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COMMUNICATION SKILLS

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'TO LISTEN CLOSELY AND REPLY WELL IS THE ... WHEN TO SPEAK AND WHEN TO LISTEN ... 30% SOUNDS TONE. 60% BODY LANGUAGE HOW WE SAY IT. WHY TO COMMUNICATE? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: COMMUNICATION SKILLS


1
COMMUNICATION SKILLS
SECRETARIAT TRAINING INSTITUTE
  • SYED ANWAR-UL-HASAN BOKHARI
  • DEPUTY CONSULTANT, NRB

NOVEMBER 29, 2004
2
INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION
3
KEY TO SUCCESS
  • WHAT YOU SAY
  • HOW YOU SAY

WORDS ARE THE MOST POWERFUL DRUG USED BY
MANKIND. (RUDYARD KIPLING)
4
  • TO LISTEN CLOSELY AND REPLY WELL IS THE HIGHEST
    PERFECTION WE ARE ABLE TO ATTAIN IN THE ART OF
    CONVERSATION.

LA ROCHEFOUCAULD
5
CONVERSATION SKILLS
  • WHEN TO SPEAK AND WHEN TO LISTEN
  • HOW TO MOVE A CONVERSATION FROM THE PAST TO THE
    PRESENT AND TO THE FUTURE
  • WHY CONVERSATIONAL LINKING IS NECESSARY
  • HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN PARALLEL AND
    SEQUENTIAL CONVERSATION
  • HOW TO RAISE ENERGY LEVELS IN DISCUSSIONS
  • HOW TO MOVE BETWEEN PROBLEM-CENTRED CONVERSATION
    AND SOLUTION-CENTRED CONVERSATION

6
WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION?
  • A GROUP OF PEOPLE ASSOCIATED FOR BUSINESS,
    POLITICAL, PROFESSIONAL, RELIGIOUS, ATHLETIC,
    SOCIAL, OR OTHER PURPOSES.
  • ITS ACTIVITIES REQUIRE HUMAN BEING TO INTERACT,
    REACT COMMUNICATE.
  • ORGANIZATIONS FACILITATE TO EXCHANGE INFORMATION,
    IDEAS, PLANS, ORDER NEEDED SUPPLIES, MAKE
    DECISIONS, RULES, PROPOSALS, CONTRACTS,
    AGREEMENTS ETC.

7
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
  • VIRTUALLY EVERY MANAGEMENT FUNCTION AND ACTIVITY
    E.G. PLANNING, CONTROLLING, DECISION MAKING,
    LEADERSHIP AND STAFFING, CAN BE CONSIDERED
    COMMUNICATION.
  • ORG. PERFORMANCE CORRELATES DIRECTLY WITH THE
    QUALITY OF MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION.
  • AN AVERAGE MANAGER SPENDS MORE TIME IN
    COMMUNICATING THAN DOING ANYTHING ELSE.

8
WHAT IS COMMUNICATION ?
  • COMMUNICATION IS THE PROCESS OF TRANSMITTING
    INFORMATION FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER.
  • THE TRANSFER OF INFORMATION AND UNDERSTANDING
    FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER PERSON.

(Keith Davis)
CONTED
9
  • COMMUNICATION IS A SOCIAL PROCESS.
  • COMMUNICATION IS LIKE CHAIN PROCESS, MADE UP OF
    IDENTIFIABLE LINKS.
  • A PROCESS OF TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING VERBAL
    AND NON-VERBAL MESSAGES THAT PRODUCE A RESPONSE

(MURPHY AND HILDEBRANDT)
10
  • COMMUNICATION REFERS TO THE ACT, BY ONE OR MORE
    PERSONS, OF SENDING AND RECEIVING MESSAGES THAT
    ARE DISTORTED BY NOISE, OCCUR WITHIN A CONTEXT,
    HAVE SOME EFFECT, AND PROVIDE SOME OPPORTUNITY
    FOR FEEDBACK
  • (JOSEPH A. DEVITO)

11
COMMUNICATION IS REPRESENTED BY 10 WORDS
WHAT WE SAY 30 SOUNDS TONE 60 BODY LANGUAGE
HOW WE SAY IT
12
WHY TO COMMUNICATE?
  • COMMUNICATION SATISFACTION COORELATES WITH JOB
    SATISFACTION AND JOB PERFORMANCE.
  • COMMITMENT CORRELATES WITH JOB SATISFACTION AND
    PERCEPTIONS OF GOOD ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE.

13
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
  • EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION OCCURS WHEN THE MESSAGE
    RECEIVED IS AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE AS THE MESSAGE
    INTENDED TO BE SENT MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING.
  • COMMUNICATION IS EFFECTIVE ONLY IF PEOPLE

- UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER - STIMULATE OTHERS TO
TAKE ACTION - ENCOURAGE OTHERS TO THINK IN NEW
WAYS.
14
SEVEN Cs OF COMMUNICATION
  • COMPLETENESS CONTAINS ALL FACTS THE READER OR
    LISTENER NEEDS FOR DESIRED ACTION.
  • CONCISENESS
  • CONSIDERATION
  • CONCRETENESS
  • CLARITY
  • COURTESY
  • CORRECTNESS

15
ORGANISATIONAL BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATIONS
  • INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY
  • ANTICIPATE PROBLEMS
  • MAKE DECISIONS
  • COORDINATE WORKFLOW
  • SUPERVISE OTHERS
  • DEVELOP RELATIONSHIPS
  • BETTER UNDERSTANDING IN THE WORKPLACE IN GENERAL

16
COMMUNICATION TODAY
  • SIGNIFICANT SOURCE IN MANAGING AND LEADING
    ORGANIZATIONS.
  • OPPORTUNITY TO INVOLVE AND MOTIVATE PEOPLE TO
    COMMON GOALS.
  • OPPORTUNITY TO COOPERATION WITH STAKEHOLDERS.
  • CHALLENGE TO CONFIRM THE STATUS IN SOCIETY.

17
COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND TOP EXECUTIVES
  • COMMUNICATION SKILLS OCCUPY AS MUCH AS 90 OF A
    TOP EXECUTIVES WORKING DAY.
  • 85 OF BUSINESS EXECs. RATED BUSINESS
    COMMUNICATION AS VERY IMPORTANT, WHEREAS ONLY 20
    RATED KNOWLEDGE OF PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT AS
    VERY IMPORTANT.
  • FORTUNE 500 EXECs. RANK ORAL PRESENTATIONS, MEMO
    WRITING, AND REPORT WRITING AS THE TOP 3
    NECESSARY COMMUNICATION SKILLS.

18
HUMAN COMMUNICATION
19
AREAS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION
  • INTRAPERSONAL TO THINK, REASON, ANALYZE,
    REFLECT.
  • INTERPERSONAL TO DICOVER, RELATE, INFLUENCE,
    PLAY, HELP.
  • SMALL GROUP SHARE INFORMATION, GENERATE IDEAS,
    SOLVE PROBLEMS, HELP.
  • ORGANANIZATIONAL INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY, RAISE
    MORALE, INFORM, PERSUADE.
  • PUBLIC INFORM, PERSUADE, ENTERTAIN
  • MASS ENTERTAIN, PERSUADE AND INFORM

20
PURPOSES OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION
TO DISCOVER
TO RELATE
HUMAN COMMUNICATION
TO PLAY
TO HELP
TO PERSUADE
21
PROCESS AND CONTEXT OF COMMUNICATION
22
BASIC COMMUNICATION PROCESS
NOISE
NOISE
FEEDBACK
SENDER ---------- PERCEPTION --------- IDEA
UNDERSTANDING ---------- PERCEPTION --------- RECE
IVER
ENCODE
MEDIUM
DECODE
NOISE
NOISE
23
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION
  • SENDER / ENCODER
  • MESSAGE
  • MEDIUM
  • RECEIVER / DECODER
  • FEEDBACK

24
COMMUNICATION CONTEXT
  • PHYSICAL CONTEXT
  • CULTURAL CONTEXT
  • SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT
  • TEMPORAL (TIME) CONTEXT

25
PHYSICAL CONTEXT
  • TANGIBLE OR CONCRETE ENVIRONMENT E.I. ROOM OR
    HALLWAY OR PARK.
  • EXERT INFLUENCE ON THE CONTENT (WHAT WE SAY) AS
    WELL AS THE FORM (HOW WE SAY IT) OF THE MESSAGE.

26
CULTURAL CONTEXT
  • REFERS TO THE COMMUNICATORS RULES AND NORMS,
    BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES THAT ARE TRANSMITTED FROM
    ONE GENERATION TO ANOTHER.
  • DIRECT EYE CONTECT BETWEEN CHILD AND ADULT
    SIGNIFIES DIRECTNESS AND HONEST IN ONE CULTURE
    AND DEFIANCE AND LACK OF RESPECT IN OTHER.

27
SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT
  • INCLUDE STATUS RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE
    PARTICIPANTS, THE ROLES AND THE GAMES THE PEOPLE
    PLAY, AND THE CULTURAL ROLE OF THE SOCIETY IN
    WHICH THEY ARE COMMUNICATING.
  • INCLUDE FRIENDLINESS OR UNFRIENDLINESS, FORMALITY
    OR INFORMALITY, AND SERIOUSNESS OR HUMOUROUSNESS
    OF THE SITUATION.

28
TEMPORAL CONTEXT
  • TIME OF DAY AS WELL AS TIME OF HISTORY
  • FOR MANY PEOPLE MORNING IS NOT A TIME FOR
    COMMUNICATION FOR OTHERS IT IS IDEAL
  • APPROPRIATENESS AND IMPACT OF MESSAGES DEPEND, IN
    PART, ON THE TIME IN WHICH THEY ARE UTTERED.

29
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
30
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
  • INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  • CORPORATE COMMUNICATION
  • FORMAL COMMUNICATION
  • NON-FORMAL COMMUNICATION
  • ORAL COMMUNICATION
  • WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
  • NON-VERBAL COMUNICATION

31
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  • ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION
  • NON-ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION
  • AGGRESSIVE COMMUNICATION

32
ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION
  • CONFIDENTLY EXPRESSING WHAT YOU THINK, FEEL AND
    BELIEVE.
  • STANDING UP FOR YOUR RIGHTS WHILE RESPECTING THE
    RIGHTS OF OTHERS.
  • CONVEYING MEANING AND EXPECTATIONS WITHOUT
    HUMILATING OR DEGRADING OTHERS.
  • BASED UPON RESPECT FOR YOURSELF AND RESPECT FOR
    OTHER PEOPLES NEED AND RIGHTS

33
NON-ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION
  • RELUCTANCE OR INABILITY TO EXPRESS CONSISTENTLY
    WHAT YOU THINK, FEEL AND BELIEVE.
  • ALLOWS OTHERS TO VIOLATE YOUR RIGHTS WITHOUT
    CHALLENGE.
  • REFLECTS LACK OF RESPECT FOR YOUR OWN
    PREFERENCES.
  • OTHER CAN EASILY DISREGARD YOUR THOUGHTS,
    FEELINGS, AND BELIEVES.

34
AGGRESSIVE COMMUNICATION
  • EXPRESSING YOURSELF IN WAYS THAT INTIMIDATE,
    DEMEAN, OR DEGRADE ANOTHER PERSON.
  • PURSUING WHAT YOU WANT IN WAYS THAT VIOLATES THE
    RIGHTS OF ANOTHER PERSON.
  • THIS IS WHAT I THINK. YOU ARE DUMB FOR THINKING
    DIFERENTLY.

35
DISTORTION IN PERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  • IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT THE PROCESS BY WHICH A
    SENDER CONSCIOUSLY ATTEMPTS TO INFLUENCE THE
    PERCEPTIONS THAT THE RECEIVERS FORM. COMMONLY
    USED IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT STATEGIES ARE -
  • INGRATIATION USING FLATTERY, SUPPORTING THE
    OPINIONS OF THE OTHER PERSON, DOING FAVOURS,
    SMILING EXPRESSIVELY IN SUPPORT OF THE PERSON
    ETC.
  • SELF-PROMOTION COMMUNICATING ONES PERSONAL
    ATTRIBUTES IN A HIGHLY POSITIVE AND EXAGGERATED
    WAY.
  • FACE SAVING COMMUNICATING APOLOGIES, MAKING
    EXCUSES, PRODUCING JUSTIFICATIONS ETC.

36
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION NETWORK (ICN)
  • ICN REFERS TO PATTERN OVER TIME OF COMMUNICATION
    FLOWS BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL.
  • IT EMPHASIZES COMMUNICATION RELATIONSHIPS AMONG
    INDIVIDUALS OVER TIME, RATHER THAN ON THE
    INDIVIDUALS THEMSELVES.
  • NETWORK INVLOVES THE ONGOING FLOW OF ORAL,
    WRITTEN, AND NONVERBAL SIGNALS BETWEEN TWO PEOPLE
    OR BETWEEN ONE PERSON AND ALL OTHER NETWORK
    MEMBERS SIMULTANEOUSLY.

37
MESSAGES AND CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION
38
MESSAGES AND CHANNELS
  • COMMUNICATION CHANNEL IS THE MEDIUM THROUGH WHICH
    THE MESSAGE PASSES.
  • RARELY TAKES PLACE OVER ONE CHANNEL. MAY USE TWO,
    THREE, FOUR DIFFERENT CHANNELS SIMULTANEOUSLY.
  • VOCAL CHANNEL SPEAK LISTEN
  • VISUAL CHANNEL GESTURE
  • OLFACTORY CHANNEL EMITING OR DETECTING ODORS
  • TECTILE CHANNEL TOUCHING ANOTHER PERSON

39
SPECIAL MESSAGES
  • FEEDBACK MESSAGES
  • FEEDFORWARD MESSAGES

40
FEEDBACK MESSAGES
  • POSITIVE ----- NEGATIVE
  • PERSON-FOCUSED ----- MESSAGE FOCUSED
  • IMMEDIATE ----- DELAYED
  • LOW MONITORING ----- HIGH MONITORING
  • SUPPORTIVE ----- CRITICAL

41
CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK
  • BASED UPON TRUST BETWEEN SENDER AND RECEIVER
  • SPECIFIC RATHER GENERAL
  • GIVEN AT A TIME WHEN THE RECEIVER APPEARS TO BE
    READY TO ACCEPT IT.
  • CHECKED WITH THE RECEIVER TO DETERMINE WHETHER IT
    SEEMS VALID
  • INCLUDES BEHAVIOURS THE RECEIVER MAY BE CAPABLE
    OF DOING
  • DOES NOT INCLUDE MORE THAN THE RECEIVER CAN
    HANDLE AT ANY PARTICULAR TIME.

42
FEEDBACK SKILLS
  • EMPHASIZE WHAT YOU SEE AND HEAR DESCRIPTIVE
    RATHER EVALUATIVE FEEDBACK
  • CONCENTRATE ON PARTICULAR POINTS
  • OUTLINE THE POSITIVE POINTS.
  • INDICATE WHAT CAN AND SHOULD BE DONE
  • BUILD ON WHAT PEOPLE WANT
  • CHOOSE YOUR TIME
  • REACH AN AGREEMENT

43
FEEDFROWARD MESSAGES
  • OPEN THE CHANNELS OF COMM.
  • PREVIEW FUTURE MESSAGES
  • ALTERCAST (PLACE THE RECIVER IN A SPECIFIC ROLE
    AND REQUESTING HIM TO RESPOND IN TERMS OF ASSUMED
    ROLE)
  • TO DISCLAIM

44
COMMUNICATION BARRIERS
45
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
  • PROCESS BARRIERS
  • SENDER BARRIER
  • ENCODING BARRIER
  • MEDIUM BARRIER
  • DECODING BARRIER
  • FEEDBACK BARRIER
  • PHSYSICAL BARRIERS
  • SEMANTIC BARRIERS
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS

46
NOISE
  • PHYSICAL PASSING OF CARS, HUM OF COMPUTER
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL COGNITIVE OR MENTAL INTERFERENCE
    I.E. BIASES AND PREJUDICES IN SENDER AND
    RECEIVERS, CLOSED-MINDEDNESS.
  • SEMANTIC DIFERENT LANGUAGES, USE OF JARGON OR
    OVERLY COMPLEX TERMS.
  • CULTURAL
  • POLITICAL
  • EMOTIONAL
  • ECONOMIC

47
INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE ON
COMMUNICATION
  • ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE
  • FORMALLY PRESCRIBED PATTERN OF INTER-RELATIONSHIPS
    BETWEEN THE VARIOUS UNITS OF AN ORGANIZATION
  • THE NATURE AND FORM OF COMMUNICATION VARY GREATLY
    AS A FUNCTION OF PEOPLES RELATIVE POSITIONS WITH
    AN ORGANIZATION
  • ORGANIZATION CHART
  • DIAGRAM SHOWING THE FORMAL STRUCTURE OF AN
    ORGANIZATION AND INDICATING WHO IS TO COMMUNICATE
    WITH WHOM

48
INTERNAL COMMUNICATION
  • DETERMINATION OF TASKS, PRINCIPLES AND OBJECTIVES
  • ANALYSIS OF THE EMPLOYEES KNOWLEDGE AND IMAGE OF
    THE ORGANIZATION
  • DETERMINATION OF FOCUS AREAS IN DEVELOPING
    COMMUNICATION
  • RESPONSIBILITIES AND RESOURCES

49
EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION
  • REPUTATIONAL MANAGEMENT
  • REPUTATION CAPITAL

50
ORGANIZATION CHART AND FORMAL COMMUNICATIONS
SECRETARY
AS
Sr. JS/JS
DS
DS
DS
DS
SO
SO
51
IMPROVING UPWARD COMMUNICATION
  • FORMAL GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES
  • EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE AND OPINION SURVEYS
  • SUGGESTION SYSTEMS
  • OPEN-DOOR POLICY
  • INFORMAL GRIPE SESSIONS
  • TASK FORCES
  • EXIT INTERVIEWS

52
BECOMING A BETTER COMMUNICATOR
  • EFFECTIVE LISTENING
  • TOLERATE SILENCE
  • ASK STIMULATING OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS
  • ATENTIVE EYE CONTACT, ALERT POSTURE AND VERBAL
    ENCOURAGERS
  • PARAPHRASE
  • SHOW EMOTION
  • KNOW YOUR BAISES AND PREJUDICES
  • AVOID PREMATURE JUDGEMENT
  • SUMMERISE

53
  • EFFECTIVE WRITING
  • KEEP WORD SIMPLE
  • DONT SACRIFICE COMM. FOR RULES OF COMPOSITION
  • WRITE CONCISELY
  • BE SPECIFIC

54
CHANGE AND COMMUNICATION
  • UNSUCCESSFUL CHANGE IS MOSTLY MISSING OR POOR
    COMMUNICATION.
  • THE LINEAR (ONE-WAY, TOP-DOWN) MODEL DOES NOT
    WORK ANY MORE.

55
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
  • WATCH THE LANGUAGE
  • FOLLOW THROUGH
  • DEAL WITH UNCERTAINITY
  • BE AN ACTIVE LISTENER
  • MANAGE CONFLICT
  • RESPOND, DONT RE-ACT
  • GIVE FEEDBACK
  • INVITE PARTICIPATION
  • KEEP YOUR TEAM UP-TO-DATE
  • CONNECT PERSONALLY WITH EMPLOYEES
  • TAKE ADVANTAGE OF COMMUNICATION RESOURCES

56
PROBLEMS/CHALLENGES
  • TECHNOLOGY SHRINKS INTERACTION AND DIALOGUE.
  • TOO MUCH INFORMATION.
  • TOO COMPLEX ISSUES.
  • SHORTAGE OF COMMON MEANINGS AND INTERPRETATIONS.
  • EVERYONE MUST BE RESPONSIBLE FOR HIS / HER
    INFORMATION PURCHASE.

57
THANK YOU
CONTACT NATIONAL RECONSTRUCTION BUREAU ROOM NO.
3053, CABINET BLCCK, ISLAMABAD. TELE
9216106 EMAIL bsyed_at_hotmail.com WEB
www.policy.hu/bokhari
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