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Rolls-Royce Questions and Answers


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Title: Rolls-Royce Questions and Answers

Rolls-Royce Questions and Answers
  • Presented by GSE Inc.
  • Greg Stevenson

GSE / HFE Technology
  • Does GSEs technology offer us a way to develop
    power plants for UAVs and other applications
    where high power density and logistic fuel
    capability is important?

US DOD UAV Classes
  • Class I (10-60lbs weight)
  • Class II (100-250lbs weight)
  • Class III (300-750lbs weight)
  • Class IV(1000-5000lbs weight)

Fixed Wing /STOL Rotor Wing /Ducted Fan VTOL GSE / HFE Status
-10-60lbs weight -4-12hrs endurance -2-10hp -Min BSFC 0.8-0.9lbs/hp-hr -10-16lbs weight -¾ - 1 hr endurance -3 5 hp -Min BSFC 0.7-0.8lbs/hp-hr -GSE IO 250 100cc flat twin BSFC 0.7lbs/hp-hr -GSE CRP 150 100cc co-planar even fire twin -Operating Since 2005 -Prototype CRP
Fixed Wing /STOL Rotor Wing /Ducted Fan VTOL GSE / HFE Status
-100-60lbs weight -6-12hrs endurance -40-60 hp -Min BSFC 0.5-0.6lbs/hp-hr -112lbs weight -2 - 3 hrs endurance -40 60 hp -Min BSFC 0.5lbs/hp-hr -SIV 610 sleeve -GSE SIV 4307 / 60hp / blower -SIV 450cc sleeve valve v-twin 4-cycle -Operating 1990 -Operating 1998 - Prototype
Fixed Wing /STOL Rotor Wing /Ducted Fan VTOL GSE / HFE Status
-300-750lbs weight -12-24hrs endurance -100-150 hp -Min BSFC 0.45-0.5lbs/hp-hr -Rotor Wing 300-600lbs -4 6 hrs endurance -100 150 hp -Min BSFC 0.45-0.5lbs/hp-hr -GSE IO 625 -GSE/HSI 625 -GSE/HSI V6 -Operational 1998 -Operational 2005 -Operational 2006
Fixed Wing /STOL Rotor Wing /Ducted Fan VTOL GSE / HFE Status
-1000-5000lbs weight -24-48hrs endurance -300-600 hp -Min BSFC 0.38-0.42lbs/hp-hr -Rotor Wing 1600-4000lbs -12 - 40 hrs -200 500 hp -Min BSFC 0.36lbs/hp-hr - .4lbs/hp-hr -GSE/LYC-IO-655 (250hp) GSE/TSIO-1255 (450hp) -Pending -Prototype / operational 2006
GSE / HFE Technology
  • Are these markets sufficiently attractive to
    warrant the development of a R-R product and the
    effort to establish a position?

GSE Market Assessment
  • Class I
  • 2-5 hp HFE Fix wing 2-3000 / MAV Ducted Fan
  • Portable Gen-set 500-1000watt 20-30,000
  • 1000-3000watt 15-25,000
  • Class II
  • 40-60hp HFE 3-4000 / OAVII Ducted Fan 500-1000
  • -Pioneer
  • -Shadow 200
  • -BAE Phoenix
  • -Hermes 180
  • -RUAG / Ranger
  • -IGNAT
  • -Yamaha R-max 200-300 units
  • -FUJI / RPH 2A

GSE Market Assessment
  • Class III
  • 100-150 hp fix wing 3-400 / Parafoil 50-100 /
    Rotor Wing
  • -Hunter
  • -Predator A
  • -Warrior
  • -Hermes 450
  • -MOD Watchkeeper
  • -Snow Goose
  • -SAIC Vigilante 496
  • -Dragonfly Pictures (Mike Piasecki)
  • Class IV
  • 300-500hpFix Wing 50-100 / Rotor Wing
  • -Predator B
  • -HALE
  • -Northrop / Grumman Firescot
  • -Boeing A-160-Humingbird

GSE / HFE Technology
  • How mature is GSEs technology?

Technology Maturation
DOD UAV CLASS SIETEC Compression Ignition (CR 281) SIETEC Compression Ignition (CR 81)
Class I (1-1.5 bore) -1.5hp concept demonstrated by Edward Morgan in 196? -GSE 40cc single / 1.0hp _at_ 6500RPM -GSE 100cc single / 5 protos / 2.5hp -Naturally Aspirated 0.7-0.8 2hp-48cc concept demonstrated in Nov. 2002 by Edward Morgan. GSE demo Electronic and mechanical fuel injection controls on flat twins. 2004-2006 naturally aspirated 1.3-1.5hp/in3
Technology Maturation
DOD UAV CLASS SIETEC Compression Ignition (CR 281) SIETEC Compression Ignition (CR 81)
Class II (1.5-2.5 bore) Industrial 250cc twin cylinder produced / demonstrated by TED 1971. GSE converts numerous COTS engines 125-250cc cylinders. -Naturally Aspirated 0.8-0.9hp/in3 (1.2-1.3hp/in3 tuned) Newly discovered HSI system has yet to be applied in this category. Prime contractors NG/Swift Engineering and Boeing Insitu pending customers. Anticipated performance 0.8-1.0lbs/hp-hr
Technology Maturation
DOD UAV CLASS SIETEC Compression Ignition (CR 281) SIETEC Compression Ignition (CR 81)
Class III (2.5-3.2 bore) Morgan / JLO cylinder converted to self injection / compression ignition (1972). Optimization of combustion chamber (300hrs running). GSE / SIETEC constructs numerous HFEs based on SIETEC-CI.(See Body of Work) Recent development of GSE IO-625 flat six-cylinder with simultaneous firing has been converted and demonstrated on HSI. Enable smooth operation at 81 CR and the adaptation of a lightweight reduction drive mechanism.
Technology Maturation
DOD UAV CLASS SIETEC Compression Ignition (CR 281) SIETEC Compression Ignition (CR 81)
Class IV (3.25-4.25 bore) GSE constructs 510cc 2-cycle diesel motorcycle (1999). GSE constructs large/robust 55in3 / 916cc single cylinder for military and general aviation class engine needs (2001). Pending operation on new SIETEC / HSI Design / Manufacture of HSI cylinder heads complete. Pending test and evaluation
Technology Maturation
DOD UAV CLASS SIETEC Compression Ignition (CR 281) SIETEC Compression Ignition (CR 81)
Overall Technology Maturity Development duration 1966-2002 Idle period (1972-1990) (18yrs) Accumulative Run Time 1200hrs (Class I, II, III, IV) Development Duration 2003-Present (3yrs) Accumulative Run Time 20 hrs (Class I, Class III)
GSE / HFE Technology
  • What is required in terms of time and money to
    take the technology to market?

Technology to Market Costs
Independent Third Party Estimates vs. Actual Cost
  • 100hp
  • Douglas G. Culy (Class III / 100 hp) Aero Diesel
    Duration 27 months
  • Costs 6,822,900/100hp 68,229/hp
  • 200hp
  • NASA GAP/CAN/ Teledyne TCM243 Duration 48
  • Costs 18,435,600/200hp 92,178/hp (Uniflow
    poppet valve 3-attemps)
  • 400hp
  • Darpa A-160 HFE/FEV-OPOC Duration 36 months
  • Costs 23,410,000/400hp 58,525hp
  • Risk Mitigation Costs
  • SONEX Subaru conversion 744,000
  • Nyvek V-8 COTS Conversion 1,250,000
  • Frontier kw-660 flat six 2,140,000
  • Total 67,002/hp

Breakdown GSE/SIETEC
  • -Only company with board Tech background
  • -NRE Investments GSE IRAD vs. Fed Funds (60/40)
  • -GSE costs 10 of competitors despite
    independent design and manufacturing of fuel
    injection system.

GSE / HFE Technology
  • Is RRDGS the appropriate vehicle to develop such
    a product?

-Classic Diesel cycle no longer competitive in
meeting DOD and GA propulsion requirements. (i.e.
peak to mean pressure ratio capable of delivering
power density _at_ 1 lb/hp or better). -Cost
effective solution (UAV Industry 2-100hp
500-700/hp) (GA Industry 200-400hp
150-200/hp) -Power density goals met
By -Operating at high speed / light load (i.e.
3000ft/min piston speed, naturally aspirated
compression ratios below 91) -Key design
elements Cost effective, high speed fuel
injection pump design. (i.e. compact/lightweight/i
mmune to multi-fuel variations of variable
viscosity and lubricity) Multi-fuel combustion
systems (i.e. hybrid displacer combustion chamber
design. Built in pneumatic injection, pilot
injection, and fuel deposit on the wall
GSE / HFE Technology
  • Future Developments

-Combine high speed operation with high BMEP
-Introduce advanced turbocharger technology in
the form of a practical hyper-Bar -DOD/HFE
future requirements dictate split duty cycle.
(i.e. 200 power rating for VTOL/STOL lift off
vs. 50 power UAV cruise /loiter power).
Competitive Technical Assessment
  • 1st to market does not automatically guarantee
    market dominance. (i.e. SMA-305/4-cycle Turbo
    Aero Diesel).
  • Suffers from -Modest power density, -High
    instantaneous torque pulse (i.e. 100hr TBO prop
    hub composite), built around Bosch mechanical
    injection pump.
  • All competitors to date rely on OEM fuel
    injection equipment. (See Lycoming Photo i.e.
    does not meet classic FAA component conformity
    part 33 rules on control of design and
    manufacturing traceability).
  • Typical OEM fuel systems have limited durability
    on low lubricity Jet-A fuels/
  • Modern high pressure (20,000 psi) fuel systems
    sensitive to variable viscosity Jet-A
  • Open DI combustion chamber designs sensitive to
    Jet-A fuel variations in viscosity and cetane)

Cost Effective Solution (doing more with less)
  • -Robust Fuel System Design Characterized by
  • Insensitive to Jet-A fuel variations in viscosity
    and lubricity.
  • High speed mechanical design independent of OEM
    NRE production equipment.
  • Robust Multi-Fuel Combustion System Characterized
  • Insensitive to Jet-A fuel variable cetane
  • Ignition system independent of compression ratio
    and ambient conditions.
  • Overall multi-fuel injection and combustion
    system capable of
  • Lean Air/Fuel operating range of the Diesel (i.e.
    70/1 idle down to 17/1 max power)-
  • -Modest peak to mean pressure ratio similar to SI
    gasoline engines of 5-71 (i.e. greatly reduces
    peak structural and thermal loading while
    simultaneously extending the overall MTBO of the
    engine., Enables a robust, practical HFE design
    with an excellent specific weight ratio near

GSE Related CLASS I HFE Developments
  • GSE Small HFE Development Since (1990-1993)
  • Early SIETEC/CI HFE technology applied to 98cc/3
    hp _at_ 4800 RPM
  • Limited in power due to poor volumetric
    efficiency and 231 CR
  • Difficult manual starting due to high CR and peak
  • Modest power Density .8lbs/hp-hr2.66 lbs/hp
  • GSE Class I/ HFE Development for ducted Fan
    MAV/UAV (2001-2003)
  • GSE introduces breakthrough counter-rotating
    propeller (CRP) HFE
  • GSE receives phase I / 6 month study from DARPA
  • GSE delivers 160cc / 8hp proto-type to
  • GSE CRP/HFE continues to receive high interest,
    but no sponsor (see chart)

GSE Related CLASS I HFE Developments
  • GSE Class I / Flat Twin Development (56-100cc)
  • Applied modern SIETEC HSI system to both single
    and Flat twin COTS/HFE
  • Developed numerous small scale injection/combustio
    n chamber designs
  • Conclusion development resulted in
  • Innovative rotary plunger mechanical injection
  • Liquid cooling around localized hot spot near
  • Hot glow element _at_ 60 combustion chamber volume
  • Long cylindrical combustion chamber fitted with
    dual pneumatic injection ports. (see Dwg)

GSE Related CLASS II HFE Developments
  • Original 610cc V-twin Uniflow 2-cycle CI Sleeve
    Valve engine (35hp) (1987-1990)
  • GSE produced proto-type turbocharged Uniflow
    2-cycle sleeve valve. (1987)
  • Failed to attract DOD sponsor looking for
    COTS/HFE solution!
  • Did attract response from Mr. David Short from
    Weslake/TTL/ Normal Air Garret resulted in
    technical review from consultant Dr. Gordon
  • Power potential never realized due to clumsy/ low
    speed COTS direct fuel injection technology. (ie
    GSE spent 35K on BKM/EFI system in 1989)
  • High Speed Supercharged Injected V-4 HFE ( 65 hp)
    ( 1999)
  • Desired STOL takeoff requirement for tactical UAV
    required 60 hp on JP-8
  • GSE IRAD funded the design/manufacture/testing of
    the V-4 up to 1999.
  • Early prototype demonstrated 65hp at 5800 RPM on
    CI operation _at_ 72 lbs
  • Failed UAV program precluded UAV
    integration/flight test

GSE Related CLASS II HFE Developments
  • Innovative Open Ended 4-cycle V-twin Sleeve Valve
    Design (90hp) (2001-2006)
  • Innovative 4-cycle open ended sleeve valve engine
    design conceived in 2001.
  • Common crankcase induction system resulted in
    1.921 delivery ratio while
  • significantly reducing the effective
    surface to volume ratio.
  • Phase I DARPA/SBIR contract received in 2003 to
    study concept.
  • Small 50cc proto-type manufactured and tested in
    winter 2005.
  • Ricardo CFD WAVE analysis of 450cc concept
    reveals high specific
  • Output possible from compact design. ( i.e. 93hp
    _at_ 12,000 RPM)

GSE Related Class III HFE Developments
  • GSE IO-625 private core engine development since
  • Majority of development work conducted on
    SIETEC/CI system
  • Recent adoption of newly discovered SIETEC/HSI
    system has enabled
  • the successful integration of a
    lightweight/practical speed reduction unit
  • Reduction drive enables maximum static thrust
    most suitable for low speed
  • military and commercial aviation applications .
  • Demonstrated with both air and liquid cooling as
    well as EFI and MFI
  • Directly competitive in size, weight, and cost of
    gasoline Rotax 914 engine.

GSE IV-630 liquid cooled mono-block engine
development (2006)
  • Even fire 60 degree V-6 loop scavenge 2-cycle
  • Initial proto-type fitted with preferred SIETEC/
    HIS combustion system
  • 3 liter displacement capable of 180 Hp NA and up
    to 250 Hp with turbo
  • Suitable for numerous ground/marine/airborne
    applications including the
  • BAE/ARV Mule UGV.
  • 1st run expected in the Non-gasoline burning
    Engine (NBOE) Navy SBIR
  • program in November, 2006.
  • Pending Markets General Aviation / Light Sport
  • Represents a practical HFE replacement for all
    ROTAX 914 engines
  • Numerous UAV/HFE applications, including Predator
    A (See AF BAA)
  • Commercially represents over 6000 engines per

GSE TSIO-1255 Characteristics
  • GSE TSIO-1255 Characteristics
  • Displacement/scale 30 of original Nomad (ie
    648 CID)
  • Scavenge air supply Self running twin
  • Geometric Compression Ratio 81 same as Nomad
  • Horizontally bi-frucated exhaust provides 2-stage
  • ( i.e. 121 start and 81 run)
  • Alternative ignition Hot Surface Ignition
    independent of electrical input
  • SIETEC/HSI mechanical fuel injection/multi-fuel
    combustion system
  • High pressure liquid cooling with built-in
    accumulator (ie 35-40 psi)
  • Overall Mechanical Design Features
  • Fork and blade con-rods. ( Segment rods pending)
  • Dual full compliment needle roller wrist pin
  • Stationary Crankcase mounted oil jet piston
  • 4032 billet machined/modular piston assembly
  • High Speed, low pressure mechanical fuel
  • Modular replaceable wet liner/piston kit
  • Pending Markets General Aviation/DOD Combatant
    Craft - Boeing A-160

GSE Ducted Fan / CRP-HFE
Module in 54 duct
Power Density Approaching 0.2lbs/hp Fuel
Consumption Est. (BSFC 0.5)
Companys Anticipated Role
  • GSE Inc. will continue to invest in further HFE
  • GSE Inc. would like to manufacture highly
    specialized, innovative heavy fuel engines from
    its production facility in Reno, NV

About GSE Inc.
  • Established in 1983 to carry out RD of Heavy
    Fuel Engines
  • Over 20 years of experience in designing and
    developing HFEs
  • GSE has over 3 generations and 2 million of
    rapid prototype and machine tools
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