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UniversityIndustry Relationships:


Their results show that experienced university TTO are more likely to ... 2. Las Vegas. 3. Salt Lake City. 4. Phoenix. 5. San Jose. Fortune, November 23, 1998 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: UniversityIndustry Relationships:

  • University-Industry Relationships
  • Experiences from Austin Texas, the University of
    Texas, and
  • IC2 Institute
  • Colombian Industry Networks
  • July 4, 2009

Dr. Elsie Echeverri-Carroll Research Professor
and Director Economic Development IC2 Institute
Objetivos de la Clase
  • Revisión de la literatura internacional sobre la
    relación u-e
  • Revisión de la literatura sobre la relación u-e
    en Colombia
  • Presentar el caso exitoso de la relación u-e en
    la U de Texas en Austin
  • Memorándum al presidente de sus organizaciones en
    el que ustedes van a identificar y priorizar
    tres estrategias para superar las limitaciones
    en la relación U-E en sus respectivas

Estrategias para Promover la Relación
Universidad-Empresa en la Institución que
Represento M E M O R A N D U M
PÁRRAFO 1 Resumen compacto de la literatura más
importante de la relación Universidad-Empresa a
nivel internacional.
PÁRRAFO 2 Diagnóstico compacto de la relación
Universidad-Empresa en Colombia. Considerar las 3
fortalezas y 3 limitaciones más importantes.
PÁRRAFO 3 Diagnóstico compacto de la relación
Universidad-Empresa en la Institución que
represento. Considerar las 3 fortalezas y 3
limitaciones más importantes.
PÁRRAFO 4 Tres estrategias para superar las
limitaciones en la relación Universidad-Empresa
en la Institución que represento en orden de
prioridad e indicar las razones por la que estas
estrategias son prioritarias.
Class Schedule
  • 800 AM-1000 AM class
  • 1000 AM-1015 AM break
  • 1015 AM-1215 AM class

University-Industry LinksLiterature Review
  • Reamer A, Icerman L, Youtie J (2003) Technology
    Transfer and CommercializationTheir Role in
    Economic Development. Economic Development
    Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce,
  • Ankrah, SN (2007) University-Industry
    Inter-organizational Relationships for Technology
    /Knowledge Transfer A Systematic Literature
    Review, ISSN nr 1743-6796, Leeds University
    Business School. http//
  • Agrawal, Ajay (2001) University-to-Industry
    Knowledge Transfer Literature Review and
    Unanswered Questions International Journal of
    Management Review, Vol 3, Issue 4, pp. 285-302.
  • Feldman MP and Breznitz SM (2009) The American
    Experience in University Technology Transfer In
    McKelvery M and Homen M (Eds) Learning to Compete
    in European Universities. Edward Elgar

Who Benefit from Stronger U-I Links?
The University of Texas

The Austin Technopolis
  • Which firms develop stronger links with
  • What benefits do firms gain from stronger links
    with universities?
  • What kind of links do they develop and how?

Which firms have stronger links with universities
in the U.S.?
  • absorptive capacity Firms in-house RDt-n
    (Cohen and Levinthal 1990)
  • absorptive capacity Firms connectedness to
    the open science community of which its
    investment in RD is just one of the several
    components (e.g. publishing papers with
    scientists outside the firm and engaging in
    research collaboration) (Lim 2000)

IBM Research in Austin
University of Texas
11.1 million in funding from the Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency to Collaborate
super chip (2003)
1 million gift to computer engineering 2007
AMD Austin
Which firms develop stronger links with
  • There are differences in the degree to which
    firms are capable of effectively utilizing
    university research to their benefit and these
    differences vary systematically with the degree
    to which firms are connected to the university
    (Cockburn and Henderson 1998)

Connectedness and Tacit Knowledge
  • Connectedness is only important because the
    knowledge associated with an invention is not
    completely transferred in the codified form of
    patents and publications but rather requires some
    form of interaction between the inventor and the
    recipient firm. (Agrawal 2001, p.291)
  • Thus, one of the most important benefits that
    firms get from stronger links with the community
    of science (including the universities) is access
    to tacit knowledge.

U.S. firms linked with the community of science
including star scientists have higher patent
  • Firms links with community of science (Lim 2000)
  • Firms links with star university scientists
    (Zucker et. al. 2000)

Firms patents productivity of important
patents Patents that have been registered in
at least two regions (US, EU, and Japan)
  • Universities
  • Other Firms
  • RD Labs
  • 2.Star university scientists

1. Community of Science
  • Sponsoring research
  • Participating in Research consortia
  • Partnering with other companies

Firm A
Firm B
Channels of Knowledge Transfer
  • We have only begun to investigate the various
    channels by which knowledge is transferred to
    firms from the universities
  • Feldman and Breznitz (2009)
  • Formal channels that fall under the umbrella of
    the TTO sponsored research agreements with
    industry invention disclosures, patents
    licenses of university intellectual property to
    firms and the formation of spinoffs companies
  • Informal channels that do not fall under the
    umbrella of TTO industry hiring of students,
    faculty consulting, and knowledge trading among
    friendship networks
  • Are there cultural differences across countries?
  • There is a lack of longitudinal studies to test
    whether short term links lead to long-term links

U-I Degrees of Tech Transfer Flows
Technology park Industrial incubators
Expected Technology flow to firms
Patent licensing Sponsor research Faculty
consulting Personal exchange
Training Publications Grants Fellowships Scholars
hips donations
Few Weeks (Phase 1)
1-3 years (Phase 2)
Many years (Phase 3)
Duration of the Relationship
Source Graph by Ankrah (2007) based on
information from Chen (1994)
Set de Preguntas 1
  • Cuáles son las 10 compañías que en Colombia
    invierten mas en ID?
  • Cuáles son las 10 compañías colombianas que están
    más ligadas a la comunidad científica colombiana
    (o cuáles son las 10 compañías colombianas que
    colaboran más con universidades, firmas, o
    centros de ID)?
  • Cuáles son los canales que mas se usan en
    Colombia para transferir conocimiento de la
    universidad a la industria (publicaciones
    conjuntas, investigación conjunta)?

  • What benefits do universities gain from stronger
    links with industry?

U.S. University Characteristics
  • Rapid growth in U.S. universities patenting and
    licensing activity after the Bayh-Dole Act of
    1980, which granted universities the right to
    license inventions that resulted from federally
    funded research? Has it shifted the average type
    of research from basic to more applied research?
    (Henderson et al 1998 Thursby and Thursby 2000)
  • Which technologies are more easily licensed?
    technologies in very early embryonic stages (50
    proof of concept and 50 lab-scale prototype)
    (Jensen and Thursby 1998)
  • What factors favor university spinoffs? (Di
    Gregorio and Shane 2000)
  • Licensing Activity ? Equity versus cash from
    royalties (Feldman et. al. 2000)

Has the Bayh-Dole Act shifted the average type of
research that is conducted at universities from
basic to more applied research?
  • Henderson et al (1998)
  • Patent quality measured by two variables (a)
    its importance? how many times is it cited in
    other patents. (b) its generality? in how many
    patent classes is it cited.
  • Comparing university patents with a 1 random
    sample of all patents in the U.S. during the
    1965-92 period, they find that the trends in the
    quality of university patents are similar to the
    trends in the 1 random sample of all patents.
  • Their data illustrates that while the Bayh-Dole
    Act has increased the propensity to patent, it
    has not resulted in a shift in the overall
    quality of patents generated at universities.

Quality of university patents 1965-92
Quality of a 1 sample of U.S. patents 1965-92
Has the Bayh-Dole Act shifted the average type of
research that is conducted at universities from
basic to more applied research?
  • Thursby and Thursby (2000)
  • Survey data from 65 U.S. universities
  • Their results suggest that the growth in
    licensing patented university inventions is
    driven primarily by an increase in professors
    propensity to patent and firms propensity to
    outsource RD by licensing, rather than a shift
    in the average type of research from more basic
    to applied.
  • Licensing growth universities function of
    propensity professors to patent, firms to
    outsource RD

Which factors have a positive effect on
university startups?
  • Di Gregorio and Shane (2000)
  • Intellectual eminence of professors
  • The possibility that the startup can offer equity
    rather than cash to university professors

Do universities that are more experienced and
successful at licensing are more likely to employ
equity than cash (royalties) in their licensing
  • Feldman et al (2000)
  • Their results show that experienced university
    TTO are more likely to use equity, because
    although its use is more complex than cash, it
    may increase the option value of some
    technologies and also improve the alignment
    between universitys interests and those of the

Set de Preguntas 2
  • Qué restricciones imponen las universidades
    colombianas a los investigadores que quieren
    licenciar su tecnología?
  • Qué apoyo brindan las universidades colombianas a
    los investigadores que quieren licenciar su
  • Existe la posibilidad de que los investigadores o
    las universidades reciban acciones de las
    compañías en lugar de regalías en los acuerdos de
  • Cuáles universidades colombianas han tenido éxito
    en la creación de nuevas compañías?

U.S. Research and Development
  • By 1979, industry RD expenditures passed
    government spending growing more than three-folds
    after controlling for inflation between 1975 and
    2000 (Litan et al. 2007)

US Academic RD Funding from the Federal G and
Industry Funding of University Research, 1973-2005
2.6 billion (2006)
Outsource of RD?
Share of Academic RD Funding from the Federal
Government and Industry, 1994
Sources National Science Foundation, 2009
Arocena and Sutz (2001) Changing knowledge
production and Latin American Universities,
Research Policy, 30 1221-1234.
Set de Preguntas 3
  • Quién financia la mayor parte de la investigación
    en las universidades colombianas (el gobierno o
    la industria)?
  • Ha tenido la industria una participación
    creciente en la financiación de investigación en
    las universidades en los últimos 20 años?
  • Ha habido una caída en los recursos que las
    empresas dedican a financiar investigación en
    Colombia a partir del 2000?

Most Respected Literature on U-I Relationships in
the U.S.
  • Econometric models and estimation techniques
  • Limitation of this literature? Data provided by
    Association of University Technology Managers
    (AUTM) patents, licensing agreements,
    university startups.
  • policies that affect the vibrant trade in
    scientific knowledge for commercial applications
    that is not patented and does not flow through
    the university TTO have been largely overlooked.
    (Agrawal 2001, p. 294).
  • Non-patent channels of knowledge transfer have
    been overlooked.

Benefit to Firms and Universities
  • Funding from Licenses?
  • The median net royalty
  • per university respondent to
  • the AUTM surveys overall
  • climbed from 440,000 in 1996
  • to 950,000 in 2005.
  • Most royalties from licensing agreements
  • accrue to relatively few patents and relatively
  • few universities that hold them.
  • Research is starting to indicate that firms
  • will benefit significantly by investing in
  • the types of relationships that
  • are not necessarily in the presence
  • of efficient market such as those different from
  • patents and licensing agreements (e.g.,
    conferences, joint publications)

Different industries value different channels
Technology park Industrial incubators
Expected Technology flow to firms
Patent licensing Sponsor research Faculty
consulting Personal exchange
Industry Set 1
Training Recruiting of students
Publications Conferences Informal
conversations Grants Fellowships Scholarships dona
Industry set 2
Overall these channels are more important
Source Cohen et al (1998, 2000)
Firms use different channels to access university
Firm 1
Technology park Industrial incubators
Expected Technology flow to firms
Firm 2
Patent licensing
Source Agrawal and Henderson (2000)
Set de Preguntas 4
  • Cuál es el ingreso por licencias de patentes en
    las universidades colombianas y en su propia
  • Qué tipo de relaciones informales (p.ej.,
    publicaciones, conferencias, consultoría) tiene
    su universidad con la industria?
  • Constituyen estas relaciones informales un
    trampolín para desarrollar relaciones mas
    formales (p.ej., acuerdos sobre licencias)?

International Literature Review
The Colombian Case Existing Literature
  • Tognato, Carlo (2005) Comercializar la
    Tecnología Generada desde las Universidades Un
    Reto Institucional Revista de Ingeniería,
    Universidad de los Andes.
  • Abello Llanos, Raimundo (2007) Factores Claves en
    las Alianzas Universidad-Industria como Soporte
    de la Productividad en la Industria local Hacia
    un modelo de desarrollo económico y social
    sostenible. Investigación y Desarrollo, 15
    (001) 208-225.
  • Vesga, Rafael (2008) Emprendimiento e innovación
    en Colombia Qué nos está haciendo falta?
    Available at the WEB.
  • Colciencias (2008) Colombia construye y siembra

The Colombian Case Existing Literature
  • Tognato, Carlo (2005)? reto institucional
    (universidades). Propone
  • Fijar metas medibles ? de licencias, de
  • Crear incentivos y políticas laborales que
    faciliten el intercambio de investigadores entre
  • Crear instituciones ? OTT, Capital semilla,
    incubadoras de empresas, clusters tecnológicos
  • Creación de una serie de comités que produzcan un
    documento base y lo consulten con los
  • Limitaciones de este artículo ? No presenta un
    diagnóstico o análisis cuantitativo que
    justifique sus recomendaciones de política.

The Colombian Case Existing Literature
  • Abello Llanos, Raimundo (2007) Usa el Modelo de
    Gestión de Bruno y Vasconcellos (2003) para
    analizar 8 casos de innovación desarrollada por
    grupos de investigación en la U del Norte para
  • El Modelo identifica 4 factores claves
  • Institucional
  • Organizacional
  • Realización de valor
  • Creación de valor
  • Limitaciones del Estudio Tiene la U del Norte
    una Oficina de Gestión? No hay un análisis
    cualitativo de la relación u-e en la U del Norte
    o en Colombia.

The Colombian Case Existing Literature
  • Vesga, Rafael (2005)? Emprendimiento e innovación
    en Colombia Qué nos está haciendo falta?

Nivel Macro (País)
Nivel de Empresa
Nivel del Individuo
  • Análisis de estos 3 componentes a dos niveles
  • El nivel teórico
  • El emprendimiento innovador en Colombia

The Colombian Case Existing Literature
  • Vesga, Rafael (2005)?Qué nos hace falta?
  • Capital de riesgo ? escasa cultura de evaluación
    de proyectos y valoración de empresas que tienen
    altos niveles de riesgo. Los capitalistas
    colombianos prefieren invertir en el sector de la
  • Redes de emprendedores
  • Infraestructura física
  • Sabemos muy poco sobre la innovación a nivel del
    individuo y de la empresa
  • Actores? organizar los esfuerzos de actores que
    están trabajando en algunos aspectos pero han
    dejado otros de lado (no se discute?)

(No Transcript)
Disconnect between scientific effort and
technological development in Latin America (2001)
Country share in the total of patents granted
to foreigners in the U.S. Country share in the
total of scientific publications
worldwide Source World Intellectual Property
  • Cuáles son los beneficios para las regiones o
    ciudades de una mayor interacción entre las
    firmas y la universidades locales?

  • Jaffe (1989)? Industrial Patents in states
    FUNIVs RD in states
  • Both theoretical and empirical literature has
    shown that university research positively
    influences the capacity for innovation of the
    surrounding firms (Jaffe 1989 Mansfield 1991,
    1998 Nelson and Rosenberg 1993 Zucker, Darby,
    and Armstrong 2001 Cohen, Nelson, and Wash

Why is it that Silicon Valley flourished while
Route 128 (Boston) declined in the 90s? SV
developed a decentralized but cooperative
industrial system while Route 128 came to
be dominated by independent, self-sufficient
The technopolis wheel model, widely accepted as
a blueprint for Austins tech-driven future,
identified business, government, academia,
and business support groups, as the major players
in economic development.
The Technopolis Framework
Gibson D, Kozmetsky G, and Smilor R (1988)
Support/Networking Groups are very important
  • Chamber of Commerce
  • Business and community groups
  • Professional associations
  • Entrepreneurial/Industry
  • Associations
  • The Austin Technology Council
  • Austin has at least one networking event every
    day with cultural/sport/recreation events on
    every weekend. People get networked!

Triángulo de Sábato o triple hélice?
  • Sábato, Jorge A y Botana, Natalio (1968). La
    Ciencia y la Tecnología en el Desarrollo Futuro
    de América Latina. Revista de la Integración No
    3, Buenos Aires, Noviembre 1968.

Source Luis Enrique Gamboa, April 2008.
Innovar para Producir Un Reto para el Gobierno,
la Universidad y la Empresa, Available at the
1990 - 2000 Austin Enjoyed Spectacular
Economic Growth Why and How?
The Austin Model
Dells Spectacular Growth
U.S. Employees
Sales, in billions
20,200 employees
In the early 1980s Austin was the state capital
and a university town with a cowboy/ranching
culture the city was NOT known for high tech.
Jobs were mostly in government and education
the area could not retain its educated talent.

In the late 1980s Austin was most known for see
through buildings and a depressed economy NOT
entrepreneurship, venture capital, and
technology-based growth.

10 Years Later The Best U.S. Cities for
Business Top Five Wealth Creators
  • 1. Austin
  • 2. Las Vegas
  • 3. Salt Lake City
  • 4. Phoenix
  • 5. San Jose

Fortune, November 23, 1998
Top 15 U.S. Cities for Entrepreneurship
  • 1. Austin 9. West Palm Beach
  • 2. Atlanta 10. Colorado Springs
  • 3. Santa Rosa 11. Fort Collins
  • 4. Boulder 12. Oakland
  • 5. Boise City 12. Seattle
  • 6. San Diego 14. Charlotte
  • 7. Orange County 15. Fort Worth
  • 8. San Antonio tied

Forbes magazine, Vol 165, 13, May 29, 2000, p.
The University of Texas at Austin
  • Flagship of the University of Texas System 15
    academic and health institutions
  • 52,000 Students, including 13,000 graduate and
    professional school students
  • Nationally ranked in Engineering, Computer
    Science, Business, and Law
  • Global programs and large numbers of
    international students
  • Located in Austin, TX

IC2 INSTITUTEThe Innovation, Creativity, and
Capital InstituteThe University of Texas at
A think and do tank
  • http//

What Makes IC2 Institute Different?
  • Dr. George Kozmetsky (1917-2003)
  • Co-founder Teledyne in 1960?a leading provider
    of sophisticated electronic components and
    communication products. Taking the company from
    startup to a Fortune 500 company.
  • Dean - UT Austin Business School (1966-1982)
  • Founded IC2 in 1977
  • Winner of National Medal
  • of Technology (1993)
  • Educator, Entrepreneur,
  • Mentor, and Visionary

  • Research Publications
  • Incubators Action Programs
  • Regional Development
  • Masters Program (MSTC)
  • Visiting Scholars
  • Non-degree Education Training Programs
  • 32 years old
  • 3.5 million
  • 45 staff
  • Over 240
  • IC² Fellows

Research Publications
  • Broad-based transdisciplinary library of
    theoretical and applied research (books,
    monographs, journal articles, and working
  • Developed by resident IC² researchers, IC²
    fellows, visiting scholars, and UT faculty

Global Endowed Fellows
  • Endowed Fellows
  • 18 premier scholars (professors) from various
    disciplines across UT Austin
  • Work to expand the boundaries of science and
    technology in theory and in practice.
  • Global Fellows
  • Intellectual network of over 240 international
    fellows from academia, business, and government. 
  • From the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Colombia
    (Rodrigo Varela), England, Portugal, Sweden,
    Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Russia, Israel,
    China, Japan, Singapore, and Australia. 

Visiting Scholars
  • Over 100 scholars from 16 countries doing
    research on topics like regional economic
    development, incubator management, technology
    transfer and commercialization, technology
    marketing, technology-, civic- and
    social-entrepreneurship, and E-Learning
  • Korea Telecom
  • Coruna University, Spain
  • Tohoku University, Japan
  • Moscow Science Park Izmaylovo
  • Russian Venture Capital Association
  • Adelaide University, Australia
  • Instituto Superior Tecnico, Portugal
  • Many others

IC2s Selected Programs in Austin
Austin Technology Incubator (ATI)
  • Non-profit organization that helps
    small-technology based companies to transition
    from early stage ventures to successful
    technology businesses. It was funded by the IC2
    Institute in 1989.
  • 150 companies launched
  • 10,000 jobs created (2,850 direct, 7,150
  • 1.2 billion in revenue generated
  • 500 million in VC and other investments
  • ATI Incubators (1) Bioscience, (2) Clean Energy,
  • (3) Information
  • Technology and Wireless

Master in Science and Technology
Commercialization in Austin (MSTC)
  • Objectives
  • Learn to identify and evaluate emerging
    technologies (e.g., Quicklook)
  • Identify customers and marketing strategies
  • Develop broad, flexible business plans
  • Build a high-functioning management team to drive
    the new venture
  • Devise approaches for securing funding
  • Manage and protect intellectual property
  • Created in 1996
  • 12 months (2 days per weekFriday and Saturday)
  • Selected classes with Europe, Latin America,
    Russia, etc.
  • In-Class Online (video cast)
  • Average age 37

Selected IC2 Institutes International Projects
and Programs
CANADA Accelerating Technology-Based Economic
Growth and Entrepreneurship in Greater Moncton
  • Study prepared for the Moncton Technology
    Planning Group (representatives from
    universities, local businesses, and the city).
  • Provides select strategies to
  • Accelerate targeted industry
  • clusters
  • Create partnership
  • and alliances among
  • business, academic,
  • government, and support/networking
  • groups.
  • Identified Monctons benchmark city
  • (Oulu, Finland)? 129,000 people
  • Small in Size, Big in Technology.

MEXICOStrategic Plan to Accelerate Monterreys
Technology-Based Entrepreneurship
  • Case studies of successful tech entrepreneurs
  • Center for Global Innovation and Entrepreneurship
  • Advisors to the IDB-fundedMonterreys City of
  • Knowledge Plan II

MEXICOMaster of ST Commercializationin
Monterrey, Mexico
  • Program
  • Focuses on technology commercialization and
    acquiring the skills set necessary to take a
    product from lab to market.
  • Teaches candidates how to "bridge the gap"
    between intellectual property (technology) and
    the needs of the marketplace.
  • 12-course curriculum
  • One-year
  • Class of 2009 (August)
  • First generation
  • 42 graduates
  • 7 from the private sector
  • 35 from CONACYT as well as its sponsored RD
    Centers from universities like ITESM and UANL

MexicoTechBA Program INVITE Program
  • Programs designed to
  • Identify successful, high-value added Mexican
  • Provide training sessions to develop
    commercialization strategies
  • Expose and position the tech businesses in global
  • Facilitate their international interaction to
    accelerate growth, increase sales, generate
    strategic alliances, and attract investment
  • TechBA
  • Mexican Ministry of the Economy, FUMEC and
  • In Austin, Silicon Valley, Detroit, Phoenix,
    Montreal and Madrid
  • Why in IC2? Because of its successful history in
    tech business incubation and acceleration
  • For private sector tech businesses
  • Program by the State of Nuevo Leon (Mexico)
  • For technologies developed at universities or in
    research laboratories

PORTUGALInternational Collaboratory for
Emerging Technologies
  • Interdisciplinary research advanced education
    activities in digital media, advanced computing
    and mathematics.
  • On-the-job training for entrepreneurs and
    technology transfer officers and related
    technology commercialization activities,
    including internships and an exchange programto
    form a University Technology Enterprise
    Network, UTEN.
  • Continuous identification and promotion of
    cooperation in emerging technologies between
    UT-Austin and Portuguese institutions.

ChileTechnology Business Acceleration Program
  • Offset program in collaboration with Lockheed
    Martin Aerospace, the Chilean Economic
    Development Agency (CORFO), and its Innovation
    Committee (INNOVA Chile)
  • To develop an industry of tech incubation,
    commercialization business acceleration
  • The program
  • Assesses Chilean incubators
  • Assesses and selects Chilean technologies
  • Assists in finding cooperative agreements outside
  • Helps to open new markets and opportunities for
    Chilean companies  
  • Trains incubator managers, CORFO staff and

IndiaLockheed Martin Innovation Growth Program
  • To accelerate the launch of Indian early-stage
    technologies into the global marketplace
  • To enhance the growth development of Indias
    entrepreneurial economy
  • Features
  • Competitive selection process
  • Specialized training funding opportunities
  • Professional business development support to
    enter global markets
  • Open to all Indian researchers, inventors,
    entrepreneurs and companies with early stage
    technologies with promising commercial potential

  • Thank You

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