive, Spiritual, Emotional
  • A process for communicating caring and
    appropriate messages intended to summon forth the
    realisation of human potential as well as for
    identifying and changing those forces that defeat
    and destroy potential

6
  • Invitational education is a democratically-base
    d self-concept theory for working with people and
    constructing positive school cultures.

7
DOMAINS AND CONTEXT OF
THE DEVELOPING PERSON
SELF
Socio-Historical
Culture / Ethnicity
SOCIAL
PHYSICAL
COGNITIVE
EMOTION
SPIRITUAL
Family
8
Social Health, Mental Health and the 6 Rs
  • Reality
  • Responsibility
  • Right/Wrong
  • Relationships
  • Resilience
  • Respect

9
Foundations of Invitational Theory
  • A humanistic, person-centred approach to
    motivation of human behaviour

10
The Perceptual Tradition (Combs, 1962)
  • People are not influenced by events so much as
    their perceptions of events
  • Human behaviour is the product of the unique ways
    that individuals view the world
  • Behaviour is based on perceptions
  • Perceptions are learned
  • Perception can be reflected upon

11
Self-Concept Theory (Journard, 1968 Rogers,
1968 Purkey, 1970)
  • If there is one thing in the world that concerns
    every one of us, it is the self-concept
  • Learned beliefs that each person holds to be true
    about his or her personal existence
  • Who am I?
  • How do I fit in the world?

12
Cognitive-Behavioural Approach(Ellis,1962, 1970
Meichenbaum, 1974, 1977)
  • People are disturbed not by things, but by the
    views which they take of them
  • Our thoughts shape our emotions and our actions
  • Our beliefs and assumptions shape how we perceive
    and interpret events
  • Behaviour is mediated by the way an individual
    views oneself and these views serve as an
    antecedent and consequence of human activity
  • Our distorted thoughts can lead to a variety of
    dysfunctioning

13
Underpinnings of Invitational Education
  • Collection of assumptions that seek to explain
    human phenomena
  • Provides a means of intentionally summoning
    people to realise their potential in all human
    endeavours
  • Provides a framework for PEOPLE in a variety of
    PROGRAMS, POLICIES, PLACES, AND PROCESSES

14
Invitational Education Assumptions
  • Four assumptions offer a consistent stance
    through which humans can create and maintain an
    optimally inviting environment
  • Respect
  • Trust
  • Optimism
  • Intentionality

15
Respect
  • People are able, valuable, and responsible and
    should be treated accordingly

16
Trust
  • Education should be a cooperative, collaborative
    activity where process is as important as product

17
Optimism
  • People possess untapped potential in all
    worthwhile human endeavour

18
Intentionality
  • Human potential can best be realised by creating
    and maintaining Places, Policies, Processes, and
    Programs,specifically designed to invite
    development, and by People who are intentionally
    inviting with themselves and others, personally
    and professionally

19
Five Ps
  • Invitational Education focuses on five areas that
    exist in every environment and that contributes
    to the success or failure of each individual
  • People
  • Places
  • Policies
  • Programs
  • Processes

20
People
  • Teachers, Administrators, Counsellor, Support
    Staff
  • People create a respectful, optimistic, trusting,
    and intentional (positively enhancing) society

21
Places
  • Classrooms, Offices, Hallways, Common Rooms,
    Libraries, Playing fields
  • The physical environment offers a starting point
    from moving from invitational theory to practice

22
Policies
  • Rules, Codes, Procedures - Written or Unwritten
  • Used to regulate the ongoing functions of
    individuals or organisations

23
Programs
  • Curricular and Co-Curricular
  • Focuses on the wider scope of human needs by
    ensuring program achieve goals for which they
    were designed.

24
Processes
  • The spirit or atmosphere of the way things are
    done
  • Addresses such issues as cooperative spirit,
    democratic activities, collaborative efforts,
    ethical guidelines, and humane activities

25
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26
Levels of Functioning
  • Invitational Education identifies four level of
    functioning in personal and professional living
  • Intentionally Disinviting
  • Unintentionally Disinviting
  • Unintentionally Inviting
  • Intentionally Inviting

27
Intentionally Disinviting
  • Deliberately discouraging
  • Busy with other obligations
  • Focused on students shortcomings

28
Unintentionally Disinviting
  • Well-meaning, but condescending
  • Obsessed with policies and procedures
  • Unaware of students feelings

29
Unintentionally Inviting
  • Well-liked and reasonably effective
  • Inconsistent and uncertain in decision-making

30
Intentionally Inviting
  • Optimistic, respectful, and trustworthy
  • Able to affirm, yet guide students

31
Four Dimensions
  • The goal of Invitational education is to
    encourage individuals to enrich their lives in
    each of the four basic dimensions
  • Being personally inviting with oneself
  • Being personally inviting with others
  • Being professionally inviting with oneself
  • Being professionally inviting with others

32
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33
Inviting Oneself
  • Practice being inviting on your own behalf
  • Make a habit of having some alone time
  • Take good care of your health
  • Celebrate yourself
  • Establish/continue a relationship with a
    colleague in order to share experiences
  • Join a professional group
  • Submit an idea to a professional journal for
    publication

34
Principles Of An Inviting School
  • People are able, valuable, and responsible and
    should be treated accordingly.
  • Educating should be a collaborative, cooperative
    activity
  • The process is the product in the making.
  • Focus on effort rather than ability To become
    absorbed with learning than being preoccupied
    with their performance.
  • People possess untapped potential in all areas of
    worthwhile human endeavour.
  • This potential can be realised by PLACES,
    POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROCESSES specifically
    designed to invite development and by PEOPLE who
    are intentionally inviting with themselves and
    others personally and professionally.

35
Inviting School Success
  • Democratically oriented, perceptually anchored,
    self-concept approach to the educative process
  • The enhancement of
  • Self-Concept
  • Self-Esteem
  • Self Efficacy

36
  • KNOWLEDGE OF SELF
  • IS AS IMPORTANT AS
  • KNOWLEDGE OF CURRICULUM

37
  • Quality teaching, "inviting" students to
    succeed in intellectual, social, and personal
    pursuits, will not be enhanced by a teacher,
    irrespective of his or her overall academic
    ability, if he or she has a low academic
    self-concept in the specific teaching domains.
    When teachers think well of themselves, they
    think well of their students, and thus
    potentially enabling their students to achieve to
    their full potential. (Smith, 1999, pp. 74-75)

38
  • Children of high self-esteem who are in regular
    contact with teachers of low self-esteem will
    gradually themselves develop low self-esteem,
    with associated low attainment levels. (Lawrence,
    1996, p. 13)

39
Inviting Perception of Students
  • Able
  • Responsible
  • Valuable
  • Positive Expectations
  • Classroom Warmth
  • Invitational Discipline/Management

40
Keys to Being InvitationalEnvironment,
Comments, Behaviors
41
Keys to Being InvitationalEnvironment
  • Freshly painted walls in a room
  • A warm fireplace
  • Flowers on a desk
  • A well tended yard space
  • Throw pillows on floor
  • Unclean, unkempt walls
  • A chilly room
  • A patchy, grassless yard space
  • Hard backed chairs
  • Stilted, superficial conversations

42
Keys to Being InvitationalComments
  • Congratulations!
  • Sure, I can help with that.
  • Thats a good point.
  • Lets get together next Monday.
  • Have a good time at the party!
  • You sure were lucky.
  • I may have time later.
  • Whats the matter with you?
  • Well try to get together sometime soon.
  • Behave and mind your manners.

43
Keys to Being InvitationalBehaviors
  • Taking turns with others
  • Inviting a friend to
  • lunch
  • Noticing/complementing anothers new clothes,
    shoes, etc.
  • Responding to another
  • Cutting in a line
  • Waiting for a friend to ask you to lunch
  • Making a cute/sarcastic remark about the new
    attire
  • Being grumpy
  • Showing indifference, half-listening

44
Expectations
  • One of the differences between good teachers and
    poor teachers is that good teachers make their
    students feel that they have more ability than
    they think they have so that they consistently do
    better work than they thought they could!
  • Treat people as if they were what they ought to
    be and you help them to become what they are
    capable of being! (Goethe)
  • Ones expectancy of another persons behaviour
    somehow comes to be realised - NOT ALWAYS!

45
  • A high self-concept is a necessary
  • BUT NOT
  • a sufficient condition for achievement

46
Inviting Motivation
  • Motivation is NOT a problem in school
  • I have never met or seen an unmotivated student.
    I have met many students who did not do what I
    would wish them to do, but this is not to say
    they are unmotivated.
  • As teachers we are given the responsibility to
    determine the direction this INTERNAL,
    ALWAYS-ACTIVE, MOTIVATION will take
  • Rather than wasting time trying to motivate
    students, it makes far better sense to work on
    how this given motivation will be directed (the
    mob leader is the same as the missionary the
    thug and the theologian, the challenging student
    and the most talented)

47
Facilitating the Three Cs of Motivation
  • Collaboration
  • Assisting students to feel connected to their
    peers and ensuring the classroom is conducive to
    a positive learning environment.
  • Choice
  • Students are brought into the process of making
    decisions about WHAT, HOW, and WHY they are
    learning and other issues in the classroom.
  • Content
  • Making school work and learning meaningful,
    engaging, and relevant.

48
F. O. C. I
  • Feedback, give more positive
  • Output, give more opportunities for student
  • Climate, create a warm, inviting environment
  • Input, give students more to challenge them
  • Fair Firm Friendly

49
Doing-With Students not Doing-At Students
  • The best teacher is one who, through
    establishing a personal relation, frees the
    student to learn. Learning can only take place
    in the student, and the teacher can only create
    the conditions for learning. The atmosphere
    created by a good interpersonal relationship is
    the major condition for learning. (Patterson,
    1973, page number unknown)

50
SUMMARY
  • If youre not feeling good about you, what
    youre wearing outside doesnt mean a thing.
    (Leontyne Price, opera singer)

51
  • Everything the teacher does as well as the
    manner in which s/he does it incites the student
    to respond in some way or another and each
    response tends to set the student's attitude in
    some way or another. (John Dewey, 1933)

52
  • Until such proposals Teacher Education
    Revision Proposals take into account the need
    for teacher-training methods and interventions
    designed to enhance the academic self-concept of
    not only pre-service teachers but in addition,
    in-service teachers, the goal of improving
    quality of teaching and quality of learning will
    not be forthcoming. (Smith, 2000, p. 209)

53
  • Ashton et al. (1986) succinctly stated
  • If we are to make progress toward that goal
    quality of teaching and quality of learning,
    the promotion of a high sense of self-efficacy in
    teachers and students must become an educational
    aim as important as academic achievement. (p.
    176)

54
Bibliography
  • Ashton, P. Webb, R. (1986). Making a
    difference Teachers sense of efficacy and
    student achievement. New York Longman.
  • Combs, A. (Ed.) (1962). Perceiving, behaving,
    becoming. Washington,D.C. Yearbook of the
    Association for Supervision and Curriculum
    Development.
  • Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in
    psychotherapy. New York Lyle Stuart.
  • Ellis, A. (1970). The essence of rational
    psychotherapy. New York Institute for Rational
    Living.
  • Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind How
    children think and how schools should teach. New
    York Basic Books.
  • Journard, S. (1968). Disclosing man to himself.
    Princeton, NJ Van Nostrand.
  • Lawrence, D. (1996). Enhancing self-esteem in the
    classroom (2nd ed.). London Paul Chapman.

55
  • Maaka, M. (1999). Assessment for school success
    A student-centred approach. Journal of
    Invitational Theory and Practice, 6, 6-27.
  • Meichenbaum, D. (1974). Cognitive behaviour
    modification. Morristown, NJ Plenum.
  • Meichenbaum, D. (1977). Cognitive behaviour
    modification An integrated approach. New York
    Plenum.
  • Patterson, C. (1973). Humanistic education.
    Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall.
  • Purkey, W. (1970). Self concept and school
    achievement. Englewood Cliff, NJ Prentice-Hall.
  • Purkey, W. Fuller J. (1995). The Inviting
    School survey users' manual. Greensboro, NC
    University of North Carolina at Greensboro.
  • Purkey, W., Novak, J. (1988). Education By
    invitation only. Bloomington, IN Phi Delta
    Kappa.
  • Purkey, W., Novak, J. (1996). Inviting school
    success A self-concept approach to teaching and
    learning (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA Wadsworth.

56
  • Purkey, W. Schmidt, J. (1987). The inviting
    relationship An expanded perspective for
    professional counseling. Englewood Cliffs,
    NJPrentice-Hall.
  • Purkey, W. Schmidt, J. (1990). Invitational
    learning and counseling and development. Ann
    Arbor, MI ERIC/CAPS.
  • Purkey, W. Stanley, P. (1991). Invitational
    teaching, learning and living. Washington, DC
    National Educational Association Professional
    Library, National Education Association.
  • Rogers, C. (1969). Freedom to learn. Columbus,
    OH Merrill.
  • Smith, K. (1999). Quality teaching and academic
    self-concept. Interlogue, 10, 73-81.
  • Smith, K. (2000). The self-concept and verbal
    academic achievement of primary and secondary
    student teachers. Unpublished doctoral
    dissertation, University of Melbourne, Melbourne,
    Victoria, Australia.
  • Stevenson, R. (1987). Foreword. In D. R.
    Cruickshank, Reflective teaching The preparation
    of students teaching. Reston, VA Association of
    Teacher Educators.

57
For Further Information
  • Ken Smith, PhD, MAPS
  • Head of School
  • Trescowthick School of Education (Victoria)
  • Faculty of Education
  • Australian Catholic University
  • Fitzroy, Australia, 3065
  • 61-3-9953-3257 (Tel)
  • 61-3-9953-3495 (Fax)
  • k.smith_at_patrick.acu.edu.au (Email)
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