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Introduction to Philosophy Lecture 1-b What is Philosophy? (Part 2)

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Introduction to Philosophy Lecture 1-b What is Philosophy? (Part 2) By David Kelsey ... Not Logic: It merely attempts to get you to believe a point. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Philosophy Lecture 1-b What is Philosophy? (Part 2)


1
Introduction to PhilosophyLecture 1-bWhat is
Philosophy? (Part 2)
  • By David Kelsey

2
Arguments
  • The second major task of philosophy is making
    arguments.
  • A philosopher makes arguments in performing his
    conceptual analysis.
  • An argument about the correct definition of
    KNOWLEDGE or LOVE
  • An argument one statement is inferred from one
    or more other statements.
  • Example
  • .
  • Inference a statement that follows from one or
    more other statements.
  • The inference made
  • Infer can also be used as a verb
  • Infer the noun

3
Propositions are the meanings of sentences
  • An inference a statement that follows from one
    or more other statements.
  • A statement is a proposition.
  • A proposition the meaning of a sentence
  • Words have meanings
  • Cat
  • Just as words have meanings, sentences have
    meanings.
  • Example The cat is on the Mat.

4
Propositions
  • The form of a proposition
  • it is the case that.
  • Propositions are true or false.

5
Propositions Sentences
  • A sentence does two different things it both
    expresses a proposition and asserts a
    proposition.
  • The expressed proposition
  • The literal meaning of the words of that
    sentence.
  • What is literal meaning?
  • Example in Sarcasm

6
Expressing a proposition
  • For a sentence to express a proposition
  • is for that sentence to toss the proposition up
    in the air, so to speak.
  • It is to put the proposition up for usage.
  • Knowing what proposition a sentence expresses is
    often quite easy.
  • It is the case that
  • Example I went to the store

7
The asserted Proposition
  • Making use of a proposition
  • Just how a sentence makes use of the proposition
    it expresses determines its actual or intended
    meaning.
  • The actual or intended meaning of a sentence
    what the speaker or writer of the sentence means
    when she writes or says it.
  • Miscommunication and the hearers understanding
    of the asserted proposition

8
Asserting a proposition 2
  • Assertion
  • The actual or intended meaning of a sentence is
    what is asserted by the words of the sentence.
  • Declaration
  • For a sentence to assert a proposition is simply
    for the sentence to declare of the proposition
    that it is the case.
  • Example the cat is on the mat and the cat is
    orange.

9
Sarcasm
  • Other kinds of sentences
  • Sarcasm
  • The messy roomate
  • She always takes out the trash.
  • This sentence expresses
  • But the sentence asserts

10
The laws of logic
  • The laws of logic are rules for making a correct
    inference P given a certain set of propositions
    Q1-n.
  • Socrates example
  • Arguments when one proposition is inferred from
    one or more other propositions
  • Other definitions of an Argument

11
Arguments
  • Argument a position supported by reasons for its
    truth.
  • To take a position
  • taking a side or stand on an issue.
  • An issue what is raised when one considers
    whether or not a proposition is true.
  • There are always 2 sides to an issue

12
Issues
  • Issues
  • we might go as far as to say that an issue just
    is a question.
  • Intelligent life
  • Safety belt law
  • Mac vs. Pc

13
Arguments Positions
  • Arguments Positions so when we take a position
    on an issue and support it with reasons we have
    given an argument.
  • Intelligent life
  • Safety Belt law
  • Mac vs. Pc

14
Conclusions Premises
  • Arguments
  • The conclusion of an argument
  • The premises of an argument
  • Examples
  • Socrates again
  • Raining and Pouring

15
What an argument isnt
  • What an argument isnt Let us be a bit clearer
    about what an argument is by stating what it
    isnt.
  • Not a Fight
  • Not Persuasion
  • Advertisement example

16
Persuasion
  • Persuasion vs. Argument
  • An argument offers support for some claim, its
    conclusion.
  • Persuasion neednt offer any support for a point.
  • Not Logic It merely attempts to get you to
    believe a point.
  • This attempt neednt be one through logic though.
  • Persuasion through rhetoric
  • Rhetoric is a broad category of linguistic
    techniques people use when their primary
    objective is to influence beliefs and attitudes
    and behavior

17
Arguments vs.Explanations
  • Arguments vs. Explanations
  • Explanation of X If one gives an explanation
    about some thing X, one gives some details about
    X with the hope of coming to better understand X.
  • Example fixing a flat tire

18
Recognizing Arguments
  • Conclusion Indicators find the conclusion of an
    argument by looking for conclusion indicators.
  • Examples of Conclusion Indicators therefore,
    hence, and others
  • Premise Indicators find the premises of an
    argument by looking for premise indicators
  • Examples of Premise Indicators because, since,
    and others.

19
An introduction to formalizing an argument
  • Challenging an argument
  • In challenging an argument you must first
    formalize it.
  • Formalizing an argument
  • Is the reconstruction of that argument in its
    most simplified form.
  • Read the passage
  • Write down the arguments propositions

20
Explicit Premises
  • Explicit premises
  • asserted by the words of the text.
  • Simplifying the premises

21
Implicit Premises
  • Implicit or unstated premises
  • Not made explicit by the text so must be inferred
    from the words of the text
  • Are entailed by the words of the text.
  • P?Q
  • Bloodhound example
  • Moores dog is a bloodhound, so it has a keen
    sense of smell
  • What is the implicit premise?
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