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Human Factors Issues

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Human Factors Issues. Chapter 9. Human Factors = ergonomics. WWII based military significance... Application of the scientific knowledge of human ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Factors Issues


1
Human Factors Issues
  • Chapter 9

2
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3
Human Factors
  • ergonomics
  • WWII based military significance
  • a necessary part of medical device design

4
What is Human Factors?
  • Application of the scientific knowledge of human
    capabilities and limitations to the design of
    systems and equipment to produce products with
    the most efficient, safe, effective, and reliable
    operation

5
Human Factors
  • Interface points
  • Environment
  • Skill level of user
  • Interaction between
  • Human element
  • Hardware element
  • Software element

Refrigerator Example
6
Human Element
  • Memory
  • Long term
  • Short term
  • Thinking and reasoning
  • Visual perception
  • Dialogue construction
  • Individual skill level
  • Individual sophistication

7
Size limitations
Location of controls
Possible user training
Compatibility with other equipment
Hardware Element
Control knobs/switches
Potential need for portability
Display area
8
Example
  • Using 5 female to 95 male reach data, design an
    anesthesia machine layout.
  • What constraints does this put on the design?
  • What overall of the population would be served?

9
Simple, reliable data entry
Displays must not be overcrowded
Software Element
Feedback to users
Menu driven
Dialogue must be jargon-free
10
Human Factors Process
  • Analytic process that focuses on device
    objectives
  • Design and development process that converts
    results of analyses into detailed equipment
    features
  • Test and evaluation process which verifies that
    development process satisfies constraints

11
Steps in Human Factors Process
  • Planning
  • Analysis
  • Conduct user studies
  • Observations
  • Interviews
  • Focus groups
  • Task analysis
  • Benchmark usability tests
  • User profile
  • Setup advisory panel

Crucial Pieces of Human Factors Process
12
Safety
  • Should reflect system and personnel safety
    factors
  • Failures
  • Fail safe
  • Failure indications
  • Standards- ANSI, AAMI, ISO

13
Documentation
  • Written to meet needs of various target
    populations
  • Study capability and information needs of
    documentation users
  • Mental abilities
  • Physical abilities
  • Previous experience
  • Understanding of general operation
  • Special needs of environment

Attempt to avoid this!
14
Anthropometry
  • Science of measuring human body and its parts and
    functional capacities
  • Range of values 5th percentile female to 95th
    percentile male
  • Functional dimensions
  • Psychological elements
  • Workstation design considerations

15
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16
Labeling
  • Labels should be clear and direct
  • Controls, displays, and other equipment that must
    be located should be clearly marked
  • Receptacles and connectors should be marked with
    intended function or connection
  • Hazard warnings should be prominent

17
Labeling?
18
Software
  • Every user input should consistently produce some
    perceptible response from the computer
  • Log-on should be automatically completed before
    any operation
  • Allow for orderly shutdown in case of failure

19
Data Entry
  • Consistent data entry transactions
  • Minimize user input actions
  • Feedback to user about acceptance or rejection of
    an entry
  • Ability to change entry after it has been added

20
Feedback
  • Present status, information, confirmation, and
    verification throughout the interaction
  • Standby should be accompanied by WAIT message
  • Feedback should be self-explanatory

21
Prompts
  • Commands, error messages, system capabilities,
    and procedures should be explained with prompts
    or help instructions
  • Missing data/aborting changes should be prompted
  • Factual and informative dialogue
  • Displayed in standardized area

22
Defaults
  • Currently defined default values should be
    provides and automatically displayed
  • User should be prompted for acceptance of
    defaults
  • Users should be able to set their own default

23
Fitts Law
  • T a b log2 (D/W 1)
  • where
  • T the average time taken to complete the
    movement
  • A the start/stop time of the device
  • B the inherent speed of the device
  • D the distance from the starting point to the
    center of the target
  • W the width of the target measured along the
    axis of motion.

24
Outcome of Fitts Law
  • Bigger buttons are better
  • Edges/corners are easiest
  • Pop-up menus are easier than pull-down
  • Pies are better than boxes

25
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