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The Moral Completion of the Process of Knowing and its Necessarily Humble Beginnings

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b)Existential Agenda of Human Beings (To Be Someone, To Belong, To do Some Good) ... Membership in the Natural, Cultural, and Social Worlds to which Learners belong ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Moral Completion of the Process of Knowing and its Necessarily Humble Beginnings


1
The Moral Completion of the Process of Knowing
and its Necessarily Humble Beginnings
  • Jerry Starratt
  • October 2009

2
A Journey of Understanding Ethical Leadership
  • 1.Ethical Decision Making of Ed Leaders
  • Tripartite Model Complementarity of the Ethics
    of Justice, Care, Critique
  • 2.Using the Model to Build a Learning Environment
    for young people
  • In Academics, Co-currics, Support Prgs
  • 3. Intuition about the Moral Character of
    Academic Learning

3
A Journey Continued
  • 3. Connect Authentic Academic Learnings to
  • a)Psycho-Social Development (Cf. E.Erikson)
  • b)Existential Agenda of Human Beings (To Be
    Someone, To Belong, To do Some Good)
  • c)Moral Agenda of Human Beings (Be Authentic Cf.
    Charles Taylor)
  • d) Intelligibility of Membership in the Natural,
    Cultural, and Social Worlds to which Learners
    belong

4
A Journey. Continued
  • 4. Authentic Learning involves
  • a) Bringing the knowledge inside (How is this
    reality somehow inside me? How am I somehow
    inside this reality?)
  • b) How does this knowledge place me inside the
    world of nature, the world of culture, the world
    of society? Implications for responsible
    membership?
  • c) Movement from focus on identity to
    relationship (transcendence), and then to
    generativity (greater transcendence)

5
A Journey. Continued
  • 5. Move from General to Professional Ethic
    Virtue Ethics in Ed Ldshp
  • The story of Al Auther
  • Leader promotes the GOOD of the Practice of the
    Profession.
  • b) The GoodAuthentic Learning
  • c) Authentic Learning has both an Intellectual
    Moral character/quality.

6
A Journey. Continued
  • 6. How promote Authentic Learning? The Virtues of
    Ed Leadership Authenticity, Presence,
    Responsibility
  • 7. Authentic Learning requires Authentic
    Teaching, which also requires the Virtues of
    Authenticity, Presence, Responsibility
  • 8. The triangle model of Authentic teaching
  • 9. Need to further Understand the Moral Character
    of Learning.

7
Student
Relationships of respect care
Beginning dialogue with the world, discovering
self in these worlds, discovering these worlds in
oneself
Curriculum
Teacher
Mutual, interactive Intelligibility
8
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9
Moving to the Present
  • Reading Bernard Lonergan
  • Focus Understanding the Knowing Process in its
    Complete Reach
  • Perception--Knowing as Describing
  • Understanding--Knowing as Explaining
  • Judgement--Knowing as Truth Verifying
  • Valuing Embracing What One Knows
  • Choice--Knowing as Choosing to Act on what one
    knows the Moral Completion of the Process of
    KnowingPraxis

10
What Lonergan Taught Me
  • My intuition about the moral character of the
    learning process was philosophically defensible.
    (Note Habermas caution)
  • However, Lonergan was talking about a fully
    mature process of knowing, not about the knowing
    of an 8, 12, 16 year old.
  • Therefore a more modest, but necessary agenda for
    the K-12 educational process
  • Need to return to psychosocial cognitive
    development of k-12 learners

11
Reading Piaget on Cognitive (Logic) Development
  • Preoperational Stage Sense perception, fantasy,
    beginning Language usage (1-4/5)
  • Concrete Operations dealing with realities of
    concrete world narratives of perceptions
    relationships (5-12)
  • Early formal operations classifications of
    things patterns, relationships(12-ADULTHOOD)
  • Novice use of logical relations, beginning
    explanations of abstract solutions to
    problems(18-30)
  • Approaching adult use of logic to consider
    competing logical explanations thinking about
    thinking(Adult)

12
K. Nelson on Early childhood Cognitive
Development
  • An empiricist, but not Reductionist
  • Epigenetic approach, accepting an embodied mind
    as well as a socialized and encultured mind the
    mind of a person
  • nature, nurture, the vagaries of experience--
    all contribute to the development of knowing
    knowing is self-organizing process
  • Development takes time, lots of experience.
  • Memory is the mind at work, seeking the meaning
    of present experiences in relation to past
    meaningful experiences.

13
Kohlbergs Cognitive Moral Development
  • Punishment-Reward Stage (1-7)
  • Instrumental hedonism-Mutuality (7-11)
  • Interpersonal Concord (10-15)
  • Law order (14-adulthood)
  • Group Principles(18-adulthood)
  • Hierarchy of Universal Principles of Justice
    (min. circa 30)

14
My (our) Major Mistake
  • We impose our adult understandings on young
    people who are still developing childrens
    understandings.
  • We need to adapt our pedagogy and our (abstract)
    curriculum to their human, moral and mental
    development.

15
We Need a Marriage of Cognitive and Psychosocial
Development. Learning involves the search for
intelligibility of the world and the search for
ones personal destiny. Humans are thrown into
existence, into a history, a culture and family
they did not choose. They have to make sense out
of their precarious predicament and construct a
life.
16
Eriksons Developmental Challenges
  • Infancy Trust vs. Mistrust
  • Early childhood Autonomy vs. shame
  • Play age Iniative vs. guilt
  • School age Industry vs. inferiority
  • Adolescence Identity vs role confusion
  • Early Adulthood Intimacy vs. isolation
  • Middle Adulthood Generativity vs stagnation
  • Late Adulthood Integration vs despair

17
5 / 8 stagespre-adult stages
  • Prior to Adulthood, young people are not
    ethical they are primarily preoccupied with
    themselves.
  • Self-transcendence required for Ethical Choice
  • Adulthood begins with Intimacy and proceeds to
    Generativity--mid 20s to mid 60s

18
The Ecology of Human DevelopmentBronfenbrenner,Fr
eire,Feminists,etc
  • Growing up in the Depression
  • Growing up during a War
  • Growing up a minority
  • Growing up an immigrant
  • Growing up in poverty, homelessness
  • Gendered growing up
  • Growing up with a disability
  • Growing up in feudal or tribal society

19
Keeping the End in Mind Cognitive Moral
Maturity
  • Building the Foundation for mature understanding
    and ethical choice
  • Experience, experience, experience
  • Teamwork, teamwork, teamwork
  • Familiar examples for concrete operations
  • Continuous, but tiny bits of Cognitive
    Dissonance lots of WHY HOW questions
  • Structure, Rules, Practice, Play, Performance
  • Lots of feedback, dialogical assessment

20
Keeping the End in Mind Personal Ethical
Maturity
  • Cultivating foundational qualities of Autonomy,
    Connectedness, and Transcendence
  • Autonomy owning oneself, being a somebody
  • Connectedness I exist in multiple relationships
  • Transcendence I can go beyond self-interest, be
    a part of something bigger than myself
  • Creating developmentally appropriate learning
    opportunities to develop these qualities

21
Facing the Curriculum ChallengeThe Early School
Years
  • Focus on initiative and industry play, mastery
    of skills, rules, repetition of concepts with
    multiple examples, memorization of important
    information, gradual introduction of reflective
    questions.
  • Identify curriculum units with potential to raise
    students sense of autonomy, connectedness
    transcendence

22
Facing Pedagogical Challenges in the Elementary
School
  • Pedagogy of Respect, Care, Support
  • Pedagogy of Community
  • Differentiated Pedagogy
  • Pedagogy of Play Experience
  • Pedagogy of Imagination
  • Pedagogy of Memory
  • Pedagogy of Rules
  • Pedagogy with the Home

23
Curriculum in Middle School
  • Continue the work of the Industry Stage
  • Continue structured exercises of inquiry skill
    development memorization of important
    information, along with critical and reflective
    questions relating the information to learners
    life situations.
  • Connecting curriculum with community issues and
    problems

24
Curriculum in Middle School
  • Beginning inquiries into the academic disciplines
    as such, as doorways into membership in the
    worlds of nature, culture, society. Connect
    with life journey
  • Exploration of early intelligibility of those
    worlds, working through description toward
    preliminary explanation
  • Exploration of responsibilities of membership in
    those worlds, raising questions of values

25
Pedagogy of the Middle School
  • Pedagogy of Respect, Care, Support
  • Pedagogy of Community
  • Pedagogy of Invention
  • Pedagogy of Performance
  • Pedagogy with the Civic Community
  • Continuing to raise issues around autonomy,
  • connectedness, and transcendence

26
Curriculum of the High School
  • Deeper inquiry in the academic disciplines as
    dooways to membership in the cultural, social and
    natural worlds as well as to self-definition
    journey toward Adulthood
  • Increased questioning of the significance of
    knowledge for choices, and for ones future
  • Attention to the social and natural environmental
    challenges as civic concerns

27
High School Curriculum
  • Approaching early Adulthood Beginning Efforts in
    Academics Co-curriculum
  • The curriculum of Self-governing Communities
  • The curriculum of Self-definition and
    Self-construction
  • The curriculum of Authenticity
  • The curriculum of CritiqueResistance
  • The curriculum of Participation

28
High School Pedagogy
  • Pedagogy of Respect, Care, Support
  • Continuing to raise learners sense of Autonomy,
    Connectedness, and Transcendence
  • Connecting curriculum to Learners life
    trajectories
  • Beginning inquiries into the ethics of justice,
    care, critique as embedded in various academic
    units social life

29
Conclusion
  • Ethical leadership is not simply about making
    ethical decisions, and engaging in a reflective
    process for ethical decisions its about
    building a learning environment in schools that
    moves youngsters along a path of pre ethical
    development toward the very beginning ethical
    stages of young adulthood.

30
Conclusion
  • Therefore, our work as scholars of Ed. Leadership
    is to promote research and understanding of both
    aspects of Ethical Leadership
  • Therefore, we need to work more closely with
    colleagues in curriculum and pedagogy, and in
    developmental and critical psychology
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