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Writing for Music:


Consider and obtain the appropriate musical edition of the work (s) to be ... Musical analytical methods vary, are period-appropriate, and include some of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Writing for Music:

Writing for Music An Academic Resource for t
he Successful
Completion of Graduate Assignments
Prepared by Kimberly Greene, Ph. D. candidate in
Musicology at the CGU Music Department,
in coordination with Robert Zappulla, Interim
Associate Dean of the CGU Music Department, and
Katya Fairbanks, Director of the CGU Writing
Center and Global Communications
Effective writing, consistent formatting, and
the adherence to the accepted guidelines for
citations remain continuing challenges for most
graduate students. In order to maintain the
highest academic standards of music scholarship
and to address the complex of discipline-related
writing issues, this resource provides
departmental guidelines with sample excerpts for
assignments, semester projects, abstracts,
dissertation proposals, and program notes.
Examples of formatting for music analysis and
musical examples, access to the disciplines
citation and writing guide, ? The Chicago Manual
of Style, and other recommended resources are
also included. Please be aware that
professor-mandated requirements supercede the
ensuing discussion and the examples.
  • Music Department Assignments
  • ? Basic Methodology and the Components of
    Essays and the Hypothetical Paper
  • ? Presentations (Weekly Assignments)
  • ? Program Notes
  • ? Dissertation Proposals
  • ? Abstracts
  • ? Bibliography
  • Examples
  • ? Program Notes
  • ? Abstract
  • ? Bibliography
  • ? End Notes
  • Musical Analysis and Textual Translation
  • ? Musical Analytical Methods Formatting
  • ? Examples of Musical Inserts
  • ? Literary Text and Translation Inserts (Vocal

The Presentation (Weekly Assignments)
  • Due to the diversity of subject, content, and the
    varying requirements of the professors, graduate
    students should carefully consider the purpose
    and organization of each presentation.
  • Regardless of the media of presentation, the
    following approach should be employed
  • 1. Design the presentation surrounding the
    central subject and clearly identify the
    underlying issue (s) of the assignment. For
    example, the student should consider and
    formulate an answer as to why the composer,
    composition, or other subject is worthy of
    investigation, how the composition (s) of
    composer reflects the stylistic aesthetics of his
    period, and what implications arise from a study
    of his/her musical contribution
  • 2. Presentation Structure, usually in an outline
    forma, supplemented by student commentary
  • Section I The Purpose of Presentationthe
    central issue (s) should be stated,
    well-researched, and replaces the formal thesis
    statement (unless otherwise advised)
  • Section II Preliminary historical events,
    musical trends and developments, biographic
    material, and pertinent treatises that relate
    directly to the purpose of the presentation
    (avoid the tendency of including extensive
    biographical information)
  • Section III Observations regarding the subject
    with collaboration from reliable sources is
    recommended, as well as, the identification of
    the genre (s), the musical characteristics, and
    the stylistic elements evidenced in the
    composition, such as galanter Stil of the
    Classical period.
  • Section IV Formal musical analysis and musical
    analysis are customary for most presentations
  • Section V Full citations, and locations of the
    manuscripts, early printed, and
    critical/comparative editions should be listed in
    the outline
  • (In-class facsimile editions of the manuscripts,
    other sources, and access to sound recordings
    enhance any presentation)
  • Section VI Source Bibliographyall sources used
    in the presentation, using Chicago Manual of
    Style citation method
  • Section VII Questions Responsestudent should
    be prepared to answer questions and to
    substantiate his responses, using the recognized
  • ? Chicago Manual of Style

Basic Methodology and the Components of Essays
and the Hypothetical Paper Project Basic
  • Standard Formatting Aligned at the left margin,
    left margin 1'', double-spaced, Times New Roman
    font, 12 pt. font
  • Regardless of the concentration in the field,
    each graduate student should approach essays,
    projects, and presentations systematically
  • Procedures Structure
  • Select an appropriate subject for investigation,
    with the necessary approval of the professor
  • Research primary and secondary sources through
    the Libraries of the Claremont Colleges Blais
    Library Catalog, Databases (Grove On-line),
    Electronic Journals (JSTR), InterLibrary Loan,
    Link, Melvyl, RISM, World Cat, etc.
  • Consider and obtain the appropriate musical
    edition of the work (s) to be discussed, such as
    facsimiles and early printed editions, critical
    editions, and performance editions
  • Study the sources regarding the subject and
    formulate the thesisthe statement should
    indicate not only the content of the paper, but
    should also indicate what will be demonstrated
    and supported by the research (Frequently,
    writing a rough abstract assists in the
    development of a thesis statement)
  • Formulate a loose outline of the major categories
    to be investigated
  • Gather source information and research these
    major categories
  • Create the subordinate sub-divisions of the
    outlines from this researchusually the outline
    should consist of three or four tiers with the
    standard formatting First tier, Roman numeral
    second tier, uppercase letter third tier,
    numeral and fourth tier, lowercase letter, etc.
  • For greater efficiency in the organization and
    completion of the Hypothetical paper, prepare the
    End Notes and outline simultaneously
  • The bibliography should be generated from the
    endnotes or footnotes and then supplemented with
    credible supporting material directly related to
    the thesis, the supporting arguments, and the
  • Recommendations for an Effective Essay
  • For a more persuasive presentation of important
    arguments, essays should be developed from the
    completed outline
  • Essays should include a brief introduction to the
    subject, a clearly-defined thesis statement,
    supporting arguments and evidence (body of the
    paper), and a concise, non-repetitive summary
  • Generally, each paragraph of the essay should
    begin with a topic sentence, be followed by
    three to four sentences of support or
    clarification, and finish with a closing
    statement, or a statement of transition to the
    subsequent paragraph

Program Notes
  • Regardless of the length designated by the
    department, program notes should be written to
    enhance the understanding of the performance for
    an educated audience
  • Full name of composer, including birth and death
  • Full Title of Composition, including opus number,
    movement name, and the date of the composition or
    the first performance
  • Introduction the composers historical
    significance and his/her compositional
  • Introduction to the work and the relevant
    circumstances surrounding its composition
  • Description of the composition genre, form,
    characteristics, noteworthy musical events, and
    pertinent performance considerations
  • Include significant supplemental information,
    such as brief side-by-side translations for vocal
  • Avoid overly technical and analytical language,
    as well as trite, poetic descriptions of the
  • ? Program NotesExample

The Dissertation Proposal
  • The intention of the dissertation proposal is to
    demonstrate to the faculty the intention and
    scope of the students research into a given
    subject, the viability of the project, the
    methodology to be implemented, and the relevance
    of such an inquiry to the discipline.
  • Structure (15-50 pages)
  • Proposed Title, authors name
  • Introductiona brief introduction to the issues
    and fundamental questions surrounding the subject
    of the dissertation
  • Statement of Intenta precise statement of what
    the dissertation will demonstrate, prove, or add
    to the current research in the discipline
  • State of Researchan account of the pertinent
    historical and contemporary scholarship, the
    general assessment regarding the issues of the
    dissertation subject already completed by these
    scholars, and the nature and scope of the
    research yet to be thoroughly investigated
  • Methodologyan explanatory section that addresses
    the organization of the intended research and the
    probable findings. This section should include
    chapter designations and describe the research
    methods as they relate to the central issues and
    fundamental questions of the dissertation
  • Summarya brief conclusion of the proposal that
    indicates the importance of the subject and its
    significance to the discipline
  • Bibliographya detailed bibliography, including
    sources generated from the initial research of
    the dissertation proposal and important primary
    and secondary sources necessary for the
    completion of the dissertation
  • ? Chicago Manual of Style

  • Abstracts serve as an authoritative and
    persuasive summary of a paper, thesis,
    dissertation, article, document or book. An
    abstract should include a description of the
    issues or subject of the paper, the methods
    employed, and the conclusions of the paper.
    Abstracts are usually written after the work has
    been completed, range from one paragraph to 150
    words, and appear after the title page.
  • Structure
  • Title the word Abstract appears as the title
  • Introduction several sentences introducing the
    subject and the issues addressed in the paper
  • Body a detailed description of the subordinate
    points, the arguments or material researched, and
    how these support the central subject (thesis)
  • Summary the significance of the paper to the
    discipline and any implications or projections
    for future inquiry
  • Since abstracts are continuously used by
    libraries and are included in research databases,
    include key words and relevant periods, genres,
    composers, compositions, and transdisciplinary
    subject terminology
  • ? AbstractExample

The Bibliography ? The Chicago Manual of Style
  • The key to a successful bibliography remains a
    keen attention to detail and a strict adherence
    to the citation formatting of The Chicago Manual
    of Style
  • Although the general format of a formal
    bibliography consists of an alphabetical listing
    of all sources, the professors may require the
    organization of the bibliography into categories
    that distinguish between primary, secondary, and
    by the type of source cited
  • Primary sources consist of original works from
    the time period examined or works that originated
    shortly after the events and present the
    perspective of a direct participant or actual
    spectator of the event.
  • Primary sources include
  • Facsimiles of manuscripts and printed editions
  • Concert reviews written during the period
  • Autobiographies, journals, diaries, letters
  • Artwork created during the period
  • Original literary works of the period
  • Public documents originating from the period
  • Treatises written during the period discussed,
  • Secondary sources are chronologically removed
    from the events under discussion. Secondary
    sources examine, interpret, and provide
    commentary regarding the subjects and events
    generating from primary sources, and include
  • Published works removed from the period under
    discussion, such as journal articles, books,
    documentaries, newspapers, and conference
  • Recordings removed from the period discussed
  • Discussions available on Internet sites and in
    databases, etc.

Bibliography (continued)
  • Types of Sources (examples)
  • Books (Printed Material)
  • Reviews
  • Conference Proceedings
  • Journal Articles and other Periodicals
  • Music Scores
  • Electronic Databases
  • Internet Sources
  • Recordings (CDs and DVDs)
  • Basic Formatting Difference Between the Notes and
    the Bibliography
  • Contrary to the Note formatting, bibliographies
    begin with the last name of the author or editor
    and begin (flush) at the left margin with the
    second line indented by one tab or five spaces
  • Bibliography formatNotice that the last name is
    flush with the left border, while the second line
    is indented
  • Gottsched, Johann Christoph. Versuch einer
    Kritischen Dichtkunst. Leipzig Breitkopf, 1730.
    Reprint, Darmstadt
  • Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1989.
  • Note formatNotice that both the superscript
    numeral and the citation is indented one tab or
    five spaces, and includes the page number

The Bibliography (continued)
  • Examples of Composite Entries
  • Essay/component part of a volume of a
    multi-volume work with differing editors for both
    the volume and the work as a whole
  • Littlejohns, Richard. Early Romanticism. In The
    Literature of German Romanticism, ed. Dennis F.
  • The Camden House History of German Literature,
    ed. James Hardin, no. 8, 61-78. Rochester Camden
    House, 2001.
  • Musical work in a collection by a composer with
    an editor
  • Schumann, Clara. Lorelei. Sämtliche Lieder für
    Singstimme und Klavier. Edited by Joachim Draheim
    and Brigitte Höft. Vol. 2. Wiesbaden Breitkopf
    Härtel, 1992.
  • Listing of several printed editions of collected
    works by one authorwhole and separate volumes
  • Heine, Heinrich. Gespräche, Briefe, Tagebücher,
    Berichte seiner Zeitgenossen. Edited by Hugo
    Bieber. Berlin
  • Welt Verlag, 1926.
  • . Heinrich Heine Sämtliche Schriften. Edited
    by Klaus Briegleb. Vol. 1, Die Heimkehr. Munich
    Carl Hanser Verlag, 1968.
  • . Sämtliche Werke. Edited by G. Böhnenblust.
    Vol. 1, Gedichte. Leipzig Insel Verlag, 1911.

  • Example Pages

Program Notes
  • Chansons de Bilitis, L 90 (1897-98)
    Achille-Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
  • Claude Debussy remains Frances most renowned
    fin-de siècle composer and the leading figure of
    French musical Impressionism.
  • Frequenting the Parisian salons of the most
    celebrated Impressionist artists and Symbolist
    poets of the day, Debussy was inspired
  • to compose his most memorable works the ballet
    Prélude à laprès-midi dun faune (1894) the set
    of orchestral suites Nocturnes
  • (1897-99), La Mer (1903-5) and Images (1905-12)
    the opera Pelléas et Mélisande (1893-1902) and
    numerous chansons (songs).
  • After having mastered the chanson genre through a
    series of conventional, but beautiful
    compositions, the composer shattered the
  • traditional boundaries by liberating the melody
    from formal harmonic structures. His repertoire
    is distinguished by gentle, yet
  • dramatic melodic vocal lines that aptly transmit
    the poetic meaning in delivery and in
    construction, and by an equally independent
  • and supportive piano part. Unlike many of his
    contemporaries, Debussys harmonic language is
    embedded with lyricism,
  • dissonance, and colorful tone clusters that are
    often based upon the whole tone scale. Notably,
    his contribution to the repertory
  • became known as the French mélodie.
  • In 1897, Debussy and his friend, the poet Pierre
    Louÿs (1870-1925), publicly announced their
    discovery of a collection of erotic
  • poems from the crumbling tomb of the ancient
    Greek poetess Bilitis. Despite the ensuing
    scandal when the story proved to be a
  • blatant fabrication, the cycle of three songs
    Chansons de Bilitis contains some of the
    composers most remarkable musical
  • moments La Flûte de Pan depicts Bilitis
    inauguration into the sexual realm of her lover
    and teacher La Chevelure evokes a
  • tableau of mature and sensual love through the
    description of the erotic dream of her lover
    while La Tombeau des Naïades

This inquiry confronts the inequity between the
musical achievement of women composers and their
male counterparts in an effort to expose the
effects of German gender essentialism on the
musical production of women active during the
nineteenth century and the socio-cultural
restrictions that hindered their aesthetic and
musical development. The resulting psychological
manifestations of gender-related oppression are
chronicled through a discussion of the lives,
writings, and Lieder of the following exceptional
women Bettine von Arnim (1785-1859) Fanny
Mendelssohn Hensel (1805-1847) Johanna Kinkel
(1810-1858) Josefine Lang (1815-1880) and Clara
Wieck Schumann (1819-1896). The correspondence
between the literary and musical realms is
offered to substantiate the significance of the
literarischer Salon in the aesthetic advancement
of women and to demonstrate the propagation of
the gender-biased perspectives of feminine
identity through important literary works,
including Johann von Gthes (1749-1832) Faust
Der Tragödie erster Teil (Tübingen, 1808)
Adelbert von Chamissos (1781-1831) poetic cycle
Frauenliebe und Leben (Berlin, 1830) and the
encapsulation of the Rhine legend, the
Loreleysage, in the poem Ich weiss nicht was
soll es bedeuten (1824) by Heinrich Heine
(1797-1856). The discussion concludes with a
substantial comparative analysis of the
characteristics of the hausmusikalische Lied and
the Kunstlied and their relationship to An
Thyrsis (Vienna, 1781) by Franz Joseph Haydn
(1739-1809) to Frauenliebe und Leben, op. 42
(Leipzig, 1840) by Robert Schumann (1810-1856)
and to the Loreleysage Lieder of Friedrich
Silcher (1789-60), Franz Liszt (1811-1886), Fanny
Mendelssohn Hensel, Johanna Kinkel, and Clara
Wieck Schumann.
(No Transcript)

  • Notes
  • 1. Janis Bergman-Carton, Women of Ideas in
    France, in The Women of Ideas in French Art,
    1830-1848 (New Haven Yale University
  • Press, 1995), 5-18. For a detailed history of
    the socio-political environs of the ancien
    régime, see Emmanuel le Roy Ladurie, The Ancien
  • Régime A History of France, 1610-1774 (Oxford
    Blackwell Publishing, 1996) and Pierre Goubert
    and Daniel Roche, Les français et lancien
  • régime la société et lÉtat, vol. 1, ed. Armand
    Colin (Paris Éditions Armand Colin, 1992).
  • 2. Joan B. Landes, The Gendered Republic, in
    Women and the Public Sphere in the Age of
    Revolution (Ithaca Cornell University
  • Press, 1988), 169-200 and Joan Wallach Scott,
    The Duties of the Citizen Jeanne Deroin in the
    Revolution of 1848, in Only Paradoxes to
  • Offer French Feminists and the Rights of Man
    (Cambridge Harvard University Press, 1996),
    57-124. For a general historical account of the
  • revolution, see François Furet and Mona Ozouf,
    eds., A Critical History of the French
    Revolution, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (Cambridge
  • Harvard University Press, 1989) and Donald M. G.
    Sutherland, France 1789-1815 Revolution and
    Counterrevolution (New York Oxford
  • University Press, 1986). For further
    investigation into the Republican depiction of
    heroic women, see Maurice Agulhon, Marianne
    into Battle
  • Republican Imagery and Symbolism in France,
    1789-1880 (Cambridge Cambridge University Press,
    1981) and Eric Hobsbawm, Man and
  • Woman in Socialist Iconography, History Workshop
    6 (Autumn 1978) 121-138.
  • 3. Janis Bergman-Canton, Le Monde Renversé
    July Monarchy Typologies of the Woman of Ideas,
    in The Women of Ideas in French
  • Art (New Haven Yale University Press, 1995),

Musical Analytical Methods Considerations of
Formal Design in Compositions Musical analytical
methods vary, are period-appropriate, and include
some of the following
Formatting Musical Examples
  • Musical insert examples include textual overlays

  • Musical examples depicting form utilize measure
    numbers and alphabetical letters for section
  • ? Musical Form Example created with standard
    formatting, enhanced by AutoShapesicon usually
    found on the bottom toolbar of Microsoft Word and
    on PowerPoint programs
  • Musical InsertsComputer Instructions
  • Apply formatting on inserts that are scanned from
    a printed source, generated from Finale software
    or copied from databases, internet sites and
    digital files, by using the Printscreen function
    (available on most computers)Achieved by
    pressing the Printscreen button on the keyboard
    and by pasting it to the word document
  • Next, click on the insert tab on the toolbar and,
    using the picture toolbar, set it Behind the
  • Overlay AutoShapes, Roman Numerals (Harmonic
    Analysis), or add text using the textbox (bottom
  • Musical inserts should be cropped well (Picture
    toolbar ?? icon) and are positioned after a
  • The appropriate line spacing, framing the insert,
    consists of 3 single lines above and below the
  • All examples should be labeled using the
    appropriate format, for example
  • Fig. 1. Composers Name, Name of Work, mm. 1-8.

Textual Example of Form Analysis
Musical Example Formatting
Textual Overlay of a Musical Example
Literary Example of Text Translation
Printed Writing Resources
Online Resources for Citations, English Usage,
Foreign Languages, and Music Research
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