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Crew resource management |Passenger reservation|aircraft charter


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Title: Crew resource management |Passenger reservation|aircraft charter

Crew resource
  • CRM is the sharing of knowledge and best
    practices to reduce errors and incidents.
  • Used by high reliability organizations (HROs)
  • CRM has been used by commercial airlines since

  • CRM is concerned with the cognitive and
    interpersonal skills needed to manage resources
    within an organized system, not so much with the
    technical knowledge and skills required to
    operate equipment.
  • In this context, cognitive skills are defined as
    the mental processes used for gaining and
    maintaining situational awareness, for solving
    problems and for making decisions. Interpersonal
    skills are regarded as communications and a range
    of behavioral activities associated with
  • In many operational systems as in other walks of
    life, skill areas often overlap with each other,
    and they also overlap with the required technical
    skills. Furthermore, they are not confined to
    multi-crew craft or equipment, but also relate to
    single operator equipment or craft as they
    invariably need to interface with other craft or
    equipment and various other support agencies in
    order to complete a mission successfully.

  • Initiated by NASA in 1979
  • NASA discovered crashes due to lack of
  • Interpersonal communication
  • Poor decision making
  • Lack of leadership skills

Skills of CRM
  • Opening or attention getter - Address the
    individual. "Hey Chief," or "Captain Smith," or
    "Bob," or however the name or title that will get
    the person's attention.
  • State your concern - Express your analysis of the
    situation in a direct manner while owning your
    emotions about it. "I'm concerned that we may not
    have enough fuel to fly around this storm
    system," or "I'm worried that the roof might
  • State the problem as you see it - "We're showing
    only 40 minutes of fuel left," or "This building
    has a lightweight steel truss roof, and we may
    have fire extension into the roof structure."
  • State a solution - "Let's divert to another
    airport and refuel," or "I think we should pull
    some tiles and take a look with the thermal
    imaging camera before we commit crews inside."
  • Obtain agreement (or buy-in) - "Does that sound
    good to you, Captain?"

Modules of CrM
  • Basic Theory of Information processing
  • Human Error, Reliability and Error Management
  • Fatigue and Workload Management
  • Situational Awareness
  • Communication Management
  • Automation
  • CRM for Single Pilots


Basic Theory of Information
  • Information Processing defined
  • Information processing is the process of
    receiving information through the senses
    analyzing and making it meaningfull.
  • Decision making is the choice between two or more
  • Information Processing Model
  • Information processing can be represented as a
    model. This shows the main elements of the
    process from receipt of information from the
    senses, to outputs such as decision making and

Human Error, Reliability and Error Management
  • Human error is inevitable. What is important is
    to ensure that human error does not result in
    adverse events such as air accidents.
  • This can be addressed in two ways reducing
    errors in the first place, and controlling errors
    such that they, or their immediate effects, are
    detected early enough to allow remedial action.
    CRM addresses both types of mitigating
    strategies, but concentrates particularly on
    error detection, especially in the multi-crew
  • Human reliability is the science which looks at
    the vulnerability of human beings to make errors
    (or less than perfect performance) under
    different circumstances. One could argue that it
    is more of an art than a science, since it is
    very difficult to predict, in quantifiable terms,
    human reliability in different situations, and
    from individual to individual. However, there are
    certain conditions under which humans are more
    likely to make errors (e.g. during circadian
    lows, when stressed, when overloaded, etc.).

Fatigue and Workload Management
  • This Module deals with readiness to cope in
    some sense, in terms of an individuals physical
    and mental ability to cope with work demands, and
    how he manages those work demands.
  • The ideal would be for flight crew to be at peak
    fitness and alertness all the time, and to be
    able to manage the workload such that work
    demands never exceed ability to cope. However,
    life isnt like that, and there are times when
    individuals are fatigued, or stressed, and
    workload sometimes exceeds ability to cope. CRM
    aims to help flight crew to plan their workload
    as far as they are able, making best use of the
    team, and taking into account the fact that some
    individuals may be performing below peak levels
    (e.g. due to fatigue, etc.).
  • It is also important for managers to be aware of
    such human performance issues when planning
    (rosters etc.).

Situational Awareness
  • Situation Awareness (SA) is acknowing what is
    going on around you essentially recognising the
    big picture. Its is fundamental to correct
    decision making and action.
  • Information processing tends to be the term used
    for the psychological mechanism of receiving and
    analyzing information situation awareness is a
    description of an individuals or a team
    understanding of the aircraft state and
    environment, based on perceived and processed
  • SA is more than just perception it is
    understanding the meaning of what you perceive,
    how it might change in the future, and the

Communication Management
  • One of the basic underlying premises of CRM is
    that a team can, and should, perform better than
    two (or three) individuals in the cockpit. The
    aim of CRM is to ensure that 11gt2, as opposed to
    11lt2 (in a two pilot cockpit), and that team
    performance takes precedence over individual
    performance. Good CRM is getting the balance
    right as a team, whilst recognising that the
    Captain has the final say and responsibility for
    the safety of the aircraft. In order to be
    effective, team members must be able to talk to
    each other, listen to each other, share
    information and be assertive when required.
    Commanders should take particular responsibility
    for ensuring that the crew functions effectively
    as a team. Whilst the emphasis in CRM is
    primarily upon the cockpit crew, and how they
    work as a team, it is also important to look at
    wider team effectiveness, namely the whole flight
    crew. CRM principles may also extend to
    situations where ATC, maintenance, company
    experts, etc., are considered to be part of the
    team (especially in emergency situations or in a
    single pilot environment). A UK based study of
    249 F/Os reported that nearly 40 of them had on
    several occasions failed to communicate to the
    Captain their proper doubts about the operation
    of the aircraft. The most common reason being the
    desire to avoid conflict and deference to the
    experience and authority of the Captain.

  • Automation in the aviation domain has been
    increasing for the past two decades. Pilot
    reaction to automation varies from highly
    favourable to highly critical depending on both
    the pilots background and how effectively the
    automation is implemented.
  • Modern aircraft feature a variety of automation
    technologies to help the pilot with such things
    as checklist execution, navigation, descent
    planning, engine configuration, and system
    monitoring. Older aircraft can be retrofitted to
    incorporate many of these features by replacing
    older radios with modern units, replacing
    traditional gauges with computer monitors, and
    linking everything with computer processors.
  • One of the goals of automation is to improve the
    pilots situational awareness. A related goal is
    to decrease the workload required to maintain a
    given level of awareness.

CRM for Single Pilots
  • CRM has been around in different forms since the
    early years of aviation. What has changed is the
    increased reliability of aircraft and aircraft
    systems the percentage of accidents caused by
    human factors the subsequent recognition of the
    part played by the human element and the attempt
    to define good and poor CRM practice.
  • The natural development of CRM has, not
    surprisingly, been mainly on multicrew aircraft
    as this was supported by flight and cockpit voice
    recorders, and the use of simulators facilitated
    scenarios where CRM situations could be practiced
    and discussed. Some high profile accidents
    involving multi-pilot aircraft also drew public
    attention to the subject. It is not surprising,
    therefore, that CRM tended to be regarded as
    being mainly applicable to multi-crew operations.
    This focus is understandable as much of the
    written material produced on CRM has been
    specifically written for multi-crew situations
    and has, to some extent, concentrated on the
    communication and relationships between pilots.
  • Single Pilot operations do exist in an airliner
    from time to time. If one crewmember should leave
    the flight deck for a short time it will leave
    only one pilot at the controls leaving that
    person with what essentially is single pilot

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