People to People Contacts as a Bridge between U.S.-Taiwan Relations: A quantitative presentation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – People to People Contacts as a Bridge between U.S.-Taiwan Relations: A quantitative presentation PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: cbca-MDZjZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

People to People Contacts as a Bridge between U.S.-Taiwan Relations: A quantitative presentation

Description:

Although people's willingness can not influence government policies directly, ... Taiwan's people diplomatic efforts are very important. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:54
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 19
Provided by: gki6
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: People to People Contacts as a Bridge between U.S.-Taiwan Relations: A quantitative presentation


1
People to People Contacts as a Bridge between
U.S.-Taiwan Relations A quantitative presentation
  • Dr. Wen-hui Tsai, Indiana University-Purdue
    University at Fort Wayne
  • Dr. Walter Kiang, Head, Out of Home Care
    Development State Hearings, Los Angeles County
  • Presented at the 50th Annual Conference of
    American Association for Chinese Studies at the
    California State University Fullerton, October
    17-19, 2008

2
Introduction
  • Unquestionably, the US and Taiwans relations are
    decided by both sides of the governments. Under
    current situations, the relations are mainly
    dominated by the US Government, and what the
    Taiwan Government can do to influence the
    relations is quite limited.
  • The U.S. is a democratic nation. Although
    peoples willingness can not influence government
    policies directly, especially on foreign
    policies, the government has to take its peoples
    willingness into consideration therefore, one
    feasible way to promote U.S. and Taiwans
    relations is to influence the publics opinions
    in the U.S.
  • The focus of this paper is on informal relations
    between two people groups (data from Taiwans
    Bureau of Entry and Exit), the quantity and
    quality of U.S. educated students from Taiwan,
    the quantity and quality of cultural exchange,
    and International Sister Cities activities to
    discuss improvements on the U.S. and Taiwan
    relations

3
Americans image on Taiwan
  • During this 21st century mass media oriented
    times, it is not only very important to use the
    mass media for our every days life, but it is
    also essential as a tool for international
    politics. The positive created national image
    through the use of the mass media will not only
    promote tourist industries and international
    trades, but also influence public opinions and
    national interests.
  • In the 1960s and 1970s, most Americans still
    had limited understanding of Taiwan. They
    thought that Taiwan was only a small island
    controlled by Chiang Kai-sheks dictatorship and
    Made-in-Taiwan meant the cheaper price and poor
    quality products. The mass media belittled
    Made-in-Taiwan products. In the 1980s, the
    negative image began to change.
  • Generally speaking most Americans image on
    Taiwan is positive. A most recent Gallup poll
    found that 62 of Americans are positive towards
    Taiwan 22 are negative while 16 have no
    opinion.
  • Not long ago one survey by a special topic group
    showed that the information of American people
    did not receive the information regarding either
    Taiwan or China from the U.S. Government. They
    got the information mainly from the American mass
    media. They do not pay attention to the mass
    media of other countries. The image of Americans
    towards Taiwan is mainly from both their
    interaction with Chinese Americans and their
    visitation experiences as tourists in both Taiwan
    and China. Therefore, there are three kinds of
    Taiwan image makers (1) Taiwan immigrants (2)
    Students from Taiwan studying in the U.S., and
    both Taiwanese tourists in the U.S. and U.S.
    tourists in Taiwan.

4
Immigrants from Taiwan
  • It is very difficult to calculate the number of
    immigrants from Taiwan in U.S. according to U.S.
    Bureau of Census and other surveys since they do
    not categorize the immigrants from Taiwan.
    Therefore, we used the data from the Overseas
    Chinese Affairs Commission of the Executive Yuan
    in Taiwan.
  • From 1949 to 2000, the first generation
    immigrants from Taiwan to U.S. were about 391,000
    persons, and among them there are about 344,000
    persons still alive. The second generation
    Taiwanese Americans were about 185,000 persons.
    Therefore, currently there are totally 529,000
    immigrants from Taiwan in US. At the beginning
    of the Taiwanese Government there were only a
    limited number of people who were able to go
    abroad and most of them were students. From 1960
    to 1979 there were about 50,000 students going
    abroad to study in US.
  • The large scale international migration started
    after the late nineteenth century. In 1982
    American Government increased the visas of
    Chinese immigrants separate annual limitation of
    20,000 visas were established for Taiwan and
    Mainland China, effective January 1, 1982 which
    allowed for 20,000 immigrants respectively
    (before both together having 20,000 immigrants).
    Therefore, from 1980 to 1990, the Taiwanese
    immigrants to U.S. increased rapidly. During
    these ten years, the immigrants from Taiwan to
    the U.S. increased from 178,000 persons to
    363,000 persons the number of increase was
    185,000 persons. The rate of growth rate during
    these ten years was about 100. After 1990 the
    increase slowed down. Until 2000, it increased
    166,000 persons. During the last ten years, the
    grow rate decreased to 45.8 (see figure 1).

5
  • Source Chinese Population Estimation Method
    among Taiwan, Mainland, and Hong Kong Theory
    Construction and Empirical Exploration using U.S.
    as an Example, the Statistical Office of the
    Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission (OCAC),
    Republic of China, 2002

6
From Figure 2, the first generation immigrants
from Taiwan are still the majority. This is
because the immigration from Taiwan to U.S. was
rather late. The middle age immigrants are the
majority.
  • Source Chinese Population Estimation Method
    among Taiwan, Mainland, and Hong Kong Theory
    Construction and Empirical Exploration using U.S.
    as an Example, the Statistical Office of the
    Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission (OCAC),
    Republic of China, 2002

7
Source Chinese Population Estimation Method
among Taiwan, Mainland, and Hong Kong Theory
Construction and Empirical Exploration using U.S.
as an Example, the Statistical Office of the
Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission (OCAC),
Republic of China, 2002
  • Inter-racial marriage is the best way for
    immigrants to have a good cultural adaptation to
    the mainstream society, but inter-racial
    marriages of the first generation Taiwanese
    American immigrants are very limited. The
    inter-racial marriages of the second generation
    are increasing, and the Third generation is more.
    But the persons with mixed race due to the
    inter-racial marriages are not high, always only
    around 10

8
Source Chinese Population Estimation Method
among Taiwan, Mainland, and Hong Kong Theory
Construction and Empirical Exploration using U.S.
as an Example, the Statistical Office of the
Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission (OCAC),
Republic of China, 2002
  • There are 63,246 persons with mixed race among
    Taiwanese immigrants in U.S. in 2000. The persons
    with mixed race are about 12.0. Among them, the
    second generation has 38,881 persons. It is
    about 27.6 the percentage of the persons with
    mixed race among third generation is 54.0 (see
    figure 4). The younger the persons with mixed
    race, the higher the percentage of the persons
    with mixed race. The persons with mixed race,
    who are younger than age 15, the percentage is
    about 35.

9
Americans have a stereotype to regard Taiwanese
American
  • Generally speaking, Americans have a stereotype
    to regard Taiwanese American as being not
    sociable and uncooperative.
  • Parents with high degrees and high incomes try
    very hard to send their children to prestigious
    universities.
  • They own houses and luxury cars.
  • This stereotype is not completely correct, but it
    is not completely incorrect either.
  • Many Taiwanese Immigrants conform to this
    stereotype. For example, according to data from
    Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission, during past
    ten years, the skill level of Taiwanese
    Immigrants has increased. The percentage of the
    higher position including professional and
    managerial positions is increasing year by year.
    Especially for the professional, it increased
    from 35 to 50. The average is about 40.68
    during the past ten years.
  • If the managerial is added which is about 28,
    the percentage of the position including the
    professional and managerial among the all persons
    who work is about two third. The managerial
    supportive personnel is about 10 during the past
    ten years.

10
Taiwanese students going abroad to study in U.S.
  • Taiwanese students going abroad to study in the
    U.S. is another source to create the Taiwanese
    image upon Americans. The targets of the
    interaction with Taiwanese students going abroad
    to study in U.S. are (1) professors and students
    in the universities, and (2) neighbors of the
    residence and colleagues of the working place.
    Therefore, the Taiwanese students going aboard to
    the US play a brokers role. On one hand they
    introduce the specialists in the universities to
    join Taiwans economic and socio-political
    construction and on the other hand they create
    good public relations for Taiwan.
  • It began in 1950 that Taiwanese students went
    aboard to study in U.S. During the late period
    of 1960 the tendency was increasing and continued
    until now. It used to be that mainly adults
    studied abroad, but more recently there are more
    children going abroad to study in the U.S.,
    especially in Los Angeles, Houston, New York, and
    San Francisco.
  • There are two kinds of Taiwanese students going
    abroad to study in the U.S. the self- supported
    and the government sponsored.
  • The government sponsored students are handled by
    the Ministry of Education according to the need
    of the country a definite quota and a
    centralized examination. During 1960 to 70 the
    economic development was continuing and during
    1970 and 1980 per capita income of Taiwanese was
    higher and higher, therefore, self-supported
    Taiwanese students going aboard to study in U.S.
    were increasing.

11
Benefits of Taiwanese students going abroad to
study in U.S.
  • After Taiwanese students completing their
    studies, some went back to Taiwan and became the
    elites in their fields some continued to stay in
    U.S. in the academic fields or in the enterprises
    to become the elites too.
  • Nowadays in all fields of Taiwan, those who have
    the experiences studying abroad, have made lots
    of contribution to Taiwans socio-economic
    development.
  • In a well-known Hsin-tsu Industrial Zone Area, in
    2000 there were 4,108 persons that were foreign
    educated they created 113 companies in the
    Industrial Zone Area. They had lots of
    contribution and brought new scientific
    technologies and managerial ideas back to Taiwan.
    In this way, they promoted the high- tech
    industry development in Taiwan. They not only
    had a contribution in the field of economic and
    technological fields, but also they kept
    important positions in the government and led the
    political reforms and democratization movement in
    Taiwan.

12
The Tendency of Taiwanese Students Going Abroad
to Study in the United States during 1955-2005
  • During 1980, Taiwanese students going abroad to
    study in U.S. is the number 1 in terms of the
    student number among all countries. The students
    number from Taiwan was highest during 1993-1994,
    please see table I below. There were 37, 580
    Taiwanese students studying in U.S. Since 1994
    the Taiwanese students in U.S. began to decrease
    there were only 26, 178 Taiwanese students in
    U.S.

Sourcehttp//English.moe.gov.tw
13
There are five main reasons leading to the
decrease of Taiwanese Students in U.S.
  • In order to decentralize the students studying
    abroad to avoid over-concentrating in US, Taiwan
    Government increased the quota to study in Europe
    at the government sponsored examination to study
    abroad.
  • Recently the United Kingdom, several countries in
    Europe, New Zealand, and Australia came to Taiwan
    to recruit students very aggressively.
    Therefore, students going abroad to study no
    longer concentrate in U.S.
  • Taiwan economic development allowed families send
    their children to study abroad, even in European
    countries and United Kingdom with higher tuition
    fees.
  • The recruitment number of graduated studies in
    the Taiwanese universities is increasing rapidly
    therefore, Taiwanese students do not need to go
    abroad for the advanced studies.
  • The more the social differentiation in Taiwan the
    easier for people to succeed in different fields
    they are no longer need to study abroad to be
    successful

14
Americans as tourists in Taiwan
  • Besides Taiwanese immigrants and Taiwanese
    students in US to speak for Taiwan as Taiwans
    mini diplomats, Americans as tourists/businessmen
    in Taiwan and Taiwanese as tourists/businessmen
    in US are also the image makers for Taiwan.
    Their impression on Taiwan is very important and
    can not be ignored.
  • According to data from the Bureau of Tourism in
    2004 there were 18.21 of the foreign tourists
    from America, among them 15.65 from the U.S.
    The reasons to come to Taiwan are mainly for
    recreation purpose, which stand about 35.0
    second was for the business (31.2). Since 2000
    the number of visitors from the US has generally
    speaking been increasing. But during 2005-2006,
    the percentage decreased. Please see Table II
    which has detailed tables.

15
U.S. Visitors to Taiwan during 2000-2006
Source Bureau of Tourism, Republic of
China U.S. Visitors do not including Chinese
those who live in United States
16
Taiwanese as tourists in U.S.
  • Another group of tourists from Taiwan to go
    abroad are for tourism and business. According
    to data from Bureau of Tourism, there were 8.21
    million people going abroad. Among them 10.8
    went to the U.S. Their behavior in foreign
    countries will impact the evaluation of
    foreigners on Taiwan. Two tourists going abroad
    stated on the front page of the website as
    follows
  • Taiwans image has improved during recent few
    years. About 5 years ago I heard Made in
    Taiwan products which were inexpensive goods
    now I hear more about IT products from Taiwan.
    This is a good product to create a good Taiwan
    image. Going abroad, to do a good people
    diplomacy, is the best way to make a good image
    for Taiwan.
  • I went abroad to chat with foreigners (or in
    Taiwan to teach children) always proudly inform
    them of the beauty of Taiwanese mountains and
    oceans sometimes I did mention what improvements
    were needed in Taiwan such as the environmental
    protection. But, small Taiwan is so beautiful,
    and diversified. When we go abroad, the behavior
    and expression of the Taiwanese visitors in the
    foreign countries will create a positive image of
    Taiwan upon foreigners.

17
International Sister Cities Association
  • Headquartered in Washington, D.C., Sister Cities
    International is an international membership
    association responsible for recognizing and
    supporting sister cities relationships between
    U.S. communities and their international
    counterparts. The U.S. sister cities movement
    was developed in 1956 during a White House Summit
    on citizen diplomacy, initiated by President
    Dwight D. Eisenhower. The partnerships were
    initially seen as a means to promote world peace
    and diminish the tensions of World War II. Since
    that time, they have grown to encompass all sorts
    of cultural, economic and development-oriented
    activities.
  • Sister city programs are locally based and focus
    on the international interests and values that
    emerge from a local governments collaboration
    with citizen volunteers. This occurs through an
    organizational structure officially approved by
    the local government governing body.
  • Taiwan currently has 56 sister cities in United
    States. In order to safeguard the national
    interests and the well being of the people of
    Taiwan, the people of Taiwan will continue to
    fight for its rightful status and space for
    maneuver in the international community through
    all kinds of cultural educational, economic
    exchange programs of sister city organizations
    between Taiwan and U.S.

18
Conclusion
  • Diplomatic work can not only depend on the
    Government, and we cant neglect the strength
    from the people in Taiwan. Taiwans people
    diplomatic efforts are very important. Taiwanese
    immigrants in U.S. have to try to create good
    Taiwan image on Americans. Earlier US educated
    Taiwanese students have played an important role
    to import U.S. technology and science to advance
    Taiwans economic industrialization and political
    democratization. The American tourists in Taiwan
    and Taiwanese tourists in U.S. have played an
    important role in strengthening Taiwan-U.S.
    relations.
  • Taiwan Government recently has tried to
    participate in NGOs activities, but the progress
    is not successful. China has used its increasing
    economic power to pressure and attack Taiwan.
    International diplomacy depends on the interests,
    not on justice. American Governments diplomatic
    policy certainly is based on its interests.
    Although until today American image on Taiwan is
    better than on China, the gap between them are
    getting closer according to either 100 Persons
    Association or the Gallup Survey. These changes
    will eventually influence the American Government
    policy towards Taiwan
  • Therefore, having informal contacts as a bridge
    to improve U.S.-Taiwan relations is a must. For
    example, Chiang Chin-Kuo Foundation has done a
    wonderful task to strengthen Taiwan U.S.
    relations through providing research grants to
    scholars in American universities China Airline
    participates yearly in the parade with the car
    decorated with flowers at the Rose Bowl.
  • Taiwan Government should encourage the Taiwanese
    Americans, who live in every corner of the United
    States, to hold as many activities as possible to
    promote Taiwan and encourage them to participate
    in the community activities to have more people
    to people contacts.
About PowerShow.com