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Introduction to Organization and Management

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Title: Introduction to Organization and Management


1
Introduction to OrganizationandManagement
  • Songklot PhonphuakLecturer
  • Joke1977_at_hotmail.com
  • 089-9912087

2
The Characteristics of an Organization
Has a Distinct Purposes
Is Composed of People
Has a Deliberate Structure
3
The Changing Organization
  • Traditional
  • Stable , inflexible
  • Job focused
  • Jobs define work
  • Individual-oriented
  • Permanent jobs
  • Command-driven
  • Contemporary
  • Unstable , flexible
  • Skills focused
  • Tasks define work
  • Team-oriented
  • Temporary jobs
  • Involvement driven

4
The Changing Organization
  • Contemporary
  • Participative
  • Customer oriented
  • Diversity
  • No time boundaries
  • Lateral networks
  • Work anywhere
  • Traditional
  • Directive
  • Rule-oriented
  • Homogeneity
  • 9-5 workdays
  • Hierarchies
  • Work on-site

5
Top Managers
Mid-Level Managers
The Levels of an Organization
First-Line Managers
Operation Employees
6
Inputs and Outputs
Efficient Management
Doing Things Rights
Low Resource Waste
Productivity
Goals and Objectives
Effective Management
Doing The Right Things
High Goal Attainment
7
Planning Organizing Leading Controlling
The Four Function of Management
8
Mintzbergs Management Roles
Interpersonal Roles
Decisional Roles
Informational Roles
9
Skills That Managers Need
Conceptual
Top Managers
Human
Middle Managers
Technical
Middle Managers
10
The Environment
The Open System
Transformation -Management -Employees -Technology
-Operation
Outputs -Products -Service -Profits -Losses
  • Inputs
  • Materials
  • Capital
  • Labor
  • Data

Feedback
11
The Contingency Perspective
Organization Size Task Technology Environment
Uncertainty Individual Differences
12
Organizational Type
Organizational Level
Is the Managers Job Universal ?
Cross National Transferability
Organizational Size
13
Why Study Management ?
  • You should understand how organization are
    managed.
  • You will either manager or be managed.

14
Theory and Conceptual Administration (B)
  • Songklot PhonphuakLecturer
  • joke1977_at_hotmail.com
  • 089-9912087

15
  • Historical Background
  • Of Management Theories
  • 1
    2 3
  • Early
    Adam Industrial
  • Example Smith
    Revolution
  • Egyptian Wealth
    Machine
  • Pyramids of Nation
    Power
  • Great Wall Division
    of Mass
  • of China Labor
    Production

16
  • Develop a science for each
    Select, train and develop
  • element of work
    workers
  • Taylors Four
    Principle of Management
  • Cooperate with works
    Divide work and

  • responsibility equally

17
General Principle Management (Taylors)
  • Division of work
  • Authority and Responsibility
  • Discipline
  • Unity of Command
  • Unity of Direction
  • Subordination of Individual General Interest

18
General Principle Management (Taylors)
  • Remuneration
  • Centralization
  • Scalar Chain
  • Order
  • Equity
  • Stability of Tenure of Personnel
  • Initiative
  • Esprit de Corps

19
Henry Fayol
  • Management Function ( POCCC)
  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Commanding
  • Coordinating
  • Controlling

20
Max Weber (Bureaucracy)
  • Division of Labour
  • Authority Hierarchy
  • Formal Selection
  • Formal Rules and Regulations
  • Impersonality
  • Career Orientation

21
  • Maslow (Malows Hierarchy of Needs Theory)
  • Self-Actualization
  • Esteem Needs
  • Social Needs
  • Safety Needs
  • Physiological Needs

22
Theories of Leadership
  • (Six Traits That Differentiate Leaders From
    Nonleaders)
  • Drive
  • Desire to lead
  • Honesty and integrity
  • Self-confidence
  • Intelligence
  • Job-relevant knowledge

23
Trend and Present Administration in the Future
  • Globalization
  • Workforce Diversity
  • Information Technology or IT
  • Continually Learning and Adaptive Org.
  • Total Quality Management or TQM

24
Organizational Culture and Environment
  • Songklot PhonphuakLecturer
  • Joke1977_at_hotmail.com
  • 089-9912087

25
  • Whats Cultures?
  • Organization Changing?
  • Organization Cultures Changing?
  • Cultures Changing
  • Rise Death
  • Continue Process
  • Normal Implementation
    Behavior
  • Popularity
  • Behavior Setting

  • Extensively Behavior

  • Cultures

  • Build or Change

26
  • How Should We View
  • The Role of Management?
  • The Omnipotent View
  • The Symbolic View
  • The Synthesis View

27
Dimensions of Organization
  • Innovation and Risk Taking
  • Attention to Detail
  • Outcome Orientation
  • People Orientation
  • Team Orientation
  • Aggressiveness
  • Stability
  • Non-Stability

28
  • Size of The Age of The
  • Organization Organization
  • Strong Culture
  • Versus
  • Weak Culture
  • Intensity of Employee
  • Organization Culture Turnover

29
  • How Do Employees Learn About The Culture of
    an Organization?
  • Stories
  • Rituals
  • Material Symbols
  • Language

30
GlobalizationManaging The Global
Environment(Organization and Management)
  • Songklot PhonpuakLecturer
  • Joke1977_at_hotmail.com
  • 089-9912087

31
Companies With Over 60 Percent of Revenue From
Non-US. Operation
  • Exxon ____________________________________________
    ______76.8
  • Colgate-Palmolive ________________________________
    71.6
  • Manpower _________________________________________
    __70.8
  • Mobil ____________________________________________
    ______ 67.2
  • Coca-Cola ________________________________________
    ____67.1
  • Avon Products ____________________________________
    _ 65.3
  • Digital Equipment _______________________________
    64.8
  • Gillette _________________________________________
    ______ 63.1
  • IBM ______________________________________________
    _______61.3
  • Citicorp _________________________________________
    ______ 60.6

32
  • Three Attitudes Towards International Business
  • Ethnocentric
  • Polycentric
  • Geocentric

33
  • The Changing
  • Business Environment
  • Regional
  • Trading Alliances
  • European North
    American Association
  • Union
    Free Tread of Southeast
  • ( EU )
    Agreement Asian Nations

  • ( NAFTA ) ( ASEAN )

34
  • Global Organization
  • The Changing
  • Business Environment
  • Global
  • Trading Alliances
  • Multinational
    Transnational Borderless
  • Corporations
    Corporations Organization
  • ( MNC )
    ( TNC )

35
  • How Organizations
  • Go International
  • Stage 1 Stage 2
    Stage 3
  • Export to Hire Foreign
    Licensing
  • Foreign Agents or
    Franchising
  • Countries Brokers

    Contract
    Joint Venture
    Foreign Foreign

  • Managers Subsidiary

36
  • Managing in
  • A Foreign Country
  • Legal-Political Environment
  • Economic Environment
  • Culture Environment

37
  • Individualism
    Power
  • Versus
    Distance
  • Collectivism
  • Hofsteds
  • Dimensions of
  • National Culture
  • Quantity
    Uncertainty
  • Versus
    Avoidance
  • Quality of Life

38
Criteria for Making GlobalEmployee Selection
Decision
  • Ability to adapt
  • Technical Skills
  • Spouse and Family
  • Human relations Skills
  • Desire to go Overseas
  • Overseas Experience
  • Knows host culture
  • Academic standing
  • Language Skills
  • Knows home culture

39
  • Factors Affecting
  • International Adjustment
  • Pre-Assignment Adjustment
  • Individual
  • Training
    Experience
  • Expectations
  • Organization
  • Selection Criteria and Mechanisms

40
  • Factor Affecting
  • International Adjustment
  • In-Country Adjustment
  • Individual Factors
  • Job Factors
  • Organization Culture
  • Organization Socialization
  • Nonworking Factors

41
Decision Making The Essence of the Managers Job
  • Songklot PhonphuakLecturer
  • 089-9912087
  • Joke1977_at_hotmail.com

42
The Decision-Making Process
  • Identification of a Problem
  • Identification of Decision Criteria
  • Allocation of Weights to Criteria
  • Development of Alternatives
  • Analysis of Alternatives
  • Selection of an Alternatives
  • Implementation of the Alternatives
  • Evaluation of Decision Effectiveness

43
Decisions in the Management Function
  • Planning
  • What are the organizations long-term objective?
  • What strategies will best achieve those
    objective?
  • - What should the organizations short-term
    objectives be?
  • - How difficult should individual goals be?
  • Leading
  • How do I handle employees who appear to be low in
    motivation?
  • What is the most effective leadership style in a
    given situation?
  • How will a specific change affect worker
    productivity?
  • - When is the right time to stimulate conflict?

44
Decisions in the Management Function
  • Organizing
  • How many employees should I have report directly
    to me?
  • How much centralization should there be in the
    organization?
  • How should jobs be designed?
  • When should the organization implement a
    different structure?
  • Controlling
  • What activities in the organization need to be
    controlled?
  • How should those activities be controlled?
  • When is a performance deviation significant?
  • What type of management information system should
    the organization have?

45

3 Alternatives
2 Target of Alternative
1 Identification of a Problem
7 Decision
The Manager as Decision Maker
4 Objective Setting
6 Non-objections
5 Objective Certainty
46
  • Well-Structured Problems and Programmed Decisions
  • Poorly-Structured Problems and Non-programmed
    Decisions
  • Integration

Types of Problems and Decisions
47
  • High
  • Low
  • Rational
    Intuitive

Analytic Conceptual
Directive Behavioral
Tolerance for Ambiguity
Way for Thinking
Decision-Making Styles
48
  • Overconfidence
  • Hindsight Immediate Gratification
  • Self-Serving Anchoring Effect
  • Sunk Costs Decision-Making
    Selective Perception
  • Randomness
    Errors and Biases
    Confirmation
  • Representation

    Framing

  • Availability



Decision-Making Biased and Errors
49
Foundations of Planning
  • Songklot PhonphuakLecturer
  • Joke1977_at_hotmail.com
  • 089-9912087

50
Whats Planning?
  • - Whats To Be Done.
  • - How Its To Be Done.
  • PLANNING
  • Formal Planning
    Informal Planning

51
Purpose of Planning
  • Planning Gives Direction
  • Coordinate
  • Cooperate
  • Planning Reduces Uncertainty
  • Planning Reduces Overlapping and Wasteful
    Activities
  • Planning Sets the Standard Used in Controlling

52
The Role of Goals and Plans in Planning
  • Goals
  • Goals are Objectives
  • Plans

53
Types of Goals
  • Social Responsibility
  • Profits Market Shared
  • - Financial Goals Strategic Goals
  • - Stated Goals Real Goals

54
Types of Plans
  • Breadth Time Frame
    Specificity Frequency of Use
  • Strategic Long term Directional
    Single use
  • Operational Short term
    Specific Standing

55
Contingency Factors in Planning
  • Managers Level
  • - Strategic Planning
  • - Operational Planning
  • 2. Environmental Uncertainty
  • - Specific
  • - Flexible
  • 3. Time Frame of the Plans

56
Planning in the Hierarchy of Organizations
  • Strategic
  • Planning Top
  • Executives
  • Middle-Level
  • Managers
  • Operational First-Level
  • Planning Managers

57
Effective Planning in Dynamic Environments
  • Specific But Flexible
  • Ongoing Process
  • Change Direction if Environmental Conditions
    Changed
  • Stay Alert to Environmental Changes

58
Strategic Management
  • Songklot PhonphuakLecturer
  • Joke1977_at_hotmail.com
  • 089-9912087

59
Why is Strategic Management Important?
  • External Analysis
  • -opportunities
  • -threats
  • Identify the
  • organizations SWOT Analysis
    Formulate Implement
    Evaluate
  • current mission, goals,
    Strategies Strategies
    Results
  • and strategies
  • Internal Analysis
  • -strengths

  • -weaknesses

The Strategie Management Process
60
  • Multibusiness
  • Corporation
  • Strategic
    Strategic Strategic
    Business Unit 1
    Business Unit 2 Business Unit 3
  • Research and Manufacturing
    Marketing Human Finance
  • Development
    Resources

Corporate
Business
Functional
Types of Organizational Strategy
61
  • Corporate Level Strategy
  • Direction
  • Mission
  • Vision
  • Growth Strategy
  • Stability Strategy
  • Renewal
  • Concentration
  • Growth Strategy
    Vertical and Horizontal Integration
  • Diversification

62
  • Corporate Level Strategy

Growth Strategy Stability Strategy Renewal Stab
ility Strategy Pause/Proceed with
Caution Strategy
No Change Strategy Profit
Strategy
63
  • Corporate Level Strategy

Growth Strategy Stability Strategy Renewal Re
trenchment Strategy Renewal Turnaround
Strategy
64
  • Business Level Strategy
  • The Role of Competitive Advantage
  • - Distinctive Competencies
  • - Competitive Advantage
  • - Competitive Differentiation
  • - Cost Leadership
  • - Focus
  • Competitive Advantage Strategies
  • Cost Leadership Strategy
    Differentiation Strategy
  • Focus Strategy

65
  • Functional Level Strategy

Research and Development Manufacturing
Marketing Finance Human Resources
66
Human Resource Management
Songklot Phonphuak Joke1977_at_hotmail.com 089-99120
87
67
Human Resource Planning
Identify and Select Competent Employees
Recruitment
Selection
Decruitment
Provide employees with up-to-date skills and
knowledge
Orientation
Training
Performance Management
Compensation and Benefits
Career Development
Retain competent and high-performing employee
"Human Resource Management Process"
68
Human Resource Planning
1. Current Assessment - Human Resource
Inventory - Job Analysis - Job Description
- Job Specification 2. Future Human Resource
Needs
69
Recruitment or Decruitment
1. Recruitment gt Internet gt Employee
referrals gt Company Web site gt College
recruiting 2. Decruitment gt Downsizing gt
Layoffs gt Transfers gt Reduced workweeks

Advantage and Disadvantage
70
Selection
Selection Decision
lt Correct gt / lt Errors gt
Correct - Successfull Accepted - Unsuccessfull
Rejected
Errors - Reject - Accept
71
Types of Selection Devices
gt Application Forms gt Written Tests gt
Performances-Simulation Tests gt Interview gt
Background Investigation gt Physical Examination
72
Orientation
Work Unit Orientation Organization Orientation
73
Employee Training
1. Technical Skill 2. Interpersonal Skill 3.
Problem Solving Skills
74
Employee Performance Management
- Written Essays - Critical Incidents - Graphic
Rating Scales - Behaviorally Anchored Rating
Scale - Multiple Comparison - 360 Degree Feedback
75
Compensation and Benefits
1. Job Based 2. Business or Industry Based 3.
Skill Based
76
Career Development
77
Current Issues in Human Resource Management
1. Managing Downsizing 2. Managing Workforce
Diversity 3. Sexual Harassment 4. Workplace
Romances 5. Work-Family Life Banlace 6.
Controlling HR Costs
78
Managing Change and Innovation
Songklot Phonphuak...Lecturer Joke1977_at_hotmail.co
m 089-9912087
79
Forces for Change
External Forces
Internal Forces
- Marketplace - Governmental Laws and
Regulations - Technology - Labor Market - Economic
- Operations of the Organization gt Strategy gt
New Equipment gt Employee Attitude
80
Two Views of the Change Process
1. Unfreezing 2. Changing 3. Refreezing
Unfreezing

Changing
Refreezing
81
Managing Change
Work specialization, departmentalization, chain
of command span of control, centralization,
formalization, job redesign, or actual
structural design.
Structure
Work processed, methods, and equipment.
Technology
Attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and
behavior-individual and group.
People
82
Sensitivity Training
Surver Feedback
Team Building
MORE EFFECTIVE INTERPERSONAL WORK RELATIONSHIPS
Process Consultation
Intergroup Development
Organizational Develoment Techniques
83
Stimulating Innovation
Creativity Innovation
Inputs
Transformation
Outputs
Creative Individuals, groups, Organizations
Creative environment, processs, situation
Innovative product (s), work methods
Systems View of Innovation
84
Variables that Stimulate Innovation
Structural Variables - Organic Structures -
Abundant Resources - Hight Interunit
Communication - Minimal Time Pressure -Work and
Nonwork Support
Human Resource Variables - High Commitment to
Training and Development - Hight Job Security -
Creative People
STIMULATE INNOVATION
Cultural Variables - Acceptance of Ambiguity -
Tolerance of the Impractical - Low External
Controls - Tolerance of Conflict - Focus on
Ends - Open-System Focus - Positive Feedback
85
Leadership
Songklot Phonphuak...Lecturer joke1977_at_hotmail.co
m 089-9912087
86
seven traits associated with leadership
1. drive. leader exhibit a high effort
level. they have a relatively high desire for
achievement.
2. desire to lead. leaders have a strong desire
to influence and lead others. they
demonstrate the willingness to take
responsibility.
3. honesty and integrity. leaders build trusting
relationships between themselve and followers by
being truthful or nodeceitful and by showing high
consistency betwenn word and deed.
87
seven traits associated with leadership
4. self-confidence. followers look to leaders
for an absence of self-doubt. need to show
self-confidence in order to convince followers of
the rightess of their goals and decisions.
5. intelligence. leaders need to be
intellignt enough to gather, synthesize,
and interpret large amounts of information.
6. job-relevant knowledge. dffective leaders have
a high degree of knowledge about the company,
industry, and technical matters.
7. extraversion. leaders are energetic, lively
people. they are sociable, assertive, and rarely
silent or withdrawn.
88
  • Behavioral Dimension Conclusion
  • University of Iowa Democratic style involving
    subordinates, delegating Democratic style of
    leadership was
  • authority, and encouraging participation
    most effective, although later studies
  • Autocratic style dictating work methods,
    showed mixed results.
  • centralizing decision making, and limiting
    participation
  • Laissez-fairs style giving group freedom to
    work
  • make decisions and complete work
  • Ohio State Consideration being considerate
    of followers High-high leader (high in
    consideration
  • ideas and feelings and high in
    initiating structure) Initiating structure
    structuring work and work achieved high
    subordinate
  • relationships to meet job goals
    performance and satisfaction, but not
  • in all situations.


behavioral theories of leadership
89
Behavioral Dimension Conclusion .University
of Employee-oriented emphasized interpersonal
Employee-oriented leaders were Michigan rela
tionships and taking care of employees
associated with high group productivity needs
and higher job satisfaction.

Production-oriented emphasized technical
or task
aspects of job Managerial Grid Concern for
people measured leaders Leaders
performed best with a 9.9 concern for
subordinates on a scale of style (high
concern for production and 1 to 9 (low to
high) high concern for people). Concern
for production measured leaders concern for
getting job done on a scale of 1 to 9 (low to
high)
behavioral theories of leadership
90
Country Club Management Theoughtful attention to
needs of people for satisfying
relationship leads to a comfortable, friendly
organization atmosphere and work tempo.
Team Management Work accomplished is from
commetted people interdependence through a
"common stak" in organization purpose leads to
relationships of trust and respect.
The Managerial Grid
1,9 9,9



5,5



1,1 9,1
9
High
8
7
Middle-of-the-Road Management Adequate
organization performance is possible through
balancing the necessity to get out work with
maintaining morale of people at a
satisfactory level.
6
Concern for people
5
4
3
2
1
Task Management Efficiency in operations results
from arraging conditions of work in such a way
that human elements interfere to a minimum
degree.
Low
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Impoverished Management Exertion of
minimum effort to get required work done is
appropriate to sustain organization membership.
9
Concern for production
Low
High
91
Cutting-edge approaches to leadership
1. Transformational Leadership
2. Transactional Leaders
3. Charismatic-Visionary Leadership
4. Team Leadership
- Liaison with Exteranl Constituencies
- Troubleshooter
- Conflict Management
- Coach
92
Leadership Issues in the Twenty-First Century
1. Legitimate Power 2. Coerive Power 3. Reward
Power 4. Expert Power 5. Referent Power
93
Gender Differences and Leadership
Skill (Each check mark denotes which group Scored higher on the respective studies) Men Women
Motivating Others vvvvv
Fostering Communication vvvv
Producing High-Quality Work vvvvv
Strategic Planning vv vv
Listening to Others vvvvv
Analyzing Issues vv vv
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