Population Growth, MDGs and Sexual and Reproductive Health Parliamentary Hearings UK All Party Parliamentary Group on Population, Development and Reproductive Health - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Population Growth, MDGs and Sexual and Reproductive Health Parliamentary Hearings UK All Party Parliamentary Group on Population, Development and Reproductive Health

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Potential impact of (rapid) population growth on human development. The ultimate aim of the MDGs ... Developing countries mixed stages ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Population Growth, MDGs and Sexual and Reproductive Health Parliamentary Hearings UK All Party Parliamentary Group on Population, Development and Reproductive Health


1
Population Growth, MDGs and Sexual and
Reproductive HealthParliamentary HearingsUK
All Party Parliamentary Group on Population,
Development and Reproductive Health
  • Paul F.A. Van Look, MD, PhD, FRCOG
  • Department of Reproductive Health and Research
    World Health OrganizationLondon, 19 June 2006

2
Outline
  • Potential impact of (rapid) population growth on
    human development
  • The ultimate aim of the MDGs
  • Role of sexual and reproductive health
  • Source
  • Consequence
  • Access to sexual and reproductive health care and
    selected MDGs

of (rapid) population growth
3
Population growth/ discussions
  • From 1950s to date world's population tripled
  • Malthus to proportion the population to food,
    since the food cannot be proportioned to
    population
  • Critiques he failed to foresee the potential
    technological improvements that increase food
    production
  • Neo-Malthusians suggested policy actions in
    addition to provision of family planning

4
Demographic transition
  • Developed countries completed, population sizes
    hardly changing
  • Developing countries mixed stages
  • Rapid falls in fertility, birth rates declined
    India, Thailand, Bangladesh
  • Unequal fertility
  • Fertility is still high in the least-developed
    countries

5
Total fertility rate number of children per
woman (1990-2000)
  • Below replacement level (2.1) in more developed
    countries
  • Majority of developing countries are in
    transition to low fertility
  • 50 countries (mostly in sub-Saharan Africa)
    total fertility gt 5 children per woman
  • They are also a long way off reaching the MDGs

Source UN Population Division, 2003
6
Contraceptive met need
currently married, sexually active women
Source UN Population Division
7
Major consequences effect of population growth
on economic growth and development
  • Diverse evidence both negative and positive
    effects
  • Direction and size of the effect varies according
    to which stage of the demographic transition the
    country is in and its economic/political context
  • Positive effect of declining fertility on
    economic growth greater in poorer countries and
    those with initial higher fertility levels
    (Eastwood and Lipton 2001)
  • Economic growth is driven by adequate human
    capital (educated, skilled, healthy population)
    (Strulik 2005, Barro 2001, Rosenzweig 1990)

8
Major consequences dynamics of rapid population
growth/ effects on human capital
Typical age structure 40 of the population
under age 15
  • Increased needs
  • Schooling
  • Employment
  • Sexual and reproductive health in case of
    unmet need for family planning, high fertility
    persists

Migration ? rapid urbanisation
Increasing inequalities (poorer people tend to
have more children)
Challenges to build human capital
9
The role of sexual and reproductive health
  • Source of population growth
  • high fertility in least developed countries
  • unequal distribution of fertility (fertility
    differentials between rich and poor) in middle
    income countries
  • due to socio-economic and cultural factors as
    well as unmet need for family planning
  • Sexual and reproductive health services should be
    able to respond when high fertility is due to
    limited availability/provision of family planning
    or information about them

10
The role of sexual and reproductive health
  • Consequences of population growth
  • age structure, migration, increased inequalities
  • The needs of increasing number of people at
    reproductive ages should be met to better build
    human capital
  • Family planning needs
  • Consequences of unsafe sex (second leading risk
    factor to health) sexually transmitted
    infections (STI), HIV/AIDS
  • Pregnancy-related morbidity/mortality

11
Sexual and reproductive health and selected MDGs
  • MDG 3 achieve gender equality
  • Women's ability to control their fertility is not
    by itself sufficient to gaining their full
    empowerment and achieving gender equality, but it
    is the first and most important step (Oppenheim
    2005)

12
Sexual and reproductive health and selected MDGs
  • MDG 4 reduce child mortality
  • Better care for women during pregnancy and at the
    time of delivery has a positive impact on newborn
    health thus contributing to achieving goal 4
  • (Darmstadt 2005, Feresu 2005)

13
Sexual and reproductive health and selected MDGs
  • MDG 5 improve maternal health
  • All components of sexual and reproductive health
    directly impact reaching goal 5
  • Family planning (at least a quarter of maternal
    deaths could be avoided if women were able to
    avoid unplanned pregnancies Freedman 2005)
  • Prevention and treatment of complications during
    pregnancy/delivery/postpartum, including
    complications of unsafe abortion
  • Prevention and treatment of STIs including
    HIV/AIDS

14
Sexual and reproductive health and selected MDGs
  • MDG 6 combat HIV/AIDS
  • Presence of a sexually transmitted infection
    increases acquisition of HIV (Cohen 1997,
    Robinson 1997)
  • Small reductions in maternal HIV prevalence or in
    unintended pregnancy are more effective in
    reducing new HIV cases among infants than
    prevention of transmission of virus from mother
    to infants by using antiretroviral drugs (Sweat
    2004)
  • Family planning services in sub-Saharan Africa
    might be preventing more HIV infections of
    infants than prevention of transmission of virus
    from mother to infants (Reynolds 2005)

15
Conclusion
  • Population growth is still a problem where
    socio-economic development is also limited
  • High fertility in least developed countries
  • Higher fertility in poorer segments of
    middle-income countries
  • Consequences of rapid population growth could
    restrain building human capital
  • Focus on sexual and reproductive health is
    crucial in addressing both the sources and human
    capital implications of population growth
    achieving development
  • Access to sexual and reproductive health care is
    a major contributor to achievement of gender- and
    health-related MDGs
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