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PERHAPS A LITTLE SLOWER,

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MOST ELDERLY AND VERY YOUNG DO NOT WORK. THE ELDERLY MAY BECOME MARGINAL PERSONS AS A RESULT OF LOST SOCIAL POSITION AND PRESTIGE ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PERHAPS A LITTLE SLOWER,


1
PERHAPS A LITTLE SLOWER, BUT FAR FROM SOME HEL
PLESS STEREOTYPE
2
GRAYING OF AMERICA
  • SENIORS
  • NOW 13 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION
  • SOON, THE 75 MILLION BABYBOOMERS
  • BY 2050
  • 20 PERCENT WILL BE OVER AGE 65
  • ABOUT HALF THE POPULATION WILL BE OVER THE AGE OF
    40
  • THE UNITED STATES
  • INCREASES IN THE ELDERLY POPULATIONS OF
    INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS
  • LOW BIRTH RATES
  • INCREASING LONGEVITY
  • BABYBOOMERS WILL RETIRE SOON
  • GLOBALLY
  • INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS ARE SEEING AN INCREASE IN
    THE NUMBERS OF ELDERLY

3
GERONTOLOGY
THE STUDY OF AGING AND THE ELDERLY
  • BIOLOGICAL CHANGES AND ATTITUDES
  • ATTITUDE DEPENDS ON SOCIETAL VALUES
  • IN AMERICA, A DIM VIEW OF SUCH CHANGES IS TAKEN
  • PHYSICAL CHANGES
  • GRAYING OF HAIR
  • WRINKLES
  • LOSS OF HEIGHT
  • DECLINE IN STRENGTH
  • CHRONIC ILLNESSES SET IN
  • REALITY
  • A MAJORITY OF THOSE OVER 65 REPORT GOOD HEALTH
  • WELL-TO-DO PEOPLE HAVE IT BETTER SINCE THEY CAN
    AFFORD PREVENTIVE CARE
  • MINORITY GROUP MEMBERS ARE MORE LIKELY TO REPORT
    POOR HEALTH

4
  • ADVANCING AGE DOES NOT MEAN CERTAIN IMPAIRMENT OF
    MENTAL ABILITIES
  • SOME RESEARCH REPORTS INCREASES IN MATH AND
    VERBAL SKILLS
  • PERSONALITY CHANGES
  • THE ELDERLY CAN BECOME MORE INTROSPECTIVE
  • MORE SELF-AWARENESS
  • MAJOR SHIFTS IN PERSONALITIES DO NOT NORMALLY
    TAKE PLACE
  • MOST MAJOR SHIFT ARE LINKED TO DISEASES LIKE
    PARKINSONS AND THOSE MALADIES RELATED TO FAILING
    MEMBORY

5
HOW DO DIFFERENT SOCIETIES VIEW THE ELDERLY?
IT OFTEN DEPENDS UPON CULTURAL NORMS
6
  • SURVIVAL DEPENDS UPON PHYSICAL STRENGTH
  • ELDERLY MEMBERS BECOME BURDENS ON YOUNGER
    MEMBERS
  • ECONOMIC BURDENS
  • PERSONS WHO CANNOT HELP THE GROUP MAY BE ASKED TO
    REMOVE THEMSELVES FROM IT

7
PASTORAL, HORTICULTURAL, AND AGRARIAN SOCIETIES
  • CHANGES IN MEANS OF PRODUCTION MADE POSSIBLE
    MATERIAL SURPLUS
  • PEOPLE REMAINED ACTIVE LATE IN LIFE
  • LEADING TO BOTH RESPECT AND FEAR OF THE ELDERLY
    DUE THEIR POWER
  • GERONTOCRACY SOCIAL ORGANIZATION THAT FAVORS THE
    ELDERLY SINCE THEY CONTROL THE MOST WEALTH AND
    POWER

8
INCREASES IN STANDARD OF LIVING AND MEDICAL
TECHNOLOGIES WHICH INCREASE LIFE EXPECTANCY RATES
  • PRIMARY SOURCE OF WEALTH IS NO LONGER VIEWED AS
    OWNERSHIP IN LAND
  • REALITIES OF THE ECONOMY MAKE CHILDREN LESS
    DEPENDENT UPON (LESS APPRECIATIVE OF) THE
    ELDERLY
  • MOST ELDERLY AND VERY YOUNG DO NOT WORK
  • THE ELDERLY MAY BECOME MARGINAL PERSONS AS A
    RESULT OF LOST SOCIAL POSITION AND PRESTIGE

9
BECOMING ELDERLY PRESENTS MORE CHALLENGES TO
INDIVIDUALS THAN ANY OTHER OF LIFES STAGES
10
FINDING MEANING
  • COPING AND PERSONALTY TYPES
  • DISINTEGRATED AND DISORGANIZED PERSONALITIES
  • LIFE FULL OF DESPAIR
  • PASSIVE-DEPENDENT PERSONALITIES
  • OVERPLAYING THE OLD ROLE DEFENDED
    PERSONALITIES
  • LIVE INDEPENDENTLY, BUT FEARFUL OF AGING
  • INTEGRATED PERSONALITIES
  • COPE WELL WITH AGING PROCESS, ACCEPT THE
    INEVITABILITIES

11
SOCIAL ISOLATION
  • THE DEATH OF A SIGNIFICANT OTHER AND RETIREMENT
    CAUSE ISOLATION
  • ISOLATION IS A LEADING CAUSE OF ANXIETY IN THE
    ELDERLY
  • THREE-FOURTHS OF WIDOWS AND WIDOWERS REPORT
    LONELINESS AS THEIR MOST SERIOUS PROBLEM
  • WOMEN SUFFER FROM THIS MORE THAN MEN, DUE TO
    LONGER LIFE EXPECTANCY RATES
  • FAMILIES OFFER THE ELDERLY THE SOCIAL CONTACT
    THAT IS NEEDED
  • DAUGHTERS ARE MORE LIKELY TO VISIT PARENTS THAN
    SONS

12
REDUCED PAY NOT ONLY MEANS LESS SOCIAL PRESTIGE,
BUT CAN SIGNAL A LOSS OF PURPOSE IN LIFE
  • THE ELDERLY NEED A TRANSITION PLAN TO MINIMIZE
    LOSS OF PRESTIGE
  • VOLUNTEER WORK CAN FILL TIME VOIDS
  • PART-TIME WORK CAN OFFER ADDITIONAL MONIES
  • RETIREMENT IS A RECENT IDEA IN INDUSTRIALIZED
    SOCIETIES WITHIN THE LAST CENTURY
  • VAST DIFFERENCE EXISTS BETWEEN PEOPLES ATTITUDES
    TOWARD THE ELDERLY AND RETIREMENT
  • WHILE NOT MANDATORY, 83 OF MEN AND 91 OF WOMEN
    ARE NO LONGER IN THE LABOR FORCE AT AGE 65 IN THE
    UNITED STATES

13
THE POOR HOUSE SCENE
  • SOME COSTS RISE FOR THE ELDERLY
  • MEDICAL CARE
  • HOUSING COSTS
  • UTILITIES
  • SOCIAL SECURITY IS STILL THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF
    INCOME
  • THOSE ELDERLY WHO FALL BELOW THE POVERTY LINE AT
    AGE 65 EQUALS 10.5
  • MANY CHILDREN ARE NOW TAKING A MORE ACTIVE ROLE
    IN SEEING TO THE CARE OF THEIR AGING PARENTS

14
ABUSE OF THE ELDERLY
  • HOW MANY SUFFER FROM ABUSE?
  • MORE THAN ONE MILLION A YEAR
  • UNDER-REPORTING IS A PROBLEM
  • MAJOR CAUSES
  • SANDWICH GENERATION STRESS
  • PERSONS WHO MUST CARE FOR BOTH THEIR KIDS AND
    THEIR PARENTS
  • MOST LIKELY IN FAMILIES WHERE ELDERLY PERSON
    SUFFERS FROM A SERIOUS MEDICAL SITUATION
  • MEANS-TESTING FOR ASSISTANCE
  • OFTEN LEAVES NEEDY FAMILIES OUT IN THE COLD
    BECAUSE CUTOFF LIMITS ARE SET LOW

15
PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE ELDERLY
  • BLATANT AGEISM
  • DENY PEOPLE DUE TO AGE
  • SUBTLE AGEISM
  • WAYS WHICH CULTURE PERPETUATES STEREOTYPES OF THE
    ELDERLY
  • NEGATIVE IMAGES AND JOKES
  • SHOULD THE ELDERLY BE GIVEN MINORITY GROUP
    STATUS?

WE DONT FEEL MUCH LIKE A MINORITY GROUP MEMB
ERS
16
PARADIGMATIC VIEWS
  • STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONALISM
  • DISENGAGEMENT THEORY
  • BENEFITS FOR ALL IN SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL CONFLICT
  • DIFFERENT AGES HAVE DIFFERING AMOUNTS OF ACCESS
    TO SOCIAL RESOURCES
  • SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM
  • THE NEED TO FIND AND ESTABLISH NEW ROLES

17
CONFRONTING DEATH
  • DEATH OCCURS WHEN AN IRREVERSIBLE STATE TAKES
    PLACE
  • NO BREATHING
  • NO REFLEXES
  • NO BRAIN ACTIVITY
  • RIGHT TO DIE
  • TECHNOLOGY
  • TODAY, DOCTORS DECIDE WHEN DEATH IS TO HAPPEN
  • LIVING WILLS
  • DICTATES WHAT TYPES OF EFFORTS ARE TO BE MADE TO
    SUSTAIN LIFE

I DONT GET IT… I SHOW UP AT PARTIES AND THEY J
UST DIE!
18
  • DEATH HAS BEEN TRANSFORMED FROM SOMETHING THAT
    WAS ORDINARY INTO SOMETHING VERY EXTRAORDINARY
  • STAGES OF DYING
  • DENIAL
  • ANGER
  • NEGOTIATION
  • RESIGNATION
  • ACCEPTANCE
  • HOSPICE AND THE GOOD DEATH
  • A PAIN-FREE DEATH EXPERIENCE
  • GRIEF AND BEREAVEMENT COUNSELING
  • PROFOUND LOSS AND DISORIENTATION

19
THE FUTURE
  • INCREASING NUMBERS
  • BY 2050, MORE ELDERLY THAN PEOPLE IN THE U.S.A.
  • NEED TO REVIEW SUPPORT SERVICES FOR THE ELDERLY
  • AVAILABILITY AND SUFFICIENCY
  • THE ELDERLY SHOULD EXPERIENCE A BETTER QUALITY OF
    LIFE
  • MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY
  • CHANGES IN HOW DEATH IS VIEWED
  • DEATH WILL AGAIN BECOME A NATURAL PART OF THE
    LIFE CYCLE NO LONGER TABOO
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