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Young Earth and Scientific Creationism in the U'S'A'


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Title: Young Earth and Scientific Creationism in the U'S'A'

Young Earth and Scientific Creationism in the
  • Its History and Influence in Christianity and the
    Understanding of Science in the U.S.A.
  • By
  • Christopher Sharp
  • University of Arizona

Let us first listen to Ken
Hams Kangaroo Sound Bite
Contents 1
0. Abstract 1. Introduction 1.1. What is
Christianity, What is Science? 1.2. The Spectrum
of Beliefs 1.3. A Potted History of
Cosmology 1.4. Hebrew/Babylonian Cosmology 1.5.
Geocentric Universe 1.6. Heliocentric
Universe 1.7. Our Location in Milky Way 1.8. The
Big Bang and Scientific Timescale 1.9. Primordial
Nucleosynthesis 1.10.The Young Earth Creationist
Timescale 2. History of Creationism 2.1. History
up to the Late 1700s 2.2. Evolution of
Creationism after 1800
Contents 2
2.3. Creationism since World War II 3. Modern
Creationism 3.1. Creation Scientists and
Organizations 3.2. Answers in Genesis Statement
of Faith 3.3. Why do Young Earth Creationists
Insist on a Recent Creation? 3.4. The Distant
Starlight Problem 3.5. Creationist
Apologetics 3.6. Noahs Flood 3.7. Plausible
Scientific Explanations for Noahs Flood 3.8.
Creationist Duplicity 3.9. The Rotten Fruits of
Creationism 3.10.Creationism in Other
Countries 4. Summary 4.1. Summary 4.2. A Last Look
Young earth and scientific creationism are two
distinct but closely related issues (1) Young
earth creationism, often abbreviated as YEC, is a
belief that the first 11 chapters of the book of
Genesis are scientifically correct, in particular
that a literal 6 day creation took place about
6000 and 10,000 years ago, and Noahs Flood was a
global event that took place about 1500 years
later. (2) Scientific creationism, or creation
science, is an attempt in apologetics to support
(1) using scientifically sounding language. In
fact this is pseudo-science. The object of this
presentation is to show that young earth and
scientific creationism not only seriously
undermine the teaching and understanding of
science, they seriously undermine Christianity by
making a number absurd claims that are totally
contradicted by well established scientific
evidence, in many cases evidence that has been
known for over 100 years. The credibility of
Christianity in general is thus seriously
damaged, and agnostics and atheists can use the
claims made by young earth creationists as
ammunition to ridicule Christianity. The claim
is thus made here that young earth creationists
unwittingly, or even wittingly in some cases,
undermine Christianity by proxy. This
presentation concentrates on the issues of the
age of the universe, the age of the earth and the
solar system, and the timing, nature and extent
of Noahs Flood. Other issues such evolutionary
biology, who was Adam and the meaning of sin are
outside the immediate scope of this presentation.
What is Christianity, What is Science?
  • Christianity is about a relationship with God
    through Christ who atoned for our sins on the
    cross. Christianity is also an explanation for
    meaning and purpose of our existence.
  • Christianity is not a scientific explanation of
    how the physical universe operates, nor how
    creation took place. However, in common with all
    other religions, before the advent of modern
    science it did give an explanation within the
    cultural context of the day.
  • Science tries to understand the nature of the
    physical universe, and the mechanisms of
    creation, such as the Big Bang, through
    methodological naturalism, i.e. it is confined
    to only naturalistic explanations.
  • Science does not address meaning or purpose, nor
    makes any assumptions about a supreme being, or
    supernatural processes. Teleology is not a part
    of science.

The Spectrum of Beliefs
Flat Earthers Charles K. Johnson - International
Flat Earth Society Geocentrists Gerardus Bouw -
Biblical Astronomer, Cleveland, OH Tom Willis - Creation
Science Association for Mid-America, Cleveland,
MO Young Earth Creationists
outsiders Kent Hovind - Creation Science
Evangelism, Pensacola, FL- Carl
Baugh - Creation Evidence Museum, Glen Rose, TX - Young Earth Creationists
mainstream Henry and John Morris Institute
for Creation Research, Santee, CA Ken Ham Answers in Genesis,
Petersburg, KY
Young Earth Creationists Omphalos Philip Henry
Gosse (1857) Old Earth Creationists Gap Jimmy
Swaggart Old Earth Creationists Day-Age Jehovah
Witnesses - Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of
New York, Brooklyn, NY Old Earth Creationists
Progressive Norman Geisler Hugh Ross Reasons to
Believe, Pasadena, CA Old Earth
Creationists Intelligent Design Phillip
Johnson, Michael Behe, William Dembski, Paul
Nelson, Jonathan Wells, Stephen C. Meyer -
Discovery Institute, Seattle, WA - and Center for Renewal of
Science and Culture. Evolutionary
Creationists Schneider, Susan, 1984. Evolutionary
creationism Torah solves the problem of missing
Theistic Evolutionists Pierre Teilhard de
Chardin Methodological Materialistic
Evolutionists Stephen J. Gould Philosophical
Materialistic Evolutionists Richard Dawkins
Originally from http//
c.html with some changes
A Potted History of Cosmology
Biblical Universe (Enuma Elish) Geocentric
Universe Copernican Universe Newtonian
Universe Galactocentric Universe Big Bang
Steady State Inflation, Multiverse and Quantum
Cosmology? Next Model? Yet the Next Model (and so
1000 BC
Before 1543 AD
After 1543
After 1687
After about 1850
Hebrew/Babylonian Cosmology
Geocentric Universe
Heliocentric Universe
Our Location in Milky Way Above
Our Location in Milky Way - Side
(No Transcript)
The Big Bang and Scientific Timescale
1) 0 second to 10-43 second. Only God knows or
can know what happened during this period of
time. We know only that at least 9 dimensions of
space existed as what is called singularity. All
of the universe-to-be existed as a point of no
volume. Time as we know it was created. 2) 2.
10-43 second, also known as Planck time. This is
the point at which gravity, one of the four
unified forces, became separate from the
remaining three forces. 3) 10-36 second. The
strong nuclear force (the force that holds the
nuclei of atoms together) separated from the
other three unified forces. 4) 10-36 to 10-32
second. Immediately following and triggered by
the separation of the strong nuclear force, the
universe expanded rapidly for this brief period
of time. 5) 10-32 to 10-5 second. The universe is
filled with quarks antiquarks, and electrons. The
quarks and antiquarks combine and annihilate each
other. Quarks are in excess of antiquarks by a
ratio of 1,000,000,001 to 1,000,000,000. The
remaining quarks will make up all the matter that
exists in the universe. 6) 10-12 second. The
final two unified forces split from one another.
Electromagnetism, which controls the attraction
of negatively and positively charged particles,
becomes separate from the weak nuclear force,
which controls radioactive decay. 7) 10-5 second.
The universe cools to 1,000,000,000,000 K
allowing quarks to combine to form protons and
neutrons, the building blocks of atomic
nuclei. 8) 1 second to 3 minutes. The universe
continues to cool, allowing protons and neutrons
to combine to form the nuclei of future atoms.

9) 10-32 second to 3000 years. Electromagnetic
energy, produced during the annihilation of
quarks and antiquarks, dominates the forces of
gravity. 10) 3000 years to present. Matter
becomes the primary source of gravity. Matter
begins to clump with the aid of large amounts of
exotic or dark matter. This matter interacts
weakly with electromagnetic energy, but is able
to clump with itself through gravity, even during
the domination of electromagnetic energy. 11)
300,000 years. Continued expansion and cooling
allow matter and electromagnetic energy to
decouple. The nuclei of atoms are able to capture
electrons to form complete atoms of hydrogen,
helium and lithium. 12) 200,000,000 years. Galaxy
formation begins as matter continues to
clump. 13) 9,000,000,000 years. The solar system
forms. 14) 10,000,000,000 years. Life begins on
earth. 15) 14,000,000,000 years. Jesus Christ
conquers sin. The inflationary big bang theory
is, by far, the most accepted theory of the
origin of the universe. All evidence gathered to
date supports this theory. Other theories rely
upon sets of unlikely circumstances or phenomenon
which can never be tested or proven. Taken from
the Christian website http//
Primordial Nucleosynthesis
The isotope 7Be decays to 7Li by electron capture
with a half-life of 53 days. Some 3H (tritium)
is also formed, but beta decays to 3He with a
half-life of 12 years. Diagram from
The Young Earth Creationist Timescale
(No Transcript)
Creationist Geologic Time Scale an attack
strategy for the sciences. Should the scientific
community continue to fight rear-guard skirmishes
with creationists, or insist that
"young-earthers" defend their model in toto? -
Donald U. Wise. From http//
History up to the Late 1700s
Ca. 310 - 230 BC Aristarchus of Samos was the
first person known to have proposed the
heliocentric system, but this was mostly ignored
in favor of the geocentric system. 354 - 386 AD
St.Augustine of Hippo - "Usually, even a
non-Christian knows something about the earth,
the heavens, and the other elements of this
world, about the motion and orbit of the stars
and even their size and relative positions, about
the predictable eclipses of the sun and moon, the
cycles of the years and the seasons, about the
kinds of animals, shrubs, stones, and so forth,
and this knowledge he holds to as being certain
from reason and experience. Now, it is a
disgraceful and dangerous thing for an infidel to
hear a Christian, presumably giving the meaning
of Holy Scripture, talking nonsense on these
topics and we should take all means to prevent
such an embarrassing situation, in which people
show up vast ignorance in a Christian and laugh
it to scorn. The shame is not so much that an
ignorant individual is derided, but that people
outside the
household of faith think our sacred writers held
such opinions, and, to the great loss of those
for whose salvation we toil, the writers of our
Scripture are criticized and rejected as
unlearned men. If they find a Christian mistaken
in a field which they themselves know well and
hear him maintaining his foolish opinions about
our books, how are they going to believe those
books in matters concerning the resurrection of
the dead, the hope of eternal life, and the
kingdom of heaven, when they think their pages
are full of falsehoods and on facts which they
themselves have learnt from experience and the
light of reason? Reckless and incompetent
expounders of Holy Scripture bring untold trouble
and sorrow on their wiser brethren when they are
caught in one of their mischievous false opinions
and are taken to task by those who are not bound
by the authority of our sacred books. For then,
to defend their utterly foolish and obviously
untrue statements, they will try to call upon
Holy Scripture for proof and even recite from
memory many passages which they think support
their position, although _they understand neither
what they say nor the things about which they
make assertion_. 1 Timothy 1.7 - De Genesi ad
litteram libri duodecim.
1543 - Copernicus publishes De Revolutionibus
Orbium Caelestium (On the Revolution of the
Heavenly Orbs). 1483 - 1546 Martin Luther,
leader of the Protestant Reformation. "People
gave ear to an upstart astrologer Copernicus
who strove to show that the earth revolves, not
the heavens or the firmament, the sun and the
moon....This fool wishes to reverse the entire
science of astronomy but sacred scripture tells
us Joshua 1013 that Joshua commanded the sun
to stand still, and not the earth." "Table Talks"
in 1539. However, this citation is in
doubt. "Scripture simply says that the moon, the
sun, and the stars were placed in the firmament
of the heaven, below and above which heaven are
the waters... It is likely that the stars are
fastened to the firmament like globes of fire, to
shed light at night... We Christians must be
different from the philosophers in the way we
think about the causes of things.
And if some are beyond our comprehension like
those before us concerning the waters above the
heavens, we must believe them rather than
wickedly deny them or presumptuously interpret
them in conformity with our understanding."
Luther's Works. Vol. 1. Lectures on Genesis, ed.
Janoslaw Pelikan, Concordia Pub. House, St.
Louis, Missouri, 1958, pp. 30, 42, 43. 1600 -
Giordano Bruno was burnt at the stake for his
many heresies, including teaching heliocentricism
and that the stars are distant suns. 1611 - The
King James Bible was first published. 1632 -
Galileo published the Dialogue Concerning the Two
Chief Systems of the World - Ptolemaic and
Copernican, which ultimately led to his
trial. 1654 Archbishop James Ussher calculated
that the earth was created on Sunday October 23,
4004 BC. For many years this was given as a
footnote in the King James Bible. He also
proposed that Adam and Eve were driven out of
Eden on Monday November 10, 4004 BC, and the Ark
touched down on Mt.Ararat on Wednesday May 5,
2348 BC. 1752 - Franklin's experiment during a
thunder storm proved that lightning was an
electrical phenomenon. The church held that
Satan (the Prince of the Power of the Air) was
responsible for lightning, so to install a
"heretical rod" was to admit that centuries of
theological teachings were false. Churches were
reluctant to use them. Seventeen years after
Franklin's experiment, lightning struck the
unprotected Church of San Nazaro, near Venice.
This ignited 200,000 pounds of powder which had
been stored there for safe keeping. The explosion
wiped out one sixth of the city of Brescia and
killed 3,000 people. Lightning rods soon appeared
on spires across Italy. 1726-1797 - James
Hutton, who was a devout Christian, is considered
the founder of geology, and first proposed deep
time and uniformitarianism.
Evolution of Creationism after 1800
1797-1875 - Charles Lyell, who took Huttons
theories further and was more successful. 1807-187
3 - Louis Agassiz, who first proposed an ice
age. 1831 Adam Sedgwick, ordained minister and
geologist, recanted in his presidential address
before the Geological Society of London that
flood geology cannot be supported by any
evidence. 1857 - Phillip Henry Gosse published
OMPHALOS An Attempt to Untie the Geological
Knot. 1809-1882 Charles Darwin, who published
The Origin of Species in 1859. 1827-1915 - Ellen
G. White, co-founder of the Seventh Day Adventist
Church, with a strong belief in a 6 day recent
creation and a global Noahs flood, was
foundational in the beliefs of the SDA Church, and
its influence in creationism beyond the
Church. 1870-1963 The Adventist, George
McCready Price, published The New Geology in
1923. 1925 The Scopes Monkey Trial - John
Thomas Scopes was prosecuted in Dayton, Tennessee
for teaching evolution in a public school, in
contradiction to the the Butler Act. His
opponent was William Jennings Bryan. Scopes lost
the case, but later the case was lost on a
technicality. Bryan died a few days after the
trial. Although Bryan was strongly opposed to
evolution, he had no problem with an ancient
earth and a non-global Noahs flood.
Creationism Since World War II
1957 Sputnik I was launched. This scared the
educational establishment in the USA into
creating a better science curriculum, including
evolutionary biology. 1961 John Whitcomb Jr.
and Henry Morris publish their book The Genesis
Flood. This caused a major revival in the USA of
the creationist movement. Much of the material
in that book is based on George McCready Prices
book The New Geology. 1963 Henry Morris, along
with several other people founded the Creation
Research Society. 1970 Henry Morris moved to
San Diego, California, to help Tim LaHaye found
the Christian Heritage College. 1972 Henry
Morris founded the Institute for Creation Research
1981 Judge Overton rules that creation science
is not science, and should not be taught under
the balanced treatment act in public schools in
Arkansas. 1999 Jonathan Wells, Moonie (Sun
Myung Moon Unification Church) and intelligent
design creationist, helps to get evolution, the
Big Bang and long timescales de-emphasized from
the public school science curriculum in Kansas in
August. 2001 Evolution, the Big Bang, and long
timescales are re-emphasized in Kansas in
Creation Scientists and Organizations
Young Earth Henry Morris (hydraulics engineer )
(Institute for Creation Research) John Morris
(geologist) (ICR) Duane Gish (microbiologist)
(ICR) Andrew Snelling (geologist) (ICR) Steve
Austin (geologist) (aka Stuart Nevins)
(ICR) Russel Humphreys (physicist) (ICR) Danny R.
Faulkner (astronomer) (ICR) Donald DeYoung
(astronomer) (ICR) Ken Ham (educationist)
(Answers in Genesis) Jonathan Sarfati (physical
chemist) (AiG)
John Woodmorappe (aka Jan Peczkis) (geologist)
(AiG) Walt Brown (mechanical engineer) (Center
for Scientific Creation) Kent Hovind
(educationalist) (Creation Science
Evangelism) Carl Baugh (expert in science)
(Creation Evidence Museum) Progressive/Old
Earth Hugh Ross (astronomer) (Reasons to
Believe) Creationist Non- Scientists D.James
Kennedy (Coral Ridge Ministries, PCA) Tim LaHaye
(Tim LaHaye Ministries)
Answers in Genesis Statement of Faith
General 1) Scripture teaches a recent origin for
man and the whole creation. 2) The days in
Genesis do not correspond to geologic ages, but
are six 6 consecutive twenty-four 24 hour
days of Creation. 3) The Noachian Flood was a
significant geological event and much (but not
all) fossiliferous sediment originated at that
time. 4) The gap theory has no basis in
Scripture. 5) The view, commonly used to evade
the implications or the authority of Biblical
teaching, that knowledge and/or truth may be
divided into secular and religious, is
rejected. 6) By definition, no apparent,
perceived or claimed evidence in any field,
including history and chronology, can be valid if
it contradicts the Scriptural record. Of primary
importance is the fact that evidence is always
subject to interpretation by fallible people who
do not possess all information.
Why do Young Earth Creationists Insist on a
Recent Creation?
Here is John Morriss explanation in an excerpt
from the ICR tape Science, Scripture, and
Salvation 378-Myth3 The Earth is Millions of
Years Old.
The Distant Starlight Problem
  • As we can see light from stars and galaxies
    millions and billions of light years away, this
    creates serious problems for young earth (and
    universe) creationists who propose that the
    universe is less than 10,000 years old. Here are
    some of their explanations
  • 1) Astronomers are completely wrong about the
    distances, and all apparently distant objects are
    within a bubble of 10,000 light years or less
    centered on the solar system.
  • The distances are real, but light takes short
    cuts through space according to an article by
    Moon and Spencer published in 1953.
  • The velocity of light was much higher in the
    past, by factors of millions or more, and slowed
    down to the present value according to Barry
  • 4) The distances are real and the light has
    traveled at a constant

velocity, but the solar system was close to the
center of a white hole, which caused such an
enormous distortion of space-time, that billions
of years in the external universe elapsed during
the creation week on the earth. This is Russel
Humphreys relativistic white hole cosmology
currently favored by creationists, which also
claims that the Milky Way is near the center of
the universe and has an edge, as supposedly
supported by quantized red shifts geocentricism
revived. God created the light in transit so that
Adam could see the stars after he was created.
God being omnipotent is quite capable of creating
light in mid-stream, and giving the universe a
mature creation. This is a usual backup cop-out
when other arguments fail. Epistemological
nihilism The non-answer that because
cosmologists have gaps in their knowledge about
the universe, in particular the nature of dark
matter and energy, some other explanation may
exist, so this issue is skipped over, and is
another cop-out.
(No Transcript)
On February 23, 1987, the blue supergiant star,
Sk 202-69, in the Large Magellanic Cloud was seen
to have gone supernova, and was named Supernova
1987A (the first seen in 1987), and the brightest
since the invention of the telescope. The
distance to the supernova is about 169,000 light
years, so the explosion really happened about
169,000 years ago. This poses a serious
challenge to young earth creationists who insists
on a biblical timescale for the age of the
universe of about 6000 years. A distance of
169,000 light years is far too large to
accommodate a biblical timescale, but is still
far short of the Big Bang timescale, so they make
obfuscatory remarks about cosmology, the Big
Bang, dark matter etc., that are completely
irrelevant. Not only do they have to explain how
in a biblical timescale light got to the earth
in 6000 years, but also neutrinos, which was the
first time these particles were detected to come
from outside the solar system. Moreover, after
the explosion we could see the decay of freshly
created radioactive nuclei, showing beyond any
doubt that the laws of physics
and nuclear decay rates were the same in the past
as they are now. It is ironic that in their
apologetics, young earth creationists insist that
they have the truth, but when confronted with
irrefutable evidence that contradicts their
beliefs, they deny this truth, even though truth
stands independent of anybodys beliefs.
This figure is in Russell Humphreys article The
Battle for the Cosmic Center, ICR Impact No. 350,
August 2002. The caption in the article says
Figure 2. (Idealized) spherical shells of
galaxies concentric around our own home galaxy,
the Milky Way. Probably the shells are expanding,
not orbiting.
The text in the article argues that because of
the evidence of the quantized red shifts, the
universe not only has a center, but we are within
about 100,000 light years of that center.
Because the universe is so large, it is argued
that the chance that we are so close to the
center of the universe by accident is so small,
God must have placed us there. A link is given to
a shorter less technical article on AiGs
website for August 7, 2002.
Creationist Apologetics
Some Creationist Golden Oldies (to argue for a
recent creation)
  • Not enough dust on the moon
  • Shrinking sun
  • Decaying earths magnetic field
  • Mans population is too small
  • Not enough sodium in the sea
  • Jupiter is too hot
  • Decay of short period comets
  • Written history is too recent
  • Not enough supernova remnants
  • Too much dust in the solar system

The worldwide Flood, described in detail in
Genesis 6-8, shows how God repopulated the earth
from only eight people. This monumental event is
mentioned in the literature of various peoples of
the ancient world, providing compelling evidence
of its universality. If the scientific community
recognized that fact, a spike would be driven
into the heart of the theory of evolution, along
with the theory of theistic evolution.
(God-guided evolution). But humanistic man would
rather believe the unscientific theory of
evolution than the truth of Scripture that God
created man and will hold man accountable for the
way he lives. Pages 7 and 8 from Are We Living in
The End Times? By Tim LaHaye and Jerry B.Jenkins,
Prophesy/Christian Living, Tyndale House
Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-8423-3644-3 (1999)
New scientific theories exist which explain the
size of the universe in agreement with the
biblical timescale. One example is the
young-earth relativistic cosmology formulated by
physicist Dr. Russell Humphreys based on
Einsteins general theory of relativity. We are
told that this alternative to the Big Bang has
been well-received by scientists trained in
relativity. See D. Russell Humphreys,
Starlight and Time (Colorado Springs, CO Master
Books, 1994) In addition, the majority of
scientific age estimation methods indicate a
young earth. See Paul S. Taylor, The
Illustrated ORIGINS Answer Book (Mesa Eden
Productions, 1992) and Dr. John D. Morris, The
Young Earth (Colorado Springs, CO Master Books,
1994) Page 40 of Creation and Time A Report on
the Progressive Creationist Book by Hugh Ross,
Mark Van Bebber and Paul S. Taylor, Eden
Communications, 2nd Edition, (1996). ISBN
What about Distant Starlight? Fallacious Distant
Starlight Solution Light Created in
Transit After presenting an alternative
cosmology that provides a plausible solution to
the distant starlight problem, it is worth
showing why another idea is unsound. Some older
creationist works propose that God may have
created the light in transit, and Ross harps on
at this as if it is still mainstream creationist
thinking (for example CT96-97). But AiG long
ago pointed out the problems with this idea. It
would entail that we would be seeing light from
heavenly bodies that dont really exist and even
light that seems to indicate precise sequences of
events predictable by the laws of physics, but
which never actually happened. This, in effect,
suggests that God is a deceiver. Page 189 of
Refuting Compromise A Biblical and Scientific
Refutation of Progressive Creationism (Billions
of Years), As Popularized by Astronomer Hugh
Ross. Master Books, Inc., P.O. Box 726, Green
Forest, AR 72639, (2004). ISBN
0-89051-411-9 However
Regarding light from distant stars How, then,
could the stars serve as signs and seasons on the
earth if these stars were created on the fourth
day of creation and man created on the sixth day?
Would man have to wait many millions of years
before he could see the stars? When God created
the stars, He also could easily have created the
stream of light between the stars and the
earth. Page 13 of a childs book The Amazing
Story of Creation from Science and the Bible, by
Duane T. Gish, ICR Publications (1990) ISBN
0-89051-120-9 Note that this book is still on
sale! Note that the young earth creationist
movement, in particular Answers in Genesis,
appears to have launched a jihad against Hugh
Ross and progressive and old earth creationism.
Also, the Ph.D. physicist and geologist who
contributed to the RATE book Radioisotopes and
the Age of the Earth have adduced several lines
of evidence that decay has been faster in the
past. They propose a pulse of accelerated decay
rate during creation week, and possibly a smaller
pulse during the Flood year. Page 382 of Refuting
Compromise. What Would Cause Accelerated Decay,
and How Would It Affect Different
Isotopes? According to the nuclear physicist
Dr.Eugene Chaffin, there are theoretical means of
producing accelerated decay, for example, a small
change in fundamental constants or the shape of
the nuclear potential well can have a large
effect on the decay rate (but little effect on
radiohalo diameter). Alpha decay rates are
extremely sensitive to the nuclear potential
energy well. If God weakened the strong nuclear
force (greatly speeding up alpha decay), the
nucleus would increase in size and restructure
itself. The lower the decay constant (that is,
the higher the half-life), the more the decay
rate would be accelerated. Again page 382 of
Refuting Compromise.
If we recognize the empirical nature of true
science, that scientific models derive from
observations of data in the present, then we
recognize that the big-bang idea of the
unobserved past is not even good science. What
we observe are points of light each with certain
unique luminosities, certain spectral bands, and
other features like nebulous gas clouds. With
the exception of an occasional explosive
destruction of a star, these points of light are
not seen to change or move with respect to one
another. Their present state is not questioned.
Their past may be theorized, but there will be
more than one legitimate view of their unobserved
history. Page 136 From Is the Big Bang Biblical?,
by John Morris, ICR publications (2003). ISBN
0-98051-391-0 However Soon after Tycho's
supernova in 1572, some more variable stars were
discovered, including the first periodic one,
Mira, the periodicity of which was only
discovered considerably later in 1638.
The discovery of proper motions was made by
Edmund Halley in 1718. He noticed that the
positions of three bright stars (Sirius,
Arcturus, and Aldebaran) were over half a degree
different from those recorded by Hipparchus more
than 1800 years earlier. http//
Excerpt from ICR tape Science, Scripture and
Salvation 842-Myth7 That the Big Bang Has been
The speaker is introduced as Dr. Otto Berg, who
is a retired particle physicist with NASA. NASA
does not employ particle physicists as far as I
know, and it turns out that he was not a particle
physicist, but worked with dust particles in the
solar system. He designed and built the dust
accelerator at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center
(GSFC). He is also an alumnus of Concordia
College, which is a four year liberal arts
Lutheran college. He states here that there is no
way 12C (99 of all carbon is this isotope) can
be produced naturally, but explains that 8Be is
an intermediate nucleus in its production, if it
could be produced. In fact this is exactly what
happens in red giant stars. By mentioning a
production process that supposedly does not
happen, he is condemned by is own words, showing
that he cannot claim ignorance. See the
following two slides.
Helium burning the triple alpha process for the
production of carbon
This reaction actually occurs in two stages
first, two alpha particles resonate in the
low-lying (but unbound) state that forms the
ground state of 8Be. This state is sufficiently
long-lived (t1/20.968x10-16 s) that there is a
non-negligible probability that a third alpha
particle will be captured before it
disintegrates, forming 12C (Ex7.6542 MeV,
Because of its quantum numbers, there is only a
small probability that this excited state will
de-excite (rather than decay back into three
alpha particles), either by e - e- pair
production, or by a ?-ray cascade through the
first excited state, leaving 12C in its 0 ground
state. The prediction, and subsequent
experimental verification, of the properties of
12C in order to account for the observed
abundance of 12C remains one of the most
impressive accomplishments of nuclear
Video clip of the first session by Hank Giesecke
held at Calvary Chapel in Tucson during a two day
creation conference on May 10-11, 2003. It can
be found at the website http//www.calvarytucson.o
rg/archive_creation.htm. Click to show clip from
1817 1844 minutes on the hydrogen atom To
all physics students, throw away your textbooks
and forget atomic physics, we dont know what
holds an electron to a proton. Just read
Colossians 117 and you will have the answer! He
is before all things, and in Him all things hold
together. NIV
White dwarf with rings? According to the nebular
hypothesis (Creation 19(3)26-29, 1997) of the
origin of stars and planetary systems, only young
stars should exhibit rings. Old stars like white
dwarfs should have long ago either absorbed or
driven off the dust, leaving only planets in
orbit.However, astronomers have observed excess
infrared radiation coming from the white dwarf
star G29-38, located in Pisces, about 50
light-years from Earth. They believe this comes
from a flat ring of dust, reminiscent of Saturn's
rings, about 70-700 million km above the surface
of the star.  The total amount of matter that may
have been accreted, so far, onto the white dwarf
is believed to be comparable to the mass of all
asteroids in the solar system.The Astrophysical
Journal, 20 February 2003, pp. L91-L94.Either
stellar evolution is wrong, or the star was
created recently (about6,000 years ago) and as
part of a mature creation. From the Answers in
Genesis website on February 29, 2004.
However, if we look up the paper in question we
can find the following paragraph on page L91 In
order to model the circumstellar dust emission,
we need to characterize G29-38, a ZZ Cet variable
(see Kleinman et al. 1998). We adopt a distance
of 14.1 pc (Tokunga, Becklin, Zuckerman 1990),
a stellar radius R of 8.2x108 cm, an effective
temperature T of 11,820 K, and a mass M of
0.69Msolar (Bergeron et al. 1995). These
parameters yield a mean density of ? of 6.0x106g
cm-3 and a stellar luminosity of 2.4x10-3Lsolar
and imply a cooling age of 4x108 yr (Winget et
al. 1987). And on page L92 we find the
following sentence Since there are metals in
the atmospheres of over 10 of all white dwarfs
(Zuckerman Reid 1998), it is plausible that
G29-38 has been actively accreting for 10 of its
cooling age or 4x107yr.
Noahs Flood
What is interesting is that many creationists
seem to hold on to a literal global Noahs flood
with an even greater dogmatism than the age of
the earth and the creation week, even though the
Bible never says that the flood was global.
The two main theories that creationists have as
the main source of the water, are that most of
the water came from the fountains of the deep,
with a relatively small contribution from the
atmosphere, or that most came from a huge vapor
canopy that collapsed at the time of the flood.
Where then does this latter day dogmatism in a
global flood come from, as exemplified by this
quote? "...the main reason for insisting on the
universal Flood as a fact of history and as the
primary vehicle for geological interpretation is
that God's Word plainly teaches it! No geologic
difficulties, real or imagined, can be allowed to
take precedence over the clear statements and
necessary inferences of Scripture." Henry Morris,
Biblical Cosmology and Modern Science (1970),
taken from http//
d_reason.htm This is bearing in mind that many of
the geologists about 200 years ago were committed
Christians who started with the assumption that
Noahs flood was a recent and real global event,
but with the accumulation of evidence, they were
forced to admit they were wrong, as was the case
with Adam Sedgwick, an ordained minister and
geologist, in 1831. Moreover, many leaders in
fundamentalist and evangelical Christianity in
the early 1900s had no problems with a non-global
flood and a non-recent creation, although some
had problems with evolution.
The answer to this question is with the
scriptural geologists of the 19th century and
Ellen G. White, co-founder of the Seventh Day
Adventist Church. This was furthered by the self
taught geologist and Adventist George McCready
Price, whose writings, in particular The New
Geology in 1923, strongly influenced Henry
Morris, who with John Whitcomb Jr., published the
book The Genesis Flood in 1961. This started the
post World War II creationist revival in the
USA. From main stream creationist writings an
approximate chronology of Noahs flood and
associated events can be established as follows
1. The pre-flood world is a tropical paradise,
all the land is concentrated into one giant
continent, Pangaea, there are no high mountains,
and there is a vapor canopy, whose thickness
depends on the flood model, but it filters out
harmful cosmic or UV rays causing humans to live
several hundred years. Also the laws of physics
and radioactive decay rates may have been
different, depending on the model.
  • 2. The start of the flood year, which according
    to Answers in Genesis was somewhere between 2300
    and 2400 BC (even they admit this is
    uncomfortably recent, but they know the truth,
    so accept it without question). Two of some,
    seven of others, of each biblical kind of land
    animal, including representative kinds of
    dinosaurs, board Noahs Ark from various parts of
  • The flood starts with 40 days of rain from the
    collapsing vapor canopy and the fountains of the
    deep opening up. This includes comets and
    asteroids being ejected into outer space
    according to Walt Browns hydroplate model.
  • The main part of the flood lasts about 250 days
    with runaway subduction causing rapid continental
    drift, e.g. the Atlantic opens up at the rate of
    several km/hour, and most of the worlds
    sedimentary rocks, thousands of meters deep in
    many cases, are formed, together with nearly all
    of the fossils.
  • The final retreat of about 100 days, when the
    Grand Canyon was cut

  • by the receding flood waters. During this
    and possibly earlier stages mountains such as
    Everest were pushed up, and the ocean basins were
    deepened, so the runoff water had somewhere to
  • 6. In the post-flood world the animals leave
    Noahs Ark and make their way to various corners
    of the world, somehow the kangaroos dont get
    eaten by the lions on their way to Australia, and
    find plenty of food to eat that has survived
    being under water. However, all the dinosaurs
    saved on the Ark die out. Various other plant
    seeds, such as the saguaro cactus, also survive
    about a year under water. Incidentally, the
    animals hyper-evolve to account for the large
    number of species today.
  • An ice age then follows the flood and lasts
    several hundred years, creating the Antarctic and
    Greenland icecaps.
  • The ice age ends and sea level rises causing the
    Black Sea to flood. We are now around 1400 BC.
    Sometime during steps 6, 7, or 8 the dispersion
    after Babel takes place and the Neanderthals die

One of the main problems with a global Noahs
flood that creationists face, is that invoking
miracles as an explanation or saying that an
omnipotent God has no limits, requires that an
exceptionally large number of miracles have to be
performed, such as getting the animals to the Ark
before the flood, feeding and looking after them
during the flood year, and then getting them off
to remote areas like Australia and South America
after the flood. Moreover, God then has to
perform a large number of cover-up miracles to
erase the evidence, and make it look as if a
global flood never took place, such as the annual
layers in ice cores from Antarctica, except for
the creation scientists investigating the Grand
Plausible Scientific Explanations for Noahs Flood
Is it really necessary to accept a global Noahs
flood in order to appreciate the message behind
it, just as the Prodigal Son story conveys an
underlying message without being literal? Is
someone committing some sort of blasphemy by
questioning a global Noahs flood and daring to
find scientific explanations, and does this take
anything away from the Bible? There are several
plausible explanations for the flood, which in
some combination may explain it, as well as flood
stories in other parts of the world, including
the Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic.
  • At the end of the last ice age about 10,000 years
    ago, as the icecaps in North America and Eurasia
    melted, sea level rose by over 100 meters. This
    would have inundated coastal areas and low lying

  • plains. In addition the breaking of ice
    dams would have caused local but catastrophic
    flooding. Many of the flood stories from around
    the world could be a distant memory of this, in
    addition to the fact that most settlements would
    have been near rivers and lakes, which are prone
    to flooding anyway.
  • Specifically for the Middle East, there is now
    plenty of evidence that the Black Sea was a low
    lying freshwater lake until about 5500 BC, when
    the rising Mediterranean broke through the
    Bosporus and caused it to rise rapidly, see
    publications by Ryan and Pitman. This is a
    strong candidate for the Gilgamesh and Genesis
    flood stories.
  • There is evidence of past flooding of the Tigris
    and Euphrates since the Black Sea flooding, which
    could have contributed to the stories, or have
    been a source for the stories.
  • Some flood stories could have been obtained from
    missionaries in more recent times.

The Black Sea with the former freshwater lake
elevation (about -110 meters) shown as a dotted
line inside of the present sea level. Rivers
flowed into the former freshwater lake from the
Creationist Duplicity
Andrew Snelling He has an identical twin with
exactly the same name, address, and geology
degree, but they do not seem to know of each
other. Snelling 1 publishes creationist material,
such as SNELLING, ANDREW A 1986. Coal Beds and
Noah's Flood. Creation Ex Nihilo 8 (3),
20-21.SNELLING, ANDREW A 1989. Is the Sun
Shrinking? Creation Ex Nihilo (pt. 1) 11 (1),
14-19. (pt. 2) 11 (2), 30-34. - The Debate
Continues. (pt. 3) 11 (3), 40-43 - The Unresolved
Question.SNELLING, ANDREW A John Mackay 1984.
Coal, Volcanism and Noah's Flood. Ex Nihilo Tech.
J. 1, 11-29. Snelling 2 publishes regular
scientific material, such as The Archaean
basement consists of domes of granitoids and
granitic gneisses (the Nanambu Complex), the
nearest outcrop being 5 km to the north. Some of
the lowermost overlying Proterozoic metasediments
were accreted to these domes during amphibolite
grade regional metamorphism (5 to 8 kb and 550
to 630 C) at 1870 to 1800 Myr. Multiple
isoclinal recumbent folding accompanied
metamorphism. Pages 807-812 (1990) in the
authoritative two volume work on Geology of the
Mineral Deposits of Australia and Papua New
Guinea (ed. F E Hughes), published by the
Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy,
The references list eight earlier papers by
Snelling 2 in refereed journals (or symposium
volumes) on aspects of uranium mineralization
three as sole author and five as junior
co-author. Jan Peczkis (alias John
Woodmorappe) As Jan Peczkis, he is a high school
geology teacher in Chicago, Illinois, and has
authored old earth evolutionary articles. As his
alter persona, John Woodmorappe, he publishes
creationist material, such as Noahs Ark a
Feasibility Study on how Noah and his family
tended about 16, 000 biblical kinds on the
Ark. Steve Austin (alias Stuart Nevins) Steve
Austin got his degree in geology as Steve Austin,
but first started publishing creationist material
under his alias Stuart Nevins, until he came out
of the closet and reverted to being Steve Austin.
The Rotten Fruits of Creationism
Creationism in general and young earth
creationism in particular, not only undermines
the teaching and understanding of science, which
are necessary in todays world, it undermines
Christianity by painting targets on Christians to
be shot down by atheists and agnostics, as well
as putting Christianity into the ghetto of
anti-knowledge and anti-intellectualism. When
some Christians have something important to say
on some moral issues, their effectiveness is
undermined by the negative image that
Christianity as a whole gets, as seen through the
eyes of atheists and agnostics. It is my humble
opinion that the professional creationists, such
Henry Morris and Ken Ham are committing grievous
sins. At best serious ignorance is displayed in
their teachings, with facts being well known, in
some cases by several hundred years! Perhaps
this is deliberate ignorance in order to avoid
the worse sin of deception and bearing false
witness. In some cases the evidence is so strong
that there is no
alternative but to assume that deception, either
deliberate or in the form of self-delusion, has
taken place. The professional creationists
appear to take advantage of the fact that their
audience often has little scientific training,
particularly in the subjects covered, so can be
fooled by scientifically sounding jargon. The
members of the audience hear what they want to
hear, and are happy to have their beliefs
re-enforced. In the mean time many scientists
who have the necessary training ignore
creationism. There are a number of cases of
people leaving Christianity because of
creationism, or at least having a serious crisis
of faith. Such examples can be found on Glenn
Mortons website at http//
Creationism in Other Countries
There is of course plenty of homegrown
creationism in other parts of the world according
to the traditions and religious beliefs of the
people, often being non-Judeo-Christian,
particularly in less developed places. However,
American-style creationism has appeared in
several places, including the UK, thanks to
Answers in Genesis. What is particularly
interesting is the Harun Yahya (http//www.hyahya.
org) Turkish Islamic young earth creationism,
which has its seeds in the influence of the
Institute for Creation Research when its members
make their many expeditions to search for Noahs
Young earth creationism is pseudo-science and
cheap trailer trash theology that sells God
short. Not only does it undermine the teaching
of science, it undermines Christianity, which for
some people can have very bad effects. I have
demonstrated here that the professional
creationists take advantage of the fact that
their followers generally do not have the
necessary background in science, and use
obfuscation, ignorance, deliberate or otherwise,
and deception, deliberate of otherwise, and do
not follow the truth, which supposedly as
Christians they should do, indeed they deny the
truth when it contradicts their particular
theology. Lying for God is still lying. I have
given several examples in astronomy and geology
that show young earth creationism to be a totally
false teaching, that divides and undermines the
A Last Look
We will conclude with a video clip of the first
session by Hank Giesecke held at Calvary Chapel
in Tucson during a two day creation conference on
May 10-11, 2003. It can be found at the website
Click to show clip from 1051 1518 minutes
on the Big Bang To all astronomy students, throw
away your textbooks and forget about gravity!
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