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Final Exam Review English 276 Fall 2006


Plot: Richard seduces Lady Anne, the widow of Henry VI's son Edward. Action: 1.2 ... Upset by his mother's remarriage to his nasty uncle, Hamlet contemplates suicide ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Final Exam Review English 276 Fall 2006

Final Exam Review English 276Fall 2006
  • The following are selected slides from this
    semester. They are meant to supplement, not
    replace, your notes.
  • The exam also covers explanatory material in the
  • For identifications, know the dialogue of the
    plays and the characters. Be able to identify
  • For example, in response to a quotation, you
    might write, Friar Laurences statement that
    flower contain medicine and poison also
    illustrates the nature of tragedy, where ones
    good or admirable qualities may produce disaster.

Rules for Action Statements
  • Only one character can perform the key action of
    the scene.
  • Decisions do not count.
  • Anything planned before the scene starts does not
  • The action is something the character does in
    thoughtful response to some cause or causes.
  • Talking to the audience can be an action.
  • When writing a full statement, put the main
    action in the main clause of the sentence.

What are some differences between drama and film?
  • Plays stress dialogue movies stress visuals.
  • Plays tend to stay in one physical location
    films often move over vast distances.
  • Plays are organized by scenes films are
    organized by camera shots.

Aristotles Six Elements of Tragedy (and comedy)
  • Plot--art of choosing and arranging events
  • Character--revealed by action
  • Thought--making choices
  • Diction--sometimes heightened language
  • Melody--music
  • Spectacle--landscape, horses

The Taming of the Shrew
How does Zeffirellis movie differ from play?
  • Probably the main difference between the text and
    movie is that Zeffirelli gives agency to Kate but
    takes it away from Tranio. He makes her a
    thoughtful personality who performs significant

How does Shakespeare soften the taming?
  • He includes line that both will fast (4.1.173)
  • He has Petruchio give his falcon taming speech
    to his men, whom he must impress (he may only
    speak this way publicly, but not think so cf.
    his comparison of his falcon and his wife at
  • Clever construction of the play 1) the double
    plot 2) the fourth act

How does Zeffirelli soften the taming?
  • eliminating Ps hawk-taming metaphor, with its
    offensive imagery
  • use slapstick humor, even in the starving scene
    at table
  • writing a new bedroom scene to show
  • that Petruchio can restrain his sex needs,
    implying he is no cruel husband
  • that both are attractive and sexually attracted
    to each other
  • that Kate can give (bed-warming pan) as good as
    she gets
  • (cont.)

How does Zeffirelli soften the taming?
  • Emphasizing song Where is the life that once I
    led implying that Kate is taming and
    transforming Petruchio as well
  • Using star quality of Taylor and Burton to make
    them attractive (also suggesting that strong
    personalities must yield to marriage)
  • Using mood music and Taylors ability to project
    longing to suggest that deep down, Petruchio and
    Kate are really attracted to each other, despite
    their public posture that he is a drunk and she a
  • Adding stage bits to suggest Ps transformation
    rather than Kates at first afraid of water at
    Hortensios house, he later washes his hands
    before attempting to go to bed with her (some
    guys will do anything . . . )

How does the double plot work?
  • Sets up a comparison between the wily servant
    Tranio--clever but misguided--and
    Katharina--clever but misguided.
  • To some extent, unseen elements of Kates
    transformation can be guessed by looking at
    Tranio 1) the off-stage wedding as Tranio plans
    for a supposed Vincentio and Lucentio thinks of
    eloping (3.2.128) 2) the time between Kates not
    agreeing its 2 oclock and agreeing the sun is
    the moon, during which Tranios plans start to
    fall apart

Other questions
  • Where do you think, if anywhere, Kate first feels
    attracted to Petruchio?
  • Is Petruchio ever cruel? How far can he go?
  • What motivates Tranio? Is he like Kate? She he
    accept his position as servant as she accepts
  • Explain the thematic unity of assuming poses
    (supposes, from I Suppositi, the Ariosto play
    that is the basis for the Lucentio plot) Who
    pretends to be what? Does this theme of people
    adopting roles influence our view of Katharina?

Romeo and Juliet
Many words have double meanings, or refer to fate
or the stars
  • From forth fatal loins of these two foes
  • A pair of star-crossd lovers take their life.
  • -- Prologue

Juliet also imagines Romeo among the stars in
heaven, foreshadowing his death. (In tragedies,
thoughts come true, because action follows
  • Come, gentle night, and, when I shall die,
  • Take him and cut him out in little stars,
  • And he will make the face of heaven so fine
  • That all the world will be in love with night.
  • 3.2.21-24

Romeo ignores his dream.
  • I fear, too early, for my mind misgives
  • Some consequence yet hanging in the stars
  • Shall bitterly begin his fearful date
  • With this nights revels.
  • 1.4.106-07

Tragedy results when a virtue becomes a vice.
Even plants have a double meaning a lesson, says
the friar, that applies to people.
  • Virtue itself turns vice, being misapplied,
  • And vice sometime by action dignified.
  • Within the infant rind of this fair flower
  • Poison hath residence and medicine power.
  • 2.3.21-24

Shakespearean tragedy requires (bad) timing and a
near miss (not).
  • Romeo steps between them.
  • Hold, Tybalt! Good Mercutio!
  • Tybalt under Romeos arm thrusts Mercutio in.
    Away Tybalt with his followers.
  • . . . .
  • Ben. What, art thou hurt?
  • Merc. Ay, ay, a scratch, a scratch, marry, tis
    enough. . . . No, tis not so deep as a well, nor
    so wide as a church-door, but tis enough, twill
  • 3.1.90 ff.

Richard III
Act 1
  • Richard eliminates Clarence.

  • Plot Richard arranges the death of his brother

  • 1.1. Richard pauses before following Hastings to
    the king to inform of us of his plans. So
    methodical, mechanical.

  • Plot Richard seduces Lady Anne, the widow of
    Henry VIs son Edward.

Action 1.2
  • Richard tells pall-bearers he will come after
    her before confiding to us that he will not keep
    Anne long, then enjoying the thought that he is
    better looking than he knew. So we see the first
    two scenes are structured in parallel Richard
    lying to someone, sending them off, then
    confiding to us.

Hollywood addition
  • Added sex scene (well, not quite). Like Italian
    neorealist directors, Locrine explains Richards
    murderous ambition by suggesting he is homosexual
    or at least cruel to women). As elsewhere, lack
    of dialogue clues you that something has been
    added to Shakespeares play.

Hollywood addition
  • Good people take drugs when life gets tough. (I
    hope you realize how crazy this is not just the
    drug taking, but that she medicates not after
    she marries this creep who killed her husband,
    but after he rejects her flirtations.)

  • Plot Lady Annes curse on herself is working.
    Locrino puts this scene before the crowning
    scene, probably just to break up the sequence of
    male dominated scenes, since he added so many
    bits for Ian McKellen (lounging around, smoking).

  • 4.1 After Anne notices that she has inadvertently
    cursed herself, Queen Elizabeth prays to the
    stones of the Tower to guard her children.

  • Plot Richard crowned.

Action, 4.2
  • 4.2 Richard refuses to give Buckingham what he
    wants, refusing him to his face. This is a
    complete switch in the pattern, appropriate for
    the counterstroke of act 4, since Richard before
    would tell the audience, not his enemies, his

  • 5.4 Offering, in vain, his kingdom for a horse,
    Richard refuses to withdraw.

  • Richmond wins

  • 5.5 Richmond prays that his heirs will promote

Act Summary
  • Act 1 Richard eliminates Clarence.
  • Act 2 Richard eliminates the queens influence.
  • Act 3 Richard eliminates popular opposition.
  • Act 4 Richmond rebels.
  • Act 5 Richmond triumphs Richard eliminates

What is Hamlet about?
  • Centuries of debate
  • T. S. Eliot Certainly an artistic failure

  • Good play for anyone having trouble figuring
    things out.
  • Good play for anyone who isnt having trouble
    figuring things out--yet.

Saxo Grammaticus (c. 1200), Historical Danica,
book 3
  • Story of a hero who assumes madness or stupidity
    for purpose of revenge. His father kills King of
    Norway in single combat. His enemies send a
    courtesan to seduce him, but he rapes her (the
    ur-Ophelia). He goes to England, wins the kings
    daughter there, returns and kills usurper in a
    sword exchange. Saxo has fratricide, incest,
    kings love of drink. Tone is more brutal Amleth
    boils the Polonius figure and feeds him to the
    pigs. He is vigorous (burns down the palace) but
    somewhat melancholic.

Renaissance version
  • Its about a man called on to exact revenge for
    the murder of his father.
  • Problems
  • The murderer is a king.
  • The source of the information is a ghost.
  • The revenge must be honorable.
  • There are spies everywhere.

Hamlets doubts
  • Why should his mother remarry such an
    unattractive man?
  • What does the appearance of his fathers ghost
  • Why has he lost his mirth?
  • Did his uncle kill his father?
  • Why doesnt he kill his uncle right away?
  • Why do women behave the way they do?

Disease and death imagery
  • Francisco Tis bitter cold, and I am sick at
    heart (1.1.10)
  • Horatio Ill cross it, though it blast me
  • Horatio It is a mote to trouble the minds eye
    (1.1.116 the war preparations and ghost)
  • Gertrude All that lives must die, / Passing
    through nature to eternity (1.2.72)

Disease imagery
  • Hamlet The world
  • . . . is an unweeded garden
  • That grows to seed. Things rank and gross in
  • Possess it merely (1.2.133)

Oh, that this too too sullied flesh would melt
  • Upset by his mothers remarriage to his nasty
    uncle, Hamlet contemplates suicide and sees the
    world as an unweeded garden.

What a piece of work is man. How noble in reason,
how infinite in faculties (2.2.304)
  • Hamlet tells R G that he is melancholy
    (depressed), does not exercise, the world seems
    diseased, however noble seem the heavens.
  • Man delights not me--no, nor woman neither,
    though by your smiling you seem to say so
  • The audience is not privileged in this play,
    where soliloquies merge with speeches.

Oh, what a rogue and peasant slave am I! (2.2.55)
  • Hamlet berates himself for doing nothing, even
    when motivated by a ghost, in comparison to the
    player whose emotions run away with him due to
    nothing but a fiction.
  • So he plans the Mousetrap.

Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pronounced it,
trippingly on the tongue (3.2.1)
  • Hamlet instructs the actors
  • Relevant to theme of play (words, appearances,
    exposure of Claudius) but not to Hamlets state
    of mind (not a soliloquy)

Tis now the very witching time of night (3.2.387)
  • Hamlet is in the mood for murder (having exposed
    Claudiuss guilt) when on the way to his mother.

How all occasions do inform against me (4.4.33)
  • Just as he was moved by the player to berate
    himself, Hamlet is moved by Fortinbras to take
    action, even for nothing.
  • Yet he meditates on the difference between men
    and beasts (unsaid sense of right and wrong,
    which makes the play so powerful)

To what base uses we may return, Horatio! Why may
not imagination trace the noble dusty of
Alexander (5.1.204)
  • Hamlet raises issue that too much thinking is bad
    for anyone.
  • Hamlet, like the play, strangely finds
    consolation in the grave-yard, not more

There is a special providence in the fall of a
sparrow. If it be now, tis not to come . . . The
readiness is all (5.2.217)
  • Beautiful, but ironic, since Hamlet seems very
    unready to face the kings threat.
  • As philosophy, this sounds consoling but
    fatalistic. A dangerous combination.
  • Hamlets tragedy he tries to accept the world,
    and it kills him.

Classical Tragedy
  • Its about a man whose admirable intelligence
    leads him through a sequence of decisive, moral
    actions that, due to circumstances he cannot
    control or reasonably foresee, unfortunately kill
  • Counter-argument
  • Most of his actions are mean.

Olivier Version
  • The play is about a man who cannot make up his
  • Problem
  • Oedipal longing for mother and jealousy of the
    man married to her.
  • Emotion clouds reason.

Feminist Hamlet
  • This is a play about a woman who has no control
    over her life, goes mad, and kills herself.
  • Her problems
  • Overbearing father, jerk for a boyfriend,hothouse
    existence, no female companionship or
    understanding, ignorance about the facts of life.
  • Modern versions make her angry
  • p. 631 for Helena Bonham Carter in Mel Gibson

Zeffirelli Theory
  • This is a play about a man who reminds one of Mel
    Gibsons mad max.
  • Problem
  • How can a man remain a hero in a world of random

Almereyda version
  • A play about a man whose intentions are thwarted
    by impersonal forces like an uncurious mother,
    and a ruthless uncle, and corporate capitalism
    (symbolized by New York high rise money)

  • The film takes its epilogue from lines Hamlet
    perhaps wrote for the Player King
  • Our wills and fates do so contrary run
  • That our devices still are overthrown
  • Our thoughts are ours, their ends none of our
    own (3.2.209-211)

Problems with Almereyda verison
  • The lines that immediately follow reveal Hamlets
    obsession with his mother.
  • So think thou wilt no second husband wed
  • But die thy thoughts when thy first lord is dead.
  • (3.2.212-213)
  • This may be a second-rate thought, like the rest
    of the play within a play.
  • The film therefore alters the context of the
    lines it takes as an epilogue
  • just as Olivier, but here the reason may be
    anti-Freud, where Olivier stressed Hamlets
    attraction to his mother).

Problems with Almereyda verison
  • The film does not focus on Hamlets idealism.
  • Not enough emphasis is given to what Hamlet says
    about the difference between his ideals and the
    sordid reality of the world. The film perhaps
    tries to get us to take the Dahli Llama stuff
    seriously(the best part of the film), but fails
    to carry through in the second half.

Alm Problems with Almereyda verison ereyda
  • The film wrongly debases Hamlets stature,
  • It does not do enough to show that side of him
    that is intelligent and courageous (able to
    out-duel a man whom Lamord (death) called the
    greatest swordsman in France--4.7.90)
  • The film dresses him like a be-drugged tramp,
    hardly the man Ophelia called Thexpectancy and
    rose of the fair state, / The glass of fashion
    and the mold of form (3.1.155-156), even after
    Hamlet berates her (unless the knit hat and
    period motorcycle and electronic gadgetry is
    meant to be ultra-cool).

R G Are Dead
  • Hamlet says whiff and wind speech during dinner
    with RG , suggesting its on his mind
  • but indoor setting loses force of overhanging
  • Film eliminates problem of tedious fourth act by
    avoiding question of Claudiuss guilt
  • since R G died in act four, act 5 is presented
    as a mime in the play-within-a-play scene
  • Claudius sees his past in Mousetrap, but RG
    cant see their future

R G Are Dead
  • Makes Hamlet a romance rather than a tragedy.
  • Romances hide social domination, which define
    good and evil, but projecting good and evil as
  • Acting can be good or bad, so its magic
  • Fortune can be good or bad, so it is really about
    social domination

RG Are Dead
  • Modes of social control change as economy changes
  • R G fore-feel modern science
  • but they cant escape their world or
  • they wonder if they should follow instructions to
    put Hamlet to death
  • but they cant escape hierarchy of power (orders
    from the king), meaning they glimpse fact that
    but cant understand that they are actors in that
    world (like all of us in our worlds)

(No Transcript)
Professor Rosss view
  • This is a play about not knowing, or being
    certain, how to behave.
  • Customs seem to determine what is right and
    wrong, not the other way around.
  • Hamlet wonders about Purgatory, mourning, dating,
    fencing, remarriage, succession, action, acting,
    drinking, custom itself, believing a ghost.
  • See Rosencranz and Guildenstern Are Dead for film
    approach to these issues.

Customs in Hamlet
  • Customs define society
  • They are determined by the mores (pn, morays),
    that is, example and experience, and are not
    necessarily rational.

Customs in Hamlet
  • Customs give social certainty to uncertain
    situations, but what if one does not know the
    local custom?
  • When to put on ones hat or take it off (Osric in
  • What to believe (defy augury or see providence
    in the fall of a sparrow Ophelia?, 5.2.219)
  • Why does Hamlet duel, knowing the king is trying
    to kill him? Suicidal, thinking of Ophelia?
    Afraid to act? Thinks he has time? Perhaps it is
    not his custom to kill he rejects the unwritten
    law, the customs or honor and revenge.

Much Ado about Nothing
Horses and Hollywood
  • Film is static, unlike stage, which changes every
    night, but horses constantly move, even on the
    static screen, and so are always interesting.
  • shots of hooves, different gaits (walk, trot,
    cantor, gallop) give illusion of change even when
    seen twice
  • No deer in the headlights horses always natural,
    unlike actors or trained animals
  • Three taboos of stage real death, real sex, live
    horses galloping--only last is impossible, needs

Missing Horsesand Shakespeare on Film
  • Ironic my kingdom for a horse in R3, when jeep is
  • Dogberrys pretend horse
  • The hobby horse (worn around the waist
  • Hamlet, Much Ado, also fake rape in RG Are Dead)

  • Comedy offers malicious enjoyment through the
    spectacle of those deficient in self-knowledge
    (agnoia, Philebus 48c) and the ridiculous
    consequences which follow from exaggerated
  • The ridiculous is the bad state of a mind that
    does not know itself (the lesson of the Oracle
    of Delphi)

Theory of Comedy
  • Tragedy is about the break-up of civilization.
  • Comedy is about the establishment of social
  • Both are dramatic terms of art thus tragedy is
    not the same as horrible and comedies can be
    bittersweet as well as funny.
  • Drama is not life, but ritual thus Shakespeare
    ends comedies in weddings as a sign, not a proof,
    of social stability 3 weddings in MSND 2 in
    Much Ado
  • (What happens after, who knows? Cf. the marital
    problems of Oberon and Titania but you need

  • From Shakespeare Script, Stage, Screen, pp.
  • Impossible to define
  • Definite kinds, low to high
  • Reformation of a (ridiculous) character
  • Holiday spirit
  • Ritual element (marriage)
  • Comic diction

End of Monty Python and the Meaning of Life
  • Sense of moral uplift for vile humans
  • Montage of death
  • Dinner party as image of social communion
  • Outsider/scapegoat to remove evil
  • Hint of heaven
  • Rebirth after death
  • Music and harmony
  • Message be kind to others

Comedy For you to think about.
  • What elements of comedy do you find in Much Ado
    About Nothing that makes it serious art?
  • Does Branagh leave any out?
  • Does he add any?
  • Hint Why does Hero seem to die and then come
    back to life?

  • Where film must start strongly, it is arguable
    that drama must end strongly.
  • Compare the whirling camera at the end of
    Branaghs Much Ado to his use of stage show
    motifs in his Loves Labors Lost and the same
    motif that ends The Meaning of Life, the 1983
    Monty Python film.
  • Perhaps this uplifting harmony is the comedic
    version of Aristotles emphasis on the effect of
    drama on the audience.

Music in Much Ado, to reinforce sense of social
  • Benedick asks Claudio In what key shall a man
    take you to go in the song?
  • Beatrice reacting to Heros impending marriage
    the fault will be in time to the music wooing,
    wedding, and repenting (2.1.73)
  • Balthasars song is part of Don Pedros plot
  • Beatrice, appearing in love in 3.4, says she is
    out of tune
  • Benedick calls for a dance to end the play.

Nothing/Nothing as the Ridiculous?
  • This is a play about nothing, scrutinizing for
    little signs of truth, relying on fallible eyes,
    as when Beatrice and Benedick ignore the others
    words and look for signs that the other loves
  • While B and B are examining minutia, Claudio is
    deceived by the overly obvious impersonation of
    Hero by Margaret. He is not at all interested in
    the signs of love but in marrying an heiress with
    the sought after qualities of beauty and meekness
    (neither one said to belong to Beatrice, whose
    name, rather, suggests beatitude, or cosmic
    happiness, while Benedick means blessed)

pun on nothing 2.3.48
  • Because you talk of wooing, I will sing
  • Since many a wooer doth commence his suit
  • To her he thinks not worthy, yet he woos,
  • Yet will he swear he loves.
  • Now, pray thee, come
  • Or, if thou wilt hold longer argument,
  • Do it in notes.
  • Note this before my notes
  • There's not a note of mine that's worth the
  • Why, these are very crotchets that he speaks
  • Note, notes, forsooth, and nothing.

Sigh no more men were deceivers ever
  • Sung just before men deceive Benedick
  • Balthasar says the song is about how men deceive
    women by wooing falsely.
  • But Don Pedro wants the music (Note, notes) and
    nothing of that meaning but rather, here, a
    set-up for the nothing noting by Benedick of
    their feigned conversation about how Beatrice
    loves him.
  • So the play harmonizes or softens male deception
    by turning it from a slander to a merry plot,
    re-enacting origins of comedy as a form.

Film v. Drama
  • Film stresses opening drama depends on how the
    captive audience leaves the theater stunned in
    tragedy, uplifted by comedy.
  • Film is static the interpretation never changes,
    no matter how many times we see the film but
    drama can change every night, as an actor gives
    different emphasis. Even on the same night, the
    same play may seem different, depending on the
    angle and distance of the spectator.

Much Ado About Nothing
  • Why does the play have a double plot?
  • To suggest contrast between physical attraction
    and intellectual compatibility
  • After all I have said about spectacle, what
    argument can you make for reading the play?
  • thinking about Beatrice as a name meaning
    beatitude, for example, which reminds us of
    heaven, harmony, uplift, role of comedy.
  • Don Pedro especially is very thoughtful, a master
    of ceremonies, a user of heightened language that
    we need to ponder over at leisure see 5.3.24-28,
    as he announces the new dawn, new day, after
    mourning ritual for dead Hero

  • Notice how closely the supernatural opening of
    Macbeth duplicates the complex elements used for
    elevate comedy at the end of Monty Pythons The
    Meaning of Life and the long dance at the end of
    Much Ado About Nothing.
  • Monty Python

Shakespeare uses short and headless lines to
suggest the supernatural
  • When shall we three meet again?
  • In thunder, lightning, or in rain?

Irony and ambiguityRoss
  • 1.2 He reports how Macbeth defeated the Thane of
    Cawdor and Sweno, the king of Norway.
  • This repeats what the Captain has said.
  • Is Ross Macbeths agent?
  • Polanski makes him the third murderer

The set up for irony
  • Macbeth tells Duncan he will make joyful / The
    hearing of my wife with your approach 1.4.45
  • Lady Macbeth says The raven himself is hoarse /
    That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan / Under
    my battlements (1.5.38-41)
  • And Duncan This castle hath a pleasant seat.
    The air / Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself /
    Unto our gentle senses (1.6.1-3)

1.3 Adventurers of the first witch
  • A sailors wife had chestnuts in her lap,
  • And munched, and munched, and munched. Give me,
    quoth I.
  • Outlandish revenge for small insults typical of
    incompetent witches.
  • Not in Polanski

1.3 More adventurers of the first witch
  • Aroint thee, witch! the rump-fed runnion cries.
  • Her husbands to Aleppo gone, master oth Tiger.
  • The second line does not scan essentially prose,
    as the witch turns to short, happy verse as she
    plans her revenge
  • But in a sieve Ill thither sail,
  • And like a rat without a tail
  • Ill do, Ill do, Ill do.

1.3 More adventurers of the first witch
  • limited powers
  • the witch cannot kill
  • Control of the weather
  • Second witch Ill give thee a wind.
  • . . .
  • First witch Though his bark cannot be lost,
  • Yet it shall be tempest tossed.

Clothing and baby images
  • Macbeth (1.3.108)
  • The Thane of Cawdor lives. Why do you dress me in
    borrowed robes? (prose)
  • Macbeth (1.3.108)
  • Aside to Banquo
  • Do you not hope your children shall be kings?

Moral clarity
  • Contrast Hamlet
  • Compare to theme of doublings
  • Banquo (1.3.121)
  • And oftentimes to win us to our harm
  • The instruments of darkness tell us truths.

Time (tomorrow and tomorrow)
  • Macbeth struggles with predestination,
  • Ignores Banquos garment image and completes
    either Banquos verse line or his own!
  • If chance will have me king, why, chance may
    crown me
  • Without my stir.
  • Banquo New honors come upon him
  • Like our strange garments, cleave not to their
  • But with the aid of use.
  • Macbeth aside Come what come may,
  • Time and the hour runs through the roughest day.

Double dealing
  • Duncan Theres no art
  • To find the minds construction in the face.
  • He was a gentleman on whom I built
  • An absolute trust. (1.4.11-12)
  • Lady Macbeth
  • Your face, my thane, is as a book where men
  • May read strange matters. (1.5.62) (true? Or

Highly charged language
  • If it were done when tis done, then twere well
  • It were done quickly. If thassassination
  • Could trammel up the consequence, and catch
  • With his surcease success . . . . (1.7.2-4)

Reasons for not killing Duncan
  • Bad precedent (teach bloody instruction)
  • Double trust of guest and kinsman
  • Virtues and popularity of king
  • No spur

Film techniqueIf it were done
  • Use multiple shots
  • Move through space
  • Find visual equivalents for word images
  • Musicians
  • Dinner and toast
  • Singing Fleance
  • Wind and lamps
  • Storm and horses
  • Castle in distance

Dinner hospitality (trust as guest)
Thunder prelude to music
Boy singing
  • Equivocal love song, a warning
  • Young boy as prophet, cf. 4.1.
  • Ross in control
  • Dinner Harmony communion,
  • Lady Macbeth flirts

Back to head shot
Stormy night
  • Horses passions of Macbeths soul
  • Visual equivalent for Lennoxs description of the
    night (2.3.55 ff.)

Macbeth alone
  • Follows text left the chamber
  • Rain
  • Head shot mental cogitation

Mixed metaphor
  • Lady Macbeth Was the hope drunk wherein you
    dressed yourself? (1.7.37)
  • Is this part of Lady Ms character?

Mixed metaphor
  • Lady Macbeth If he do bleed, / Ill gild the
    faces of the grooms withal, / For it must seem
    their guilt (2.2.62)
  • Is this part of Lady Ms character?

Lady Macbeths arguments for murder
  • Dont be drunk or sleepy
  • Show you love me
  • Banish fear
  • ornament of life
  • Dont be a coward
  • Be a man, not a beast.

Be a man
Lennox? Motivation?
1.7 Action
  • Away, and mock the time with fairest show.
  • False face must hide what the false heart doth

Moral moment (2.1.27)
Multisyllables v. Monosyllables
  • Will all great Neptunes ocean wash this blood
  • Clean from my hand? No, this my hand will rather
  • The multitudinous seas incarnadine,
  • Making the green one red.

Dramatic irony
  • A little water clears us of this deed (2.2.72)

Macbeth as tragic
  • admirable, meditative man
  • not a happy murderer, like Richard III
  • not immune to temptation
  • caught in a world of equivocations
  • himself a bit of a liar, like all of us
  • shows how a good man can go horribly wrong,
    producing pity and fear
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