Recovery Emergency Management for Schools training February 23, 2007, Philadelphia, PA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Recovery Emergency Management for Schools training February 23, 2007, Philadelphia, PA


Short-term considerations. Quick decision making regarding school/academic routines ... Psychological/Emotional Recovery: Short-Term ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Recovery Emergency Management for Schools training February 23, 2007, Philadelphia, PA

RecoveryEmergency Management for Schools
trainingFebruary 23, 2007, Philadelphia, PA
  • Alex James
  • Director, Office of School Facilities
  • South Carolina Department of Education
  • Marleen Wong
  • Director, Crisis Counseling and Intervention
  • Los Angeles Unified School District, CA

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and
Drug-Free Schools 400 Maryland Avenue, SW /
Washington, DC 20202
Overview of Session
  • Identify key messages
  • Define the Recovery phase
  • Identify key components of Recovery
  • Physical aspects
  • Business/fiscal elements
  • Academic structure
  • Emotional/mental health
  • Discuss how to prepare for Recovery in advance
  • Review key "Issues/Debates" in Recovery
  • Discuss Recovery scenario
  • Questions?

Key Messages
  • The Recovery Phase is designed to assist
    students, staff, and their families in the
    healing process and to restore educational
    operations in schools
  • The Recovery Phase is planning for common events
    planning for uncommon events
  • The Recovery Phase is an ongoing process that is
    directly linked to the other three phases of
    crisis planning
  • Strong community partnerships are key to
    supporting Recovery efforts for schools

Phases of Emergency Management
What is the Recovery Phase?
  • The Recovery phase is designed to assist students
    and staff in the healing process and to restore
    educational operations in schools
  • Recovery can be a long-term process
  • Planning for Recovery begins in the
    Prevention-Mitigation phase
  • Providing for Recovery efforts requires
    leadership and buy-in from the top
  • There is a direct link between emotional stress
    and academic achievement
  • GOAL Restore a safe and healthy learning

Types of School/District Events
  • Student deaths
  • Staff deaths
  • Accidents (students hit by cars, bus accidents,
    car accidents, swimming, etc.)
  • Violence in schools or community (assaults,
    murders, drive-by shooting in community, etc.)
  • Suicides
  • Natural disasters (tornado, earthquake, wildfire,
    hurricane, etc.)
  • School shootings

Probability of Event
Preparing in Advance for Recovery Introduction
  • Planning and policies
  • Partners and resources
  • Training

Preparing in Advance for Recovery Policies and
  • Planning in advance of an event
  • Outline service delivery systems
  • Develop template letters for emergencies
  • Pre-determine strategies for accepting
    contributions/donations following a
  • Outline strategies for dealing with "empty
  • Determine a policy for memorials (be consistent
    across events)
  • Ensure a process is in place for parental consent
  • Compile resource kits

Preparing in Advance for Recovery Policies and
  • Consider the structures and departments
  • Coordinate with district departments
  • Safety and security, facility management, risk
    management, budget office, transportation, food
    services, technology services, etc.
  • Develop and practice a continuity of operations
    plan (COOP) at district and school levels
  • Create Damage Assessment Response Teams (DART)
  • Assemble Crisis Response Teams
  • District teams
  • School-based teams
  • Define procedures for crisis recovery
  • Coordinate with outside community partners and

Preparing in Advance for Recovery Partners and
  • Before an event occurs, schools should
  • Consider expertise available for mental health
    service provision at the
  • School level
  • District level
  • Community level
  • Outline partnership agreements with relevant
    local partners detailing support available
  • Identify a school/district employee to coordinate
    partnerships with the community - a liaison
  • Identify and train crisis response team members
  • Develop a process for screening and registering
  • Develop a process for inventorying and
    distributing district and donated supplies

Preparing in Advance for Recovery Training
  • To ensure that appropriate training is conducted
    for Recovery, schools should proactively
  • Identify and train appropriate staff to provide
    developmentally and culturally appropriate
  • Train mental health staff on specific
  • Provide basic training on available resources and
    common reactions to trauma for all staff
    (including administrators)
  • Provide specific information to all staff
    regarding the school's referral system (e.g.,
    inform teachers about who students can go to for
    support, and the referral systems available)
  • Train teachers/staff on early warning signs
  • Train teachers/staff on how to work with

Recovery Key Components
  • Physical/Structural Recovery
  • Business/Fiscal Recovery
  • Academic Recovery
  • Psychological/Emotional Recovery

Physical/Structural Recovery
  • Purpose To restore facilities necessary to
    enable educational operations
  • Key components
  • Assess physical/structural component
  • (e.g., damage assessment response team)
  • Ensure human safety at educational sites and
    staff availability to teach
  • Resume transportation and food services
  • Determine availability of equipment and supplies
  • Debrief and incorporate lessons learned into
    emergency management planning

Business/Fiscal Recovery
  • Purpose To restore critical business functions
    within the school/district as soon as possible
  • Key Components
  • Business Continuity Plan (BCP) and/or Continuity
    of Operations Plan (COOP)
  • Restore district administrative functions
  • Ensure staff are supported
  • Set-up payroll system
  • Institute a system for registering out of
    district students, and for registering students
    into other schools

Business/Fiscal Recovery
  • Key Components, continued
  • Identify, in advance, who has responsibility for
    closing schools, or sending students/staff to
    alternate locations
  • Identify who is responsible for restoring which
    business functions for schools/districts
  • Identify succession plans
  • Ensure systems are in place for rapid contract
    execution in the event of an emergency

Academic Recovery
  • Purpose To facilitate students' return to
    learning restore structure and routine
  • Key Components
  • Short-term considerations
  • Quick decision making regarding school/academic
  • Brief administrators and staff
  • Communicate with parents/guardians on events and
    the plan
  • Academic success and Recovery are linked

Academic Recovery
  • Key Components, continued
  • In general, maintaining the school routine is
  • Can the school remain open?
  • Can the school routine be maintained? Modified?
  • Are academic materials needed?
  • Traumatized students may
  • Engage in uncharacteristically aggressive
  • Have difficulty concentrating and learning

Academic Recovery
  • Youth exposed to violence and trauma have been
    shown to have
  • Lower grade point averages (Hurt et al., 2001)
  • Decreased reading ability (Delaney-Black et al.,
  • More negative remarks in their cumulative
  • More reported absences from school (Hurt et al.,
  • Increased expulsions and suspensions (LAUSD
  • Decreased rates of high school graduation

Source Delaney-Black, V., Covington, C.,
Ondersma, S.J., Nordstrom-Klee, B., Templin, T.,
Ager, J., Janisse, J., Sokol, R.J. (2002).
Violence exposure, trauma, and IQ and/or reading
deficits among urban children. Archives of
Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 156 (3),
Psychological/Emotional Recovery
  • Purpose To promote coping and resiliency for
    students,staff, and their families following an
    emergency or crisis
  • Key components
  • Available and acceptable services in the district
  • Internal and external resources
  • Short-term considerations
  • Overview of mental health interventions
  • Psychoeducation
  • Psychological first aid
  • Intervention strategies models
  • Long-term considerations

Psychological/Emotional RecoveryAvailable and
Acceptable Services
  • Support from leadership is critical
  • All planning involves the school Principal or
    their designee
  • Some schools may be hesitant to bring in
    "outside" mental health support - think this
    through in advance
  • Long-term services need support from the school
  • Familiarity with funding sources after disasters

Psychological/Emotional Recovery Internal and
External Resources
  • Consider local mental health resources
  • Develop a structure for support
  • "Outside" vs. "Inside" help

Psychological/Emotional Recovery Short-Term
  • Identify circles of impact and provide triage
  • Triage is the process of identifying the
    immediate needs of students and staff, and
    ensuring referral to appropriate services
  • Provide psychoeducation for families, students,
    and staff
  • Consider psychological first aid
  • Consider utilization of services for staff
    through district Employee Assistance Programs
  • Leverage union resources available for teacher
  • Be aware of impacts of possible trauma history

Psychological/Emotional Recovery Short-Term
  • Traumatic stress is an acute distress response
    that is experienced after exposure to a
    catastrophic event
  • Traumatic stress occurs because the event poses a
    serious threat to
  • The individual's life or physical integrity
  • The life of a family member or close friend
  • One's surrounding environment
  • Individuals who have witnessed injury or death
    are also at risk to develop a trauma stress

Psychological/Emotional Recovery Mental Health
  • Promote coping and resiliency for students and
    staff and to assist with the healing process
  • Increase students' (ability to stay in school)
    academic performance
  • Provide a range of immediate and long-term
  • Triage and assess immediate recovery needs of
    students and staff
  • Make individual and group crisis counseling
    available during the first week after a crisis
  • Be aware of secondary adversities and make
    services available as needed

Psychological/Emotional Recovery Mental Health
  • Intervention strategies and models
  • Trauma and grief focused school-based mental
    health programs
  • Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in
    Schools (CBITS)
  • Short-term individual, group, and family
  • Depression and suicide prevention

Psychological/Emotional Recovery Psychoeducation
  • Provide for everyone in the school community
  • Ensure that materials are developmentally and
    culturally sensitive
  • Identify pathways for disseminating information
    to students, staff, and parents
  • Create and support a coping environment for
    students and staff

Psychological/Emotional Recovery Psychological
First Aid
  • Psychological First Aid (PFA) is an
    evidence-informed modular approach for assisting
    children, adolescents, adults, and families in
    the immediate aftermath of disaster and terrorism
  • PFA is designed to
  • Reduce the initial distress
  • Foster short- and long-term adaptive functioning
  • PFA meets four basic standards
  • Is consistent with research evidence on risk and
    resilience following trauma
  • Is applicable and practical in field/school
  • Is developmentally appropriate across the
  • Is culturally informed and adaptable

Source National Child Traumatic Stress Network
and National Center for PTSD, Psychological First
Aid Field Operations Guide, September, 2005
Psychological/Emotional Recovery Psychological
First Aid
  • PFA core actions
  • Initiate contact and engagement
  • Ensure safety and comfort
  • Stabilize emotions
  • Gather information on current needs and concerns
  • Provide practical assistance
  • Connect with social supports
  • Provide information on coping
  • Link with collaborative services

Source National Child Traumatic Stress Network
and National Center for PTSD, Psychological First
Aid Field Operations Guide, September, 2005
Psychological/Emotional Recovery Long-Term
  • Conduct ongoing assessment/monitoring of mental
    health of students and staff
  • Monitor attendance, grades, and counselor's
  • Provide care for caregivers (compassion fatigue)
  • Incorporate lessons learned from each event into
    future planning efforts
  • Remember to reinforce ongoing prevention programs
  • Be aware of 'key dates,' such as trials,
    anniversaries, and holidays

Key Issues for the Recovery Phase
  • Issue 1 Opening or closing schools after an
  • event occurs
  • Policy should be determined in advance
  • Considerations
  • How long should the school be closed?
  • How can parents/guardians weigh in on decisions
    about school closures?
  • Who has the ultimate decision-making power
    regarding school closure?
  • How will the community be notified?
  • Ultimate question - Will the children be better
    off in school, or out of school?

Key Issues for the Recovery Phase
  • Issue 2 Memorials after a student or staff
  • Policy should be determined in advance
  • Considerations
  • Memorials can be controversial
  • Questions may arise about how/if policies
  • should vary depending on the type of death
  • Memorials in schools can be considered a
  • suicide contagion
  • A date for removing memorial items
  • How memorials might reinforce ongoing prevention
    programming (i.e., scholarship funds, etc.)

Key Issues for the Recovery Phase
  • Issue 3 How to handle key dates
  • Policy should be determined in advance
  • Considerations
  • Be cognizant of anniversary dates but do not
    dramatize them
  • Watch for reactions around holidays and/or
  • Prepare a constructive message for anniversaries
  • Make sure educators watch for risk behaviors

Interactive Scenario
  • You're a member of the crisis response team at
    YOUR school.
  • It's early morning.
  • School has just begun for the day.
  • One school bus is late arriving due to ice on the

Details of the Incident
  • The bus has 26 students from the middle and high
    schools on board (ages 10 - 17).
  • As the bus arrives, the driver is unable to stop
    the bus. The bus skids and then crashes through
    the wall of the music room. There are 25
    students in the music room.
  • Two students are killed and 19 students are
    injured - four of them severely.
  • The bus driver was found to be intoxicated.

  • What are the first five steps you would take to
    activate your plan?

  • Which students and staff are most at risk?

  • What types of services would facilitate the
    recovery process?
  • How would they be unfolded?

  • Recovery planning is a continual process.
  • Schools need to plan for the emotional/mental
    health needs of students and staff, as well as
    for the physical, business, and academic Recovery
    of their campuses following an emergency or
    crisis event.
  • Planning for Recovery involves establishing key
    community partnerships, developing policies,
    providing training, and developing memoranda of
    understanding (MOU).

For More Information Contact Alex James Marleen Wong marleen.wong_at_lausd.
net ERCM TA Center 888-991-3726 or