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Title: Lecture Notes for Exam ReviewChap 17 Politics and Government


1
Lecture Notes for Exam Review-Chap 17 Politics
and Government
Democracy and Freedom U.S Capitalism The
people have the right to act in their own-self
interest to get their hands on what they can
Results in an inequality of wealth. Socialism
Meet everyone's basic needs for housing,
schooling, work and medical care
Authoritarianism A political system that
denies popular participation in government.
Lacks the legal means to remove a leader from
government. TotalitarianismMost controlling of
political systems, regulating peoples lives.
Vietnamese government for example closely
monitors the activities of its citizens as well
as visitors to the country. Also Nazi Germany and
North Korea to name a couple..
Politics- a social institution that distributes
power, sets a societys agenda, and makes
decisions. Power Max Weber--ability to achieve
desired ends despite resistance. GovernmentFormal
organization that directs the political life of
a society. The business of government is to
exercise Power. Authority a power that people
perceive as legitimate rather than coercive. How
is power transformed into stable coercive? There
are 3 ways
1.Traditional Authority Weber explains it as
Power legitimized through respect for
long-established cultural patterns which is
woven into a society to the point that is almost
sacred.
2.Rational-Legal Authority (bureaucratic
authority) Weber A power legitimized by legally
enacting rules and regulations. Such as the
power used by teachers, Deans, police officers.
The political spectrum in the U.S.
Right
Left
.
Slightly conservative 15.5.
Extremely conservative 3.2
Extremely liberal 2.
Slightly liberal 11.5.
Liberal 10.4.
Middle of the road 36.02
Conservative 15.8.
3.Charismatic Authority Weber states Power
legitimized through extraordinary personal
abilities that inspire devotion and obedience.
Example Mel Gibson in the movie Braveheart
Reutilization of Charisma Weber the
transformation of charismatic authority into some
combination of traditional and bureaucratic
authority. For example Christianity began as a
cult driven by the Charisma of Jesus and then
after his death followers institutionalized his
teachings in a church.
Todays welfare state is a result of F. D.
Roosevelt - New Deal Size of government has
greatly increased.
1789 total
federal budget 4.5million (1.50 per capita)
1997 total federal budget 1.5trillion
(5600 per capita) 1789 One Gov. employee
for every 1800 citizens 1997 One Gov.
employee for every 13 citizens Total of 20
million Gov. employees Advantages of
Welfare State Government programs to help all
classes of people e.g., Medicare Social
Security Prenatal nutrition programs.
The majority of people in the U.S. depend on the
Gov. for at least part of their income.
Politics in Global Perspective
Democracy a political system in which power is
exercised by the people as a whole
Totalitarianism extensively regulates people's
lives
  • Special-interest groupA political alliance of
    people interested
  • in some economic or social issue.Special-interest
    groups thrive
  • in the U.S. due to week political alliance, e.g.,
    National Rifle
  • Association (NRA) Sierra Club and Political
    action committees
  • (PACs)Organizations formed by a special interest
    group,
  • independent or political parties, to pursue
    political aims
  • by raising and spending money.Basically PACs
    attempt to gain
  • political influence by purchasing it.

Monarchya political system in which a single
family rules from generation to generation
Authoritarianism a political system that denies
popular participation in government.
Power beyond the Rules Revolution How and when
does it occur?1.Rising expectations
2.Unresponsive government 3. Radical leadership
by intellectuals 4.Establishing a new
legitimacy Terrorism Random acts of violence or
the threat of such violence employed by an
individual or a group as a political strategy.
State Terrorism is the use of violence without
the support of law, by government
officials. WarOrganized, armed conflict among
the people of various societies. The cause of
war 1.Perceived threats 2.Social problems
3.Political objectives 4. Moral objectives 5.The
absence of alternatives The Pursuit of Peace
1.Deterrence 2. High-technology defense 3.
Diplomacy and disarmament 4. Resolving underlying
conflict
  • Political Culture in U.S. is based on
    Individualism
  • Bill of Rights-guarantees freedom from undue
    government interference.
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson, The government that governs
    best is the
  • government that governs least.
  • Today it is recognized by the majority that
    government is necessary
  • to maintain national defense, highway systems,
    schools, and law and
  • order. The U.S government has grown into a
    Welfare State.
  • The differences between Liberals Conservatives
  • Economic Issues
  • Liberals (mainly Democrats) support big
    government in society,
  • including Gov. regulation of the economy.
    Conservatives (mainly
  • Republicans) seek to trim the size and scope of
    government
  • Social Issues
  • Liberals tend to support equal rights, tend to
    be pro choice, and oppose
  • the death penalty. Conservatives on the other
    hand tend to oppose
  • political acceptance of gay families, tend to be
    pro life, and are all
  • for the death penalty.

How is power distributed Is U.S.
democratic? Why is voter apathy?
Summary Theoretical Analysis of Power in society
through -3 Models of U.S Politics
Pluralist Model Highly dispersed Yes, because
voting offers everyone a voice, and no onegroup
or organization dominates society Apathy is
indifferencepoor people can organize for a
greater voice if they wish
Power-Elite Model Concentrated No, because a
small share of the people dominate the economy,
government, and military Apathy is
understandable, given how difficult it is for
ordinary people to oppose the rich and powerful
Marxist Model Concentrated No, because the bias
of the capitalist system is to concentrate both
wealth and power. Apathy is alienation generated
by s system that will always leave most people
powerless
2
Review Chap 16 Politics and Government
Differences between Politics, Power and
Authority Politicsa social institution that
distributes power, sets a societys
agenda, and makes decisions. Power Max Weber
ability to achieve desired ends
despite resistance. Authority a power that
people perceive as legitimate rather
than coercive.
Charismatic Authority
Rational-Legal Authority
Traditional Authority
3 ways to transform power into stable Authority
Politics in Global Perspective
Authoritarianism
4 Major Forms of Political System
Monarchy
Democracy
Totalitarianism
3
Politics in the U.S. -The political spectrum
Left
Right
Extremely liberal 2.
Liberal 10.4.
Middle of the road 36.02
Slightly conservative 15.5.
Conservative 15.8.
Extremely conservative 3.2
Slightly liberal 11.5.
Society is a blessing, but government is a
necessary evil.-- Thomas Paine The government
that governs best is the government that governs
least.-Ralph W.Emerson Political Culture in
U.S. is based on Individualism Bill of
Rights-guarantees freedom from undue government
interference. Today it is recognized by the
majority that government is necessary to maintain
national defense, highway systems, schools, and
law and order. The U.S government has grown into
a Welfare State.
  • The differences between Liberals Conservatives

Basic Differences between Liberals and
Conservatives
On Economic Issues Liberals support big
government in society, including Gov. regulation
of the economy. Conservatives seek to trim the
size and scope of government
On Social Issues Liberals (mainly Democrats)
tend to support equal rights, tend to be pro
choice, and oppose the death penalty.
Conservatives (mainly Republicans) on the other
hand, tend to oppose political acceptance of gay
families, tend to be pro life, and are all for
the death penalty.
4
Political Party Identification in the U.S., 1998
Party Identification Proportion of
Respondents Democrat 46.5 Strong
Democrat 3.1 Not very strong Democrat
21.1 Independent, close to Democrat
12.3 Republican 34.1 Strong Republican
8.4 Not very strong Republican 17.1
Independent, close to Republican
8.6 Independent 16.8 Other Parties, NO
response 2.5 General Social Survey, 1972-1998.
5
Summary Theoretical Analysis of Power in society
through -3 Models of U.S Politics
How power is distributed? Pluralist Model Highly
dispersed Is U.S democratic Yes, because voting
offers everyone a voice, and no onegroup or
organization dominates society How should we
understand Voter Apathy? Apathy is
indifferencepoor people can organize for a
greater voice if they wish
How power is distributed? Power-Elite
Model Concentrated Is U.S democratic No, because
a small share of the people dominate the economy,
government, and military How should we
understand Voter Apathy? Apathy is
understandable, given how difficult it is for
ordinary people to oppose the rich and powerful
How power is distributed? Marxist
Model Concentrated Is U.S democratic No,
because the bias of the capitalist system is to
concentrate both wealth and power. How should we
understand Voter Apathy? Apathy is alienation
generated by s system that will always leave most
people powerless
6
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7
The cost and causes of militarism
The cost of armed conflict extends far beyond
battlefield casualties. The worlds nations spend
some 1 trillion annually 160 for every
person on the planet for military purposes. The
political wisdom to redirect military spending
could greatly reduce global poverty. Defense has
been the second largest expenditure in the U.S.
government accounting for 16 of all federal
spending, or 277 billion in 1999, and 450
billion in 2002. Even though the collapse of the
Soviet Union, military expenditures remain high.
The power elite theory says the the U.S is
dominated by a military-industrial complex ( the
close association of the federal government, the
military, and defense industries.) The roots of
militarism, then lie not just in eternal threats
to our security but also within the instructional
structure of our won society.
8
Power Beyond the Rules
Revolution How and when Revolution Occur 1.
Rising expectation 2. Unresponsive
Government 3. Radical Leadership by
Intellectuals 4. Establishing a new legitimacy
Terrorism Random acts of violence or the
threat of such violence employed by an individual
or a group as a political strategy. State
Terrorism is the use of violence without the
support of law, by government officials.
The Pursuit of Peace 1. Deterrence 2.
High-technology defense 3. Diplomacy and
disarmament 4. Resolving underlying
conflict (nationalism, ethnic
differences, class inequality fueling
regional conflicts)
War Organized, armed conflict among the people
of various societies. The cause of war 1.
Perceived threats2. Social problems 3.
Political objectives 4. Moral objectives 5. The
absence of alternatives
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