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Software Localization

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... of Progressive ... Scope Definition: subdividing the major project deliverables into ... Development: defining enhancement steps for opportunities ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Software Localization


1
Software Localization
Lecture 14
Dr. Gregory M. Shreve Institute for Applied
Linguistics
2
What is a Project?
  • An organization such as a translation agency or a
    localization company in the language industry
    normally performs work. The work can be divided
    into two categories
  • operations
  • projects
  • Both operations and project share certain
    characteristics
  • they are carried out by people
  • they are constrained by finite resources
  • they both have to be planned, executed and
    controlled

3
What is the difference ?
operations are ongoing and repetitive
  • projects are temporary and unique

4
Project is Temporary / Unique
PROJECT A temporary endeavor undertaken to
provide or produce a unique product or service.
  • temporary means that the project has a definite
    (defined) beginning and end
  • unique means that some something about the
    product or service the project is for is unlike
    any other product or service

Temporary does not necessarily mean that the
project is of short duration. Many projects have
a life span measured in months or years.
5
Project Life Span
  • a project is initiated for specific objectives
  • a project concludes when its objectives have
    been met or if its objectives cannot be met and
    it is terminated

conclusion / termination
initiation
6
  • In a project you are essentially doing something
    that has not been done before. The category of
    work to which a project belongs is not
    necessarily unique, but the particular instance
    of the work is. There are repetitive elements
    that make projects in a particular industry
    similar to one another. But each project is
    unique in some respect.

Unique Properties
Regular/Repetitive Elements
7
Principle of Progressive Elaboration
What distinguishes this work from other work of
the same kind? The principle of progressive
elaboration emphasizes the specification of the
unique attributes and requirements of the
project. At the beginning of a project in a
particular industry (e.g., the language industry)
you know generally what translation or software
localization projects will involve, but NOT what
a specific contract with a client will involve.
8
progressive elaboration
knowledge research
Domain(s)
Language(s) Textual Form(s) Register(s)
language
project specifications
context
Regulatory Constraint(s) Cultural
Constraint(s) Client Constraint(s)
process
Terminology Translation Revision/Editing
9
Project Management
  • Application of specific knowledge, skills tools
    and techniques (KSTT) to meet the clients needs
    and expectations for a specific project.
  • generic project management KSTT is viable across
    applications (project management body of
    knowledge)
  • an application will change the specific
    character of project management and specific
    skills will also be required

10
PM
Application Specific KSTT

Language Industry
Generic KSTT
Applications
PM in Language Industry
11
product or service
differing requirements / expectations of
stakeholders
scope
quality
identified needs (requirements)
time
unidentified needs (expectations)
cost
Balance competing constraints via project
management KSTT
resources
12
Initiation
Conclusion
Project Life Cycle
Project Phase
Project Phase
Project Phase
Project Phase
Project Phase
  • Every phase in the project cycle involves a
    description that details
  • what is to be done in each phase
  • who is to do it

13
deliverable work product of a project phase
Phases may be sequential or staggered
(fast-tracking)
14
Initiation
Conclusion
Software Project Life Cycle
Systems Analysis
Design
Coding
Build
Release
requirements specification
design specification or prototype
source code
compiled code libraries
help files packaging media
15
phase exit, stage exit, or kill point
  • determine project continuation
  • detect and correct errors

Phase end review
16
Project Stakeholders
Individuals or organizations involved in the
project who may be affected positively or
negatively by its outcome. Identifying the
stakeholders is a part of PM.
Customer
Performing Organization(s)
Project Manager
Intermediate User
Project Team
Sponsor
End User
17
Differing Expectations
  • Different stakeholders may have different
  • expectations -- they may compete
  • CFO low cost, high profitability, minimal
    resources
  • Client low cost, high quality, fast delivery
  • Project Manager on time, reasonable schedule,
    adequate resources

18
Project Management Processes
  • Project management processes are concerned with
    describing and organizing the work of the
    project. In this lecture we will discuss the
    project management processes that are applicable
    to most projects
  • Product-oriented processes are concerned with
    specifying and creating the project product.
    Product-oriented processes are typically defined
    by the project life cycle and vary by application

19
  • CORE
  • Scope Planning
  • Activity Planning
  • Scheduling Planning
  • Resource Planning
  • Cost Planning
  • FACILITATING
  • Quality Planning
  • Organization/Staff Planning
  • Communications Planning
  • Risk Planning
  • Procurement Planning

LI Project Plan
Conclude
Initiate
LI Project (Plan) Execution
Plan Integration
Terminology
Translate
Edit
DTP
Proof
Schedule
Activities (per scope)
LI Change Control
20
PM Processes Classified
  • Generic project management processes can be
    organized into five groups of one or more
    processes each
  • Initiating processesrecognizing that a project
    or phase should begin and committing to do so.
  • Planning processesdevising and maintaining a
    workable scheme to accomplish the business need
    that the project was undertaken to address.
  • Executing processescoordinating people and
    other resources to carry out the plan.
  • Controlling processesensuring that project
    objectives are met by monitoring and measuring
    progress and taking corrective action when
    necessary.
  • Closing processesformalizing acceptance of the
    project or phase and bringing it to an orderly
    end.

21
Planning Processes
Planning is of major importance to a project
because the project involves doing something
which has not been done before. As a result,
there are relatively more processes in this
section. However, the number of processes does
not mean that project management is primarily
planning the amount of planning performed
should be commensurate with the scope of the
project and the usefulness of the information
developed.
22
Core Planning Processes
Some planning processes have clear dependencies
that require them to be performed in essentially
the same order on most projects. For example,
activities must be defined before they can be
scheduled or costed. These core planning
processes may be iterated several times during
any one phase of a project. They include Scope
Planning developing a written scope statement as
the basis for future project decisions. Scope
Definition subdividing the major project
deliverables into smaller, more manageable
components. Activity Definition identifying
the specific activities that must be performed to
produce the various project deliverables.
Activity Sequencing identifying and documenting
inter-activity dependencies.
23
  • Activity Duration Estimating estimating the
    number of work periods which will be needed to
    complete individual activities.
  • Schedule Development analyzing activity
    sequences, activity durations, and resource
    requirements to create the project schedule.
  • Resource Planning determining what resources
    (people, equipment, materials) and what
    quantities of each should be used to perform
    project activities.
  • Cost Estimating developing an approximation
    (estimate) of the costs of the resources needed
    to complete project activities.
  • Cost Budgeting allocating the overall cost
    estimate to individual work items.
  • Project Plan Development taking the results of
    other planning processes and putting them into a
    consistent, coherent document.
  • What are some critical LI issues here?

24
Activity Definition / Work Breakdown Structure
Localization Project
1
Localization Project
2
Delivery
Terminology
Translate
Edit
DTP
Proof
Project Management
Deliverable
Deliverable
Deliverable
Deliverable
Deliverable
Deliverable
Deliverable
3
Deliverable
Deliverable
Deliverable
Deliverable
Deliverable
Subdeliverable
Subdeliverable
4
work packages
Subdeliverable
Subdeliverable
A work breakdown structure is a
deliverable-oriented grouping of project elements
that organizes and defines the total scope of the
project work not in the WBS is outside the scope
of the project. A WBS is the project work
equivalent of the product BOM (Bill of Materials)
in manufacturing.
25
Facilitating Processes
  • Facilitating processes. Interactions among the
    other planning processes are more dependent on
    the nature of the project. For example, on some
    projects there may be little or no identifiable
    risk until after most of the planning has been
    done and the team recognizes that the cost and
    schedule targets are extremely aggressive and
    thus involve considerable risk. Although these
    facilitating processes are performed
    intermittently and as needed during project
    planning, they are not optional. They include

26
Quality Planning identifying which quality
standards are relevant to the project and
determining how to satisfy them. LI Quality
Planning? Organizational Planning identifying,
documenting, and assigning project roles,
responsibilities, and reporting relationships. LI
Team Organization? Staff Acquisition getting
the human resources needed assigned to and
working on the project. Communications
Planning determining the information and
communications needs of the stakeholders who
needs what information, when will they need it,
and how will it be given to them. Risk
Identification determining which risks are
likely to affect the project and documenting the
characteristics of each. Unique LI risks? Risk
Quantification evaluating risks and risk
interactions to assess the range of possible
project outcomes. Risk Response Development
defining enhancement steps for opportunities and
responses to threats Procurement Planning
determining what to procure and when. LI Needs?
Solicitation Planning documenting product
requirements and identifying potential sources.
27
Executing Processes
Project Plan Execution carrying out the
project plan by performing the activities
included therein. Scope Verification
formalizing acceptance of the project scope.
Quality Assurance evaluating overall project
performance on a regular basis to provide
confidence that the project will satisfy the
relevant quality standards. Team Development
developing individual and group skills to
enhance project performance. Information
Distribution making needed information available
to pro- ject stakeholders in a timely manner.
Solicitation obtaining quotations, bids, offers,
or proposals as appropriate. Source Selection
choosing from among potential sellers. Contract
Administration managing the relationship with
the seller.
28
Controlling Processes
Project performance must be measured regularly to
identify variances from the plan. Variances are
fed into the control processes in the various
knowledge areas. To the extent that significant
variances are observed (i.e., those that
jeopardize the project objectives), adjustments
to the plan are made by repeating the appropriate
project planning processes. For example, a missed
activity finish date may require adjustments to
the current staffing plan, reliance on overtime,
or trade-offs between budget and schedule
objectives. Controlling also includes taking
preventive action in anticipation of possible
problems.
29
Performance Reporting collecting and
disseminating performance information. This
includes status reporting, progress measurement,
and forecasting. Overall Change Control
coordinating changes across the entire
project. Scope Change Control controlling
changes to project scope. Schedule Control
controlling changes to the project schedule.
Cost Control controlling changes to the project
budget. Quality Control monitoring specific
project results to determine if they comply with
relevant quality standards and identifying ways
to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory
performance. Risk Response Control responding
to changes in risk over the course of the project.
30
Closing Processes
Administrative Closure generating, gathering,
and disseminating information to formalize phase
or project completion. Contract Close-out
completion and settlement of the contract,
including resolution of any open items.
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