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PIER Buildings Residential Research

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Title: PIER Buildings Residential Research


1
  • PIER Buildings Residential Research
  • Activities and Future Plans
  • Norman Bourassa
  • PIER Buildings End-use Efficiency Program
  • California Energy Commission
  • November 14, 2007

2
Energy Commission Its Functions
  • Energy policy and information advisor to the
    California Governor and Legislature
  • Major functions
  • License power plants
  • Assess current and future energy trends
  • Advance energy technologies
  • Promote energy efficiency and renewable energy
  • Administer building appliance efficiency
    Standards


3
What is PIER?
Public Interest Energy Research Program
  • Initiated in 1998 as a part of California
    electricity deregulation and funded at 62M/Yr
  • Its the research counterpart to the public goods
    energy efficiency program administered by the
    utilities and the Renewables Program administered
    by the CEC
  • Natural Gas funding added in 2004, 15M/Yr
  • The mission of PIER is to conduct public interest
    energy research that seeks to improve the quality
    of life...by providing environmentally sound,
    safe , reliable and affordable energy services
    and products

4
PIER funding by Research Area (historical)
5
PIER Buildings ProgramGoals and Outcomes
  • More affordable, comfortable, energy efficient
    buildings from improved designs, construction
    methods, and operational strategies
  • More reliable electricity systems through lowered
    peak demand
  • Healthier, energy efficient indoor environments
  • Improved customer choices for affordable, energy
    efficient technologies

6
PIER Buildings Program Scope
  • Primarily focuses on shorter term, applied
    research in new and existing buildings
  • End uses include lighting, HVAC, building
    envelopes, water heating, appliances, office
    equipment
  • Research products include design
    information/specifications, technologies
    (hardware), software, controls, and others
  • Covers the entire building life cycle from
    component development/design, construction,
    commissioning, operation

7
Californias Residential Electricity Use
CA consumption (GWh) State - 250,000, Com
90,000, Res 75,000, Ind 54,000, Other 33,000
8
Californias Natural Gas Energy Use
Gas water heating is the largest gas end use in
California with 38 for commercial and
residential or 2,700 million therms/yr
9
Multiple market pathways for products developed
through RDD
10
Efficiency Standards Path
11
Contributions to Current Standards
  • PIER Buildings research included in the 2005
    Title-24 Building Energy Standards
  • Duct Tape Durability Testing
  • Acceptance Test Requirements
  • Outdoor Lighting Assessment
  • Energy efficiency of Power Supplies addressed in
    2005 Title-20 Appliance Standards

12
Outreach toCalifornia Home Builders
13
Building EnvelopeResearch
Mold risk reduction is important even in hot-dry
inland areas
14
Smart Bathroom Lighting forAssisted Living
Facilities
Vanity lights that use occupancy sensors to
engage LED technology for safety and comfort and
fluorescent technology for high brightness
15
Research Centers Collaborative Path
16
Lighting for TomorrowDecorative Residential
Light Fixtures
fluorescent fixture families
solid state lighting applications
17
Manufacturer Partner Industry Path
18
Market Connections
19
Residential Kitchens---the opportunity---
Pre-T24/2005 _at_ 700 W Post-T24/2005 _at_ 300-400 W
LED kitchen _at_ 100 - 150 W
20
Residential Fan Light KitsCeiling and
Ventilation Fans
LED ceiling fan light kits will be
energy-efficient and dimmable
Energy-efficient LED lights in bathroom
ventilation fans will replace 2 60W incandescent
lamps
21
Diffuser Metrics for Tubular Daylighting Devices
The diffuser makes the tubular daylight device a
luminaire
22
Tier II Solar Homes Research AKA Zero Energy
Homes (ZEN)
  • 3 contracts awarded in 2004 ZENHomes solicitation
  • Utility Market Model for ZENHomes
  • Architectural Energy Corporation (AEC)
  • Affordable Multifamily ZENHomes
  • Global Green USA
  • Turnkey PV System Delivery for ZENHomes
  • PowerLight Corporation
  • Another project soon
  • Affordable Innovative Business Models for Solar
    Home Communites
  • SDGE and SMUD

23
New Design Tools for Residential Community
Development
  • Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool (SEAT)
  • In Process - NREL

24
New Design Tools for Residential Community
Development
  • Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool (SEAT)
  • In Process - NREL

25
Future Research Topics
26
Future Research Topics
  • Building Envelope
  • Efficient components, retrofit techniques and
    building systems
  • Cost-effective remediation and retrofit systems
    for envelopes of existing buildings to improve
    R-values, reduce air infiltration, facilitate
    moisture control, and enhance durability.
  • Improved methods, materials and systems for
    building envelopes, with consideration of
    environmental impacts, life-cycle energy,
    durability and performance.
  • Daylighting and fenestration systems components,
    systems, test procedures, and design integration.

27
Future Research Topics
  • Building Envelope
  • Design and analysis tools
  • Software tools and standards-related analysis to
    facilitate adoption of cool exteriors, passive
    solar, thermal mass, and building orientation.
  • Field studies of envelope performance of existing
    buildings in regards to energy use, durability,
    and performance.

28
Future Research Topics
  • HVAC Controls
  • Design and analysis tools
  • Integration of natural ventilation with
    complementary thermal comfort systems, which
    require design guidance
  • Advanced simulation tools for thermal, visual and
    acoustic comfort analysis
  • Ventilation standards and indoor air quality in
    residential buildings

29
Future Research Topics
  • HVAC Controls
  • Monitoring and characterization
  • Monitoring actual AC loads for demand analysis
    and standards validation, with respect to SEER,
    thermal distribution systems, refrigerant charge
    and airflow programs, automated fault detection,
    thermostats and demand shedding programs
  • Air conditioner and heat pump database analysis
    with respect to actual performance in hot/dry
    conditions
  • Use and effectiveness of in-home feedback display
    devices for energy management

30
Future Research Topics
  • HVAC Controls
  • Advanced components, systems and technologies
  • Efficient thermal distribution systems, including
    low leakage, low resistance duct systems,
    hydronic systems, refrigerant-based mini-split
    systems.
  • Control and Fault-Detection systems, including
    integration of natural ventilation, communicating
    thermostats and demand shedding
  • Lower energy cooling technology development,
    including hot-dry optimized components and
    systems, radiant components and systems, and
    conventional mixed air systems

31
Future Research Topics
  • Lighting
  • Advanced components, systems and technologies
  • Advanced fenestration design and components
  • Daylighting controls
  • Continued improvement to Light Emitting Diode
    (LED) technology and product cost
  • Systems integration and design tools
  • Lighting design software.
  • Standardizing user interfaces for lighting
    controls

32
Future Research Topics
  • Lighting
  • Monitoring and characterization
  • Evaluation of appropriate lighting levels
  • Energy use impact of solid state lighting
    penetration in CA
  • Test Procedures and performance standards
  • Performance standards for CFLs
  • Consumer information on product performance and
    characteristics

33
Future Research Topics
  • Title 24 Targeted Research
  • Residential Duct Systems
  • Information on persistence of duct sealing and
    failures of duct systems
  • Develop justification to move ducts out of attic
  • Performance and cost information on mini-splits
    and other ductless systems
  • Evaporative Cooling
  • Compare to water use at end-use site vs. water
    use at power plant for cooling towers
  • Look at time-of-use and water demand issues. Is
    there a potential to reduce impacts with water
    storage? What about condensate capture and
    storage for evaporative condensing? Need TDV of
    water use.
  • Advanced evaporative cooling (indirect and
    direct/indirect) should be considered e.g.
    Indirect DX/ Hybrid unit- (e.g. Coolerado) 1 ½
    ton compressor on 5 ton unit- advanced
    evaporative cooling

34
Future Research Topics
  • Title 24 Targeted Research
  • Thermostats
  • Programmable Communicating Thermostats - study
    2008 impacts and recommend any changes to PCT
    regulations. How can industry affect
    information/data model? What are available
    energy use measurements, sensors? Define
    standard information models (connectors for
    example.) Define minimum information which
    sensor/control platforms should provide.
  • What are the set points that people really use
    Look at fixed schedule in T-24
  • Water Heating
  • Solar water heating
  • Solar water heating with absorption - integrated
    systems and heat recovery
  • Should houses be pre-plumbed for solar and
    condensing water heaters. Making retrofit much
    more cost effective and is not expensive at time
    of construction.
  • Solar water heating- Cost to own and operate
    What are the failure issues, solutions?
  • Hourly methodology (not solar fraction) modeling
  • Better understanding of tankless WHs - energy
    impact reliability
  • CHP - Can loads be aggregated with other
    buildings heat storage becomes more viable

35
PIER 5 Year Plan
Public Interest Energy Research Program 2007
2011 Electricity Research Investment Plan
  • PIER Strategic Objectives
  • Reduce energy cost and improve performance of
    efficiency end-use systems (residential,
    commercial, industrial, agricultural).
  • Develop energy-efficient technologies for unique
    California conditions and industries.
  • Reduce water use and improve efficiency of
    alternative water sources, treatment, and
    delivery.
  • Develop end-use cost-effective load management
    and demand response technologies.
  • Develop knowledge base for future decision-making
    and informed end-use policy relative to
    electricity.

36
Thank You
  • njbouras_at_energy.state.ca.us

Norman Bourassa PIER Buildings End-use Efficiency
Program California Energy Commission
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