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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia


In the studies Gowers comprised age and sex data. At this time the disease was only seen as chronic. ... Methotrexate was discovered in 1948. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
  • Defined by the Tabers Cyclopedic Medical
    Dictionary as, a hematological malignancy marked
    by the unchecked multiplication of immature
    lymphoid cells in the bone marrow, blood, and
    body tissues.

  • In 1879 the first Epidemiology studies were
    performed in London by W.R. Gowers.
  • In the studies Gowers comprised age and sex data.
    At this time the disease was only seen as chronic.
  • In the late 1890s George Dock was the first to
    discover Acute cases of Leukemia.
  • In his studies Leukemia was said to resemble a
    microscopic germ infection.(Cambridge
    World,p845, 1993.

  • Fatigue, lethargy, bleeding, bone and joint pain,
    and a predisposition to fever and infection are
    characteristics of all Leukemias. (Tabers
    CyclopedicDavis, p1219, 1997)

Causes of Leukemia
  • Several epidemiologic studies have described
    increased risks of childhood leukemia connected
    with parents exposure to occupational chemicals,
    which include solvents and paints.(American
    Journal of Public Health,p564,2001)
  • Chidren, whose parents were exposed to organic
    substances, have shown an increased risk of

  • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia is suggested by the
    presence of abnormalities on the complete blood
    count or the peripheral blood smear. It is
    confirmed by immunophenotyping.
  • Leukemia affects the lymphocytes, or white blood
    cells, by replacing normal blood cells and
    spreading to other organs. Because this disease
    effects the central nervous system, patients are
    more susceptible to infection and the
    deterioration of other vital organs.

  • Leukemia is diagnosed in 3000 to 4000 persons in
    the U.S. each year.
  • Two thirds of them are children between the ages
    of three to five, or before 15.
  • More men tend to have this disease over women.
  • More whites tend to be effected than blacks.

  • Methotrexate was discovered in 1948.
  • The first medication, with significant
    capabilities of prolonging a patients life
  • It is still prescribed today.
  • Chemotherapy often begins after bone marrow
    recovery. As well as radiation
  • Multidrug regimens are administered as well.
  • In high-risk cases hematopoietic stem cell
    transplantation is used.

  • Approximately 90 of children achieve remission
    and nearly 80 are cured.
  • One third of adults are cured.
  • The side effects from the radiation treatment
    include cardiomyopathy, encephalopathy,
    osteoporosis, short stature, and
    obesity.(Greenebaum, p604, 1998).

  • Freedman,Michael. Household Solvent Exposures
    and Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic
    Leukemia.American Journal of Public Health
  • Kiple, Kenneth. Cambridge World History of Human
    Disease Cambridge University.(1993) 845.
  • Pui, Ching-Hon., and William Evans. Acute
    Lymphoblastic Leukemia. New England Journal of
    Medicine 339(1998)605-12.
  • Venes, Donald,ed. Tabers Cyclopedic Medical
    Dictionary 19th ed.1997.
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