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Strategic Performance Management at the University of Botswana


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Title: Strategic Performance Management at the University of Botswana

Strategic Performance Management at the
University of Botswana
  • Keynote Presentation at the 5th Colloquium on
    Performance Evaluation of Library Personnel
    University of Vera Cruz Ana in Mexico - 16th to
    18th September 2007
  • Prof. Amos Thapisa

About Botswana
  • The Republic of Botswana has a total area of
    600,370 km².
  • It is the world's 45th-largest country (after the
    Ukraine) about the same size as Texas in the
  • It is a landlocked nation in Southern Africa
    bounded by Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South
  • It is the largest exporter of gemstone diamonds
    in the world with an annual output of 15 million
  • a large beef exporter to the European Union.

Economic Stability
  • Botswana was one of the 20 poorest countries in
    the world at independence. Today, it is
    considered the richest non-oil producing country
    in Africa.
  • It graduated from a low income country to middle
    income with a per capita income of P9 359.
  • The economy growth has enabled Government to
    increase resources for its development budget -
    1999/2000, development budget was P3.450 billion.

High Class Tourism
  • The Okavango Delta is the largest inland delta on
    Earth. Instead of flowing into the sea, the
    annual flood of fresh water flows inland,
    spreading over 15 000km² of the Kalahari sand in
    a maze of lagoons and channels.
  • http//

Land of Colourful Sunsets Animals
The University of Botswana
  • History
  • Founded in 1964 as the University of Basutoland,
    Bechuanaland and Swaziland with 180 students
  • Inaugurated as UB in 1982
  • Current figures
  • Overall total of 15,710 students and 2,217 staff
  • Six faculties

Our Strategic Foundations
  • Our Vision To be a leading academic centre of
    excellence in Africa and the world.
  • Our Mission To advance the intellectual and
    human resource capacity of the nation and the
    international community
  • Our Values
  • Students learning an environment which ensures
    that learning is the central focus of
    studentsactivity .
  • Academic Freedom upholding the spirit of free
    and critical thought and enquiry
  • Academic Integrity expressed in creativity,
    objective analysis, experimentation, critical
    thought ..

Launch of the UB Performance Management System
  • Launched in June 2004 in 4 phases
  • Diagnosis, Gab Analysis and Project Plan
    Development of a Project Plan and assessment of
    the institutions readiness for a new programme
  • Overall Design Principles - Identification of Key
    Design Issues and policy formulation Production
    of PMS Policy statement (2004)
  • Detailed Design Principle Phase - Translating
    Policy into detailed design for implementation
    production of the PMS Manual and Staff Training
    Programme Development (2005 ) and
  • Implementation Staff training and Pilot
    implementation. (2006)

Objectives of the UB Performance Management
  • enhance institutional efficiency, and
    productivity to more effectively achieve
    institutional objectives.
  • align employees work objectives with
    institutional goals, vision, mission and values.
  • develop job competencies and skills in order to
    ensure employee preparedness to deliver on
    institutional objectives.
  • ensure employeesfull participation in the
    formulation of institutional objectives as
    enunciated in the strategic plan, Shaping our

Stage 1 Formulate Strategic Plan
  • State vision, mission and values
  • Define core business, mandate and customers
  • Identify success criteria /outcomes
  • Develop key
  • Strategic operational plans.

Stage 2 Setting Divisional or Departmental Goals
  • Set Divisional or Depart. goals
  • Set Divisional or Depart. performance targets
  • Coordinate activities
  • Monitor performance
  • Review outcomes and
  • Review organisational structure.

Stage 3Individual Performance
  • Set individual performance targets
  • Provide performance resources
  • Monitor individual performance
  • Trouble-shoot performance
  • plan effective performer development and
  • Assess individual performance.

Stage 4 The Performance Review
  • Review performance against depart and individual
  • Plan new team and individual targets
  • Communicate the consequences of good or poor
    performance to teams and individuals.
  • Provide rewards

Strategic Alignment
  • Alignment is a process of linking the
    vision/mission of the institution with the
    challenges it has to meet, the priorities it is
    pursuing, business direction it wants to take,
    strategies available to it, and the goals it
    wants to achieve with team and individual
  • There is need to integrate available information
    and communication technologies (ICT) such that
    their implementation achieves stated
    institutional objectives or expected results.
  • Supervisors and supervisees jointly identify
    common goals and objectives which correlate to
    the strategic goals of the institution, thereby
    ensuring goodness of fit.

PMS Drives the Core Business
Source (Sekhwela, 2007 PMS in UB Presentation
to Senior Management)
Elements of Performance Management
  • Planning for performance
  • Managing performance
  • Reviewing performance
  • Rewarding performance
  • Individual Development

Planning for performance
  • Supervisors and supervisees jointly identify
    common goals/objectives which align or correlate
    with the higher goals (Key Performance Areas) of
    the institution.
  • Goals, objectives, targets, Key Performance
    Indicators (KPIs), and competencies are jointly
    discussed and agreed to during face-to-face
    meetings with direct supervisors.
  • Formal written Performance Agreements (PAs) for
    each employee/supervisee.
  • Critical Success Factors (CSFs), which are the
    most important aspects of the service from a
    stakeholders point of view are defined at this
  • Meaningful performance standards that make the
    institution most successful and that customers
    (students, parents and sponsors) care most about
    and not necessarily those things that the deans
    and directors want are defined.

Managing performance
  • All employees are expected to implement their
    agreed objectives and Key Performance Indicators
  • They are expected to monitor and manage their own
    performance with the assistance of their
    respective supervisors.
  • Supervisors provide motivation by advising and
    removing obstacles in the work environment.
  • They provide opportunities for joint problem
    solving and make available the necessary
    resources, coaching and training.
  • Key Performance Areas (KPAs) and objectives are
    weighted out of 100 so that appropriate emphasis
    is placed on the most important things.
  • Each KPA may have several objectives which are
    also weighted

Reviewing Performance
  • The performance review involves a determination
    of how well the agreed goals/objectives/KPIs have
    been achieved.
  • All agreed upon elements of performance
    objectives, behaviours/values, and competencies
    are assessable .
  • Problem areas are identified and corrective
    measure taken.
  • Ensure that appropriate behaviours or values have
    been applied use 360 evaluation.
  • For example, to what extent are teamwork,
    customer focus, creativity and innovation are
    being employed?
  • Ensure that technical or managerial competencies
    specific to jobs exist for the evaluation of

Rewarding Performance
  • Pronounce at the outset that performance would
    carry consequences. This meant that employees
    would be rewarded for good performance in both
    monetary terms and incentives.
  • This has been referred to as a Performance-Related
    Pay system (PRP), predicated on the Government
    of Botswana pay scheme.
  • Non-monetary rewards such as praises and public
    recognition have been included as motivational
    issues to encourage good performance.

Rewarding Performance 2
  • It is believed that through a reasonable reward
    system the institution would be able to recruit
    the right people, with the right mix of skills
    and competences, to ensure success.
  • Unacceptable performance, which is performance
    that is below expectation, would incur
    consequences such as denial of an annual
    increment or dismissal in cases of continued poor
    performance over a given period of time.

Individual Development Plan
  • In order for an institution to succeed it
    requires people not only those who are well
    motivated to work but also those that have the
    requisite training and competencies to perform.
  • Include in the process the expectation that
    employees would be developed to enable them
    undertake their tasks.
  • Addresses the growth needs of each employee
    emotionally, intellectually, personally,
    perceptually and socially

Individual Development Plan 2
  • It is believed that this will not only help
    people perform but also live up to their full
  • Individual Development Plans spell out the
    actions that an employee should take to develop
    themselves in order to extend their knowledge and
    skills, increase their levels of capability, and
    improve their performance in specific areas as
    agreed with the supervisor.
  • It is a requirement that such needs are captured
    at a point when the Performance Agreement is
    being discussed so that they are made part of the

The Performance Agreement
  • The University of Botswana Performance Management
    System requires that there should be a
    Performance Agreement entered into between the
    supervisor and supervisee.
  • This is a formal process that ensures that the
    strategic goals and objectives of the institution
    arrived at through a consultative and
    participative process and aligned with individual
    performance objectives and individual development
    plans (IDPs) are met.
  • Individual performance is set against the
    priorities providing details of the objectives
    that are going to be pursued in the coming year.

The Performance Agreement 2
  • It is a promise to deliver in terms of what is
    expected of an individual employee or team to
    accomplish with regard to agreed performance
    measures and standards such as goals, objectives,
    targets, KPIs, and competencies.
  • It is a tool that ensures that there is
    understanding and agreement between the
    supervisor and the supervisee on the major goals
    and objectives and accountabilities of a given
  • This process is revitalized annually to reflect
    the surfacing of new priorities and requirements
    and to remove those goals and objectives that
    have been achieved.

Intelligence Information System
  • A well considered vision for a successful
    Performance Management System should include an
    intelligence information system or decision
    support system (DSS) that gathers information on
    how effectively the institution is meeting the
    tenets of its strategic mission.
  • Strategic Performance Management (SPM) requires
    that an institution should draw upon its
    corporate knowledge in order to make decisions
    based on evidence and not assumptions.
  • It should have an information system that helps
    it focus on all its initiatives and Key
    Performance Indicators (KPIs) supporting its
    goals and assist it to align resources to the
    strategies that lead to the successful
    achievement of its goals.

Intelligence Information System 2
  • The system should allow authorities to focus on
    performance and achievements align resources and
    day-to-day activities with corporate strategy and
    adapt to the changing demands of the market,
    customers and stakeholders.
  • The idea is not just to manage performance but
    also to continually improve it as well as the
    decision making process.

  • Once a Performance Management System (PMS) has
    been successfully implemented it should be
    continuously monitored, evaluated and revised to
    ensure how effectively it
  • (a) sends a clear, consistent message to
    employees and (b) represents the concerns of
    multiple stakeholders individuals and groups
    that have interest, rights, or ownership in the
    institution and its activities (Jackson and
    Schuler 2002)
  • The characteristics of a strategic performance
    management system are that, the institution
    should have a strategic plan which spells out its
    mission, goals and priorities.
  • It should regard its employees as the most
    important asset and align their performance with
    the mission and institutional goals.

Conclusion 2
  • Through its performance review and appraisal
    system the institution should give recognition to
    its employees for their contribution to the
    achievement of institutional goals and success by
    rewarding them.
  • It should provide feedback to them to ensure
    better performance and continuous improvement.
  • It should avail opportunities for employee
    development and growth that ensures that
    employees have the requisite skills and

The End of Presentation
  • I thank you for Listening
  • Delivered 18th September 2007