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Early Reading Skills: Teaching Phonemic Awareness


Early Reading Skills: Teaching Phonemic Awareness. Brandy Clarke. CBC 2002 ... Poor reading ability correlates with long-term negative outcomes. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Reading Skills: Teaching Phonemic Awareness

Early Reading Skills Teaching Phonemic Awareness
  • Brandy Clarke
  • CBC 2002

The Need for Early Reading Interventions
  • Poor reading ability correlates with long-term
    negative outcomes.
  • Reading is the cornerstone of academic success.
  • Students with poor reading skills in the
    beginning are likely to have poor skills in the

Learning in Steps
  • Research has demonstrated a need for children to
    learn to recognize words with speed and accuracy
    to read with fluency and comprehension.
  • Progression of learning
  • Understanding the concept of words
  • Alphabetic Awareness
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Word Recognition
  • Fluency
  • Comprehension

What is Phonemic Awareness?
  • Phonemic awareness is an understanding that
    speech is composed of individual sounds.
  • It is part of the hierarchy of reading skills
    developed in early reading.
  • It is not a unitary skill, but is comprised of
    various components.

  • Five levels of Phonemic Awareness (Adams,1990).
  • Appreciation of sound in spoken language
    (recitation of nursery rhymes).
  • Ability to compare and contrast sounds in words
    by grouping words with similar or dissimilar
    sounds (beginning, middle, and end of words).
  • Ability to blend and split syllables.
  • Phonemic segmentation or the ability to isolate
    individual sounds in syllables.
  • Ability to manipulate phonemes by omitting and
    deleting phonemes to make new words.

Why is it important?
  • It is necessary in learning to read and spell the
    English language because English is alphabetic.
  • Sounds correlate with letters to make words.
  • Research has demonstrated a strong link between
    phonemic awareness and beginning reading.

Why Phonemic Awareness over Whole-language?
  • The Whole-language approach
  • Focuses on teaching reading by immersing students
    in literature while providing minimal direct
    skill instruction.
  • Provides students with ample opportunities to
    read and write and provides guidance as needed.
  • Students learn to read through whole-word
    recognition which creates a guessing game when
    presented with new words.
  • Students taught with phonics instruction read 54
    of new words correctly, students with
    whole-language read 3.
  • However, balance is necessary.

What skills are taught?
  • Early Reading Skills (Good III, Simmons Smith,
  • Area 1 Phonological Awareness
  • Awareness of correlation of sounds to words
  • Area 2 Alphabetic Understanding
  • Link between a letter and a sound
  • Area 3 Phonological Recoding
  • Use of relationship between phonemes and letters
    to recognize printed words, then read and spell
  • Area 4 Accuracy and Fluency with Connected Text
  • Comprehending what is read

How to assess skills
  • Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills
    (DIBELS), University of Oregon
  • Dynamic continuing evaluation of skills
  • Indicators representative and correlated with
    important skill areas
  • Predictive future reading performance
  • Functional related to reading aquisition

  • DIBELS Assessments
  • Target age range Preschool Second grade
  • Onset Recognition Fluency
  • Late preschool through winter of kindergarten
  • Appropriate for monitoring progress of older
    children with low phonological awareness
  • Letter Naming Fluency
  • Fall of kindergarten through fall of first grade
  • Appropriate for monitoring progress of older
    children with low skills in letter naming

  • DIBELS Assessments cont.
  • Phoneme Segmentation Fluency
  • Winter of kindergarten through fall of first
  • Appropriate for monitoring progress of older
    children with low phonological awareness
  • Nonsense Word Fluency
  • Fall of first grade through summer of first
  • Appropriate for monitoring progress of older
    children with low skills in letter-sound

How to teach Phonemic Awareness
  • 5 Features of effective interventions (Good III
    et.al., 1998)
  • Provide instruction at the phoneme level.
  • Scaffold tasks and examples.
  • Model skills prior to practice and provide
    opportunities for students to produce isolated
    sounds orally.
  • Provide systematic and strategic instruction for
    identifying sounds in words, blending and
    segmenting, and culminate with integration of
    phonological awareness and letter-sound
    correspondence instruction.
  • Use concrete materials to represent sounds .

  • Modeling activities
  • Teaching vs. practice
  • The importance of scope and sequence
  • Larger units before smaller units (words before
  • Continuous before stop sounds (cont. f, l, m, n,
    stop b, c, d, g)
  • Fewer sounds before more sounds (VC or CV before
  • Auditory blending before segmenting (e.g.
    foooot-baaaall vs. mmm-aaaaa-t)
  • Blending and segmenting before manipulation (e.g.
    removing sounds to make new words)
  • Oral before written language

Phonemic Teaching Methods
  • Phonemic Awareness in Young Children A Classroom
    Curriculum.(Adams, Foorman, Lundberg, Beeler,
  • The use of language games
  • Play regularly (15-20 min)
  • Go in order of sequence
  • Use both segmenting (analysis) and blending
    (synthesis) activities
  • Child should feel as though s/he is playing while
  • Consistently pronounce words slowly and clearly

  • The Language Games
  • Listening game Listening to Sounds
  • Rhyming Poetry, Songs, and Jingles
  • Words and Sentences Introducing the Idea of
  • Awareness of Syllables Clapping Names
  • Initial and Final Sounds Guess Who
  • Phonemes Two-Sound Words
  • Introducing Letters and Spellings Guess Who
    Introducing Sounds and Letters

Reading Intervention Program
  • Reading Recovery Program
  • Goal Help struggling students catch up to peers
  • Requires a lot of teacher monitoring (11)
  • Daily sessions last 30-40 minutes per session and
    run 10-20 weeks

  • Reading Recovery Program Strategies
  • Reading left to right
  • Using a return sweep rather than a slow return
  • Monitoring whether story makes sense
  • Searching for cues from context
  • Rereading when unclear
  • Self-correction

Important Resources
  • http//dibels.uoregon.edu/
  • Provides explanation of DIBELS research and
  • http//reading.uroegon.edu/
  • Big Ideas in Beginning Reading
  • http//www.nifl.gov
  • National Institute for Literacy
  • National Reading Panel Update

Application for CBC
  • It is important to understand what is needed to
    promote early reading skills so that problems can
    be identified and treated before negative
    trajectory is established.
  • Assessment techniques allow for problem areas to
    be targeted and monitored throughout
  • Teaching techniques can be used across settings
    to facilitate partnerships in learning.
  • Consultants can provide consultees with further
    resources to provide guidance throughout reading

  • Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to read Thinking
    and learning about print. Cambridge, MA MIT
  • Adams, M.J., Foorman, B.R., Lundberg, I,
    Beeler, T. (1998). Phonemic Awareness in Young
    Children A classroom curriculum. Baltimore, MD
    Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co.
  • Good III, R. H. Dynamic Indicators of Basic
    Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) with CBM. Early
    Childhood Research Institute on Measuring Growth
    and Development. Eugene, OR.
  • Good III, R. H., Simmons, D. C., Smith, S. B.
    (1998). Effective academic intervention in the
    United States Evaluating and enhancing the
    acquistion of early reading skills. School
    Psychology Review. Vol 27, No. 1, pp 45-56.

References cont.
  • Grossen, B. Carnine, D. (1991). Strategies for
    maximizing reading success in the regular
    classroom. In Stoner, G., Shinn, M. R., Walker,
    H. M. (Eds) Interventions for achievement and
    behavior problems. Silver Spring, MD NASP
  • Pressley, M. (1998). Reading instruction that
    works The case for balanced teaching. New York,
    NY The Guilford Press.
  • Snider, V. E. (1995). A primer on phonemic
    awareness What is it, why its important, and
    how to teach it. School Psychology Review, Vol.
    24, No. 3, 443-455.
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