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Title: Focus%20on:%20the%20Framework%20Convention%20on%20Climate%20Change%20and%20Kyoto%20Protocol

Focus on the Framework Convention on Climate
Change and Kyoto Protocol
  • Control and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG)

Using Cleaner Production to facilitate
implementation of the Framework Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC)
  • Activities for National Cleaner Production Centres

UNFCCC - Overview
  • A global legal instrument on the control and
    management of greenhouse gases (GHG) which are
    not controlled by the Montreal Protocol
  • Adopted 1992 Entered into force1994
  • Status of participation 186 Parties
  • Contains 2 Annexes
  • Annex 1 countries with obligations to reduce GHG
  • Annex 2 countries with funding obligations
  • Affiliated instruments
  • Kyoto Protocol

Affiliated Instruments - Detail
  • Kyoto Protocol (KP)
  • commits industrialized countries to achieve
    quantified targets for decreasing their
    greenhouse gas emissions
  • Adopted 1997 not yet in force
  • Status of Participation 77 parties, but only 36
    of global GHG emissions 55 needed for protocol
    to enter into force
  • Contains 2 Annexes
  • Annex A outlines gases and sources targeted for
  • Annex B specific reduction amounts for specific

Goal and objectives (UNFCCC KP)
  • Overall goal to protect the climate system for
    the benefit of present and future generations of
  • Further objectives
  • to achieve stabilisation of greenhouse gas
    concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that
    would prevent dangerous anthropogenic
    interference with the climate system through
  • enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant
    sectors and development of new and renewable
    energy forms/sources
  • protection of sinks and reservoirs of GHGs
  • limitation and reduction of transport and waste
    management-related emissions
  • policy changes toward elimination of market
    imperfections and implementation of market-based
    instruments, and policy reform to support GHG
    limits and reductions

Definitions (1)
  • Greenhouse gases those gaseous constituents of
    the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic,
    that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation (i.e.
    CO2, CH4, etc.)
  • Sinks activities or processes that remove GHGs
    from the atmosphere (e.g. reforestation,
  • Emission Reduction Units (ERUs) credits added to
    Annex B parties emission reduction totals
    through activities implemented jointly (AIJ) with
    Annex 1 parties of UNFCCC
  • Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) credits
    added to Annex B parties emission reduction
    totals through activities implemented via the
    Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in partnership
    with non-Annex 1 parties

Definitions (2)
  • Annex A gases (KP)
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • Methane (CH4)
  • Nitrous Oxide (NO2)
  • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
  • Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
  • Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
  • Importance of each gas is based on Global Warming
    Potential (GWP)

Global Warming Potential (GWP)
  • the ratio of global warming, from one unit mass
    of a greenhouse gas to that of one unit mass of
    carbon dioxide over a period of time.
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) 1 baseline
  • Methane (CH4) 21
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O) 310
  • HFC-23 11,700
  • HFC-125 2,800
  • HFC-134a 1,300
  • HFC-143a 3,800
  • HFC-152a 140
  • HFC-227ea 2,900

- HFC-236fa 6,300 - HFC-4310mee 1,300 -
CF4 6,500 - C2F6 9,200 - C4F10 7,000
- C6F14 7,400 - SF6 23,900
Sectors/Source Categories - Annex A (KP)
  • Energy
  • fuel combustion (energy industries,
    manufacturing, etc.)
  • fugitive emissions (oil/natural gas, solid fuels,
  • Industrial Processes
  • mineral products, chemical industry, metal
    production, other production, production and
    consumption of halocarbons and sulphur
  • Solvent and other product use
  • Agriculture
  • Waste
  • solid waste disposal, incineration, wastewater

Implementation actors (1)
  • Conference of Parties Main governing and
    decision-making body, facilitate information
    exchange and activities implemented jointly
    (AIJ). Meetings are held every year. COP-7 held
    in Nov 2001, in Morocco
  • Secretariat serves bodies of both the UNFCCC and
    KP, provides implementation assistance to parties
  • Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological
    Advice links scientific, technical and
    technological assessments, the information
    provided by competent international bodies, and
    the policy-oriented needs of the COP

Implementation actors (2)
  • Subsidiary Body for Implementation develop
    recommendations to assist the COP in the review
    and assessment of the implementation of the
    Convention and in the preparation and
    implementation of its decisions
  • Joint Working Group on Compliance (JWG) develop
    procedures and mechanisms relating to a
    compliance system
  • Relevant international bodies
  • Global Environment Facility (GEF) - financing of
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
    - research on climate change measurement and
  • National UNFCCC focal points
  • National CDM authorities

Implementation mechanisms (UNFCCC KP)
  • Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) - developing
    country parties can volunteer to reduce emissions
    via joint activities with developed country
  • Joint Implementation - activities implemented
    jointly between developed country parties
  • Emissions trading - can be used as supplementary
    to actions to meet reduction commitments

Implementation mechanisms (UNFCCC KP)
  • Financial assistance
  • Special Climate Change Fund (UNFCCC) - will fund
    projects relating to capacity building,
    adaptation, tech transfer, climate change
    mitigation, economic diversification for
    countries highly dependent on fossil fuel
  • Least developed countries Fund (UNFCCC) - will
    fund a special work programme to assist LDCs
  • Adaptation Fund (KP)
  • GEF is the operating entity of the financial
    mechanism and the main funding channel for
    developing countries

Implementation mechanisms (UNFCCC KP)
  • National reporting of GHG emissions
  • Sources of technical assistance
  • Training and technology transfer
  • Ensuring compliance penalties for not meeting
    reduction targets (Annex II countries UNFCCC)
  • for every 1 ton of CO2 emissions of
    non-compliance during the first implementation
    period, 1.3 must be reduced during the following
    implementation period

Key Opportunities for Developing Countries
Countries with Economies in Transition
  • No GHG reduction commitments (except for
    Slovakia, Czech Rep., Hungary, and some others)
  • opportunity to engage in Clean Development
    Mechanism / Joint implementation projects
  • attract new technology and investment
  • contribute towards KP implementation
  • achieve sustainable development
  • prepare for future commitment periods

GHG sources in Developing Countries Countries
with Economies in Transition
  • energy sector
  • from 2448 of total GHG
  • includes, inter alia, manufacturing,
    construction, transport
  • primarily CO2
  • industrial processes
  • from 536 of total GHG
  • primarily CO2 and VOC
  • waste management
  • from 0.39 of total GHG
  • primarily CH4
  • From UNIDO, 2002 - Country Reports

Clean Development Mechanism - Detail (1)
  • CDM is a essentially a market
  • the product is certified emission reduction
    credit - CER
  • demanded by Annex I parties
  • supplied by developing country parties to KP
  • 3 goals of CDM
  • to assist in the achievement of sustainable
  • to contribute to the attainment of environmental
    goals of the UNFCCC
  • to assist Annex I parties in complying with their
    emissions reduction commitments

Clean Development Mechanism - Detail (2)
  • How it works
  • project acceptance based on selected criteria
    (not yet determined)
  • baseline of GHG emissions is measured
  • additionality examined (incl. leakages)
  • project monitoring, assessment
  • final audit certifying CERs and follow-up
  • resultant CERs are added to Annex B party
  • partner country receives benefits of technology

Clean Development Mechanism - Detail (3)
  • Barriers to entry for developing countries (1)
  • UNIDO studies (2002) from 5 countries reports the
    following barriers
  • absence of CDM national authority
  • inadequacy of perception and awareness on climate
    change in general
  • lack of industry knowledge of relevant energy
    efficiency technologies
  • lack of laws and regulations for implementation
    lack of investment regulations for CDM project

Clean Development Mechanism - Detail (4)
  • Barriers to entry for developing countries (2)
  • government budgets for CDM project implementation
    is small foreign financing is at a beginning
  • insufficient government awareness and legal
  • rigidity in financing climate-sound projects
    because of strict business regulations and goals
    (e.g. financial returns over environmental goals)

Clean Development Mechanism - Detail (5)
  • Potential Supply-side projects under CDM
  • from Philippines country study (UNIDO 2002)
  • fuel switching from coal to natural gas
  • use of renewable energy
  • use of fuel cells
  • system loss reduction
  • heat rate improvements
  • clean coal technologies

Clean Development Mechanism - Detail (6)
  • Potential Demand-side projects under CDM
  • from Philippines country study (UNIDO 2002)
  • compact fluorescent lamps
  • energy efficient window-type room air
  • energy efficient refrigerators
  • high-efficiency motors
  • efficiency improvement in fuel combustion
  • specific projects detailed in training manual
  • UNIDO 2002 - Indonesia country report
  • UNEP 2002 - Carbon Offset Opportunities

Cleaner Production in the UNFCCC
  • Preamble
  • various actions to address climate change can be
    justified economically in their own right and can
    also help in solving other environmental
    problems - the win-win scenario which Cleaner
    Production offers
  • Principles
  • Parties should take precautionary measures to
    anticipate, prevent or minimize the causes of
    climate change and mitigate its adverse effects
  • Commitments
  • Partiesshall promote and cooperate in the
    development, application and diffusion, including
    transfer, of technologies, practices and
    processes that control, reduce or prevent
    anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases.
  • A recurring theme in the texts is that measures
    which have as little negative impact as possible
    in economic terms should be undertaken

Potential Activities for CP Centresto facilitate
implementation of the UNFCCC and KP
CP Centres - Areas of intervention
  • Enabling activities - overcoming barriers
  • work with government
  • work with industry
  • KP implementation
  • work with CDM projects
  • Follow up and preparation for next stages
  • auditing and on-going verification

Enabling Activities - Working with government
  • public sector awareness and education on climate
    change, in co-ordination with National UNFCCC
    focal point
  • public sector awareness and education on
    opportunities for key local industries
  • policy advice related to industries needs to
    enable Clean Development Mechanism projects, in
    co-ordination with National CDM authority
  • assistance in formulation of national
    implementation programmes (i.e. inventories,
    needs, priorities, dialogue, etc.)
  • implementation of projects (pilot and full-scale)
    with measures to mitigate climate change

Enabling Activities - Working with industry
  • private sector awareness and education workshops
    related to climate change, in co-ordination with
    National UNFCCC focal point
  • private sector awareness and education workshops
    on CDM, in co-ordination with National CDM
  • continued emphasis on enhancement of energy
    efficiency in relevant sectors including GHG
  • promotion, application and diffusion of
    technologies, practices and processes that
    control, reduce or prevent GHG emissions in
    addition to energy efficiency measures

Kyoto Protocol Implementation
  • Build relationship with National CDM authority
  • co-operation on awareness-raising, workshops
  • co-operation with policy advice to government
  • co-operation with pilot studies, projects
  • Develop projects with industry
  • integrate greenhouse gas calculations into
    in-plant assessments
  • transfer CP investment financing knowledge toward
    CDM related project development for
  • renewable energy sources
  • energy conversion and recovery
  • new energy efficient processes
  • technology transfer for non-energy-related GHG

Follow-up and planning for next stage
  • seek CDM project auditor status
  • industry feedback regarding upcoming reduction
  • next round of negotiations may involve reductions
    for newly industrialized parties with high GHG
    releases (e.g. China, India, etc.)

Questions to consider
  • What are your countrys opportunities under the
  • What are your nations priority energy issues and
    related industry sectors?
  • What kind of expertise/services do you have to
    offer in regard to your countrys implementation
  • What kind of necessary expertise/services you can
    obtain from the NCPC network?
  • What kind of financial assistance can your
    country qualify for in order to implement
    projects under the Convention?

Summary develop an action plan
  • Collect information
  • Define competitive advantages
  • experience of work in the priority sectors,
    existence of developed methodologies for
    addressing the priority waste streams, successful
    training initiatives, trust of the main industry
  • Organise meetings/seminars/workshops
  • co-ordinate with the Convention implementation
    bodies to exchange information and experiences
    and build capacity
  • Develop joint projects and training programs
  • relate to national priorities under the
    Convention and Protocol
  • Explore funding opportunities
  • consider other UNFCCC and KP financing mechanisms

Useful information sources
  • UNFCCC website
  • The UNFCCC / Kyoto Protocol Secretariat
  • National focal points and CDM authorities in your
  • National Ministry of Environment

Questions and problems