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Title: HC3310

  • Hegel and the Oxford Movement

  • The philosophical partner of Romanticism
  • Truth is bed down in tradition shapes itself in
    epoch and nation
  • Truth is a developmental force in which duration
    and the accumulation of experience are
    constitutive elements
  • Romantic truth is contingent Idealism wants to
    explain the necessity of the contingent pattern
    of historical events

Immanuel Kant 1724-1804
  • HUMAN reason has this peculiar fate that in one
    species of its knowledge it is burdened by
    questions which, as pre- scribed by the very
    nature of reason itself, it is not able to
    ignore, but which, as transcending all its
    powers, it is also not able to answer.
  • Preface to the 1st ed. Critique of Pure Reason

David Hume 1711-1776
  • Verstand Knowledge of Phenomena
  • Vernunft Knowledge of noumena, the thing in
    itself Das Ding an Sich

Johann Gottlieb Fichte 1762-1814
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling 1775-1854
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 1770-1831
  • Der Vernunft (reason) the means to penetrate the
    veil of accidental events, to interpret them as a
    purposeful, dialectical process of various forces
    to be intuitively grasped and reflectively
    reconstructed as a progressive "development" of
    ideas. Historical change is not arbitrary and
    meaningless, but rather the essential form of
    truth and being. History takes place at the
    behest of "Spirit."
  • Der Begriff (concept)
  • Die Vorstellung (representation)

Battle of Jena 1806
  • The twin battles of Jena and Auerstadt (older
    name Auerstädt) were fought on October 14, 1806
    on the plateau west of the river Saale in today's
    Germany, between the forces of Napoleon I of
    France and Frederick William III of Prussia. The
    decisive defeat suffered by the Prussian army
    resulted in Prussia's elimination from the
    anti-French coalition up until the liberation war
    of 1813.

Congress of Vienna 1815
  • The Congress was concluded in June 1815 (shortly
    before the Battle of Waterloo and the final
    defeat of Napoleon), with the signing of a treaty
    by Great Britain, Austria, France, Portugal,
    Prussia, Russia, Spain, and Sweden. The major
    results of the Congress were as follows
  • France was deprived of all territory conquered by
  • Russia was given most of Duchy of Warsaw (Poland)
  • Prussia was given half of Saxony, parts of
    Poland, and other German territories
  • A Germanic Confederation of 39 states (including
    Prussia) was created from the previous 300, under
    Austrian rule
  • Austria was given back territory it had lost
    recently, plus more in Germany and Italy
  • The House of Orange was given the Dutch Republic
    and the Austrian Netherlands to rule
  • Norway and Sweden were joined
  • The neutrality of Switzerland was guaranteed
  • Hanover was enlarged, and made a kingdom
  • Britain was given Cape Colony, South Africa, and
    various other colonies in Africa and Asia

  • The truth revealed in the Gospel is universal. It
    is integrally related to every possible source of

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing 1729-1781
  • Accidental truths of history can never become
    the proof of necessary truths of reason
  • On the Proof of the Spirit and of Power 1777
  • Thesis 4 Revelation gives nothing to the human
    species, which the human reason left to itself
    might not attain only it has given, and still
    gives to it, the most important of these things
  • The Education of the Human Race 1778

Positive Religion
  • A religion is positive to the extent that it
    demands belief in and obedience to that which
    human reason and intuition cannot discover on
    their own. A source outside of reason is required.

  • Der Vernunft (reason) the means to penetrate the
    veil of accidental events, to interpret them as a
    purposeful, dialectical process of various forces
    to be intuitively grasped and reflectively
    reconstructed as a progressive "development" of
    ideas. Historical change is not arbitrary and
    meaningless, but rather the essential form of
    truth and being. History takes place at the
    behest of "Spirit."
  • Der Begriff (concept)
  • Die Vorstellung (representation)
  • Der Geist (Spirit)

The Gospel according to Hegel (Crites)
  • The Fall
  • The Fullness of Time
  • Incarnation and Death
  • The Church
  • Philosophy of Religion

  • Christian Theology practiced as Christendom
  • Confidence in Reason and Progress
  • Identification of Kingdom and Church

Oxford Movement
  • 1828 Test and Corporation Acts
  • 1829 Catholic Emancipation
  • 1832 Reform Bill
  • 1833 Irish Temporalities
  • John Keble 1792-1866

July 25-29, 1833
  • Hadleigh
  • Association of Friends of the Church
  • Tracts for the Times
  • William Gladstone 1809-1898
  • 1836-1838 60,000 tracts sold

Edward Bouverie Pusey 1800-1882
  • High thoughts of the two sacraments
  • High estimate of episcopacy as Gods ordinance
  • High estimate of the visible church as the Body
    wherein we are made and continue to be members of
  • Regard for ordinances as directing our devotions
    and disciplining us such as daily prayer, fasts,
    feasts, etc.
  • Regard for the visible part of devotion such as
    the decoration of the house of God which acts
    insensibly on the mind
  • Reverence for and deference to the ancient Church
    of which our own Church is looked upon as
    representative to us, and by whose views and
    doctrines we interpret our own church when her
    own meaning is questioned or doubtful in a word
    reference to the ancient Church, instead of the
    Reformers, as the ultimate expounders of the
    meaning of our Church.

Oxford Movement
  • Christian life is an ecclesial experience shared
    among the people of a nation
  • A people need a definite Creed at the center of
    their being as a nation
  • Can a society live on the resources of private
    conscience alone?
  • The Oxford Movement theologized about the church
    as a public, historical institution, burdened,
    yet enriched, with the accretions of thought and
    practice from many ages
  • Church as the principle of Incarnation
  • The Incarnation is thoroughgoing

John Henry Newman 1801-1890 Grammar of Assent
  • The antecedent probability of the truth of the
    object of faith, a probability based on personal
    judgment and disposition that embraces the
    facts of faith, accepting them in the heart,
    apprehending them by an act of the entire self
    and then reasoning about them

  • I do not say that there are no eternal truths,
    such as the poet proclaims, which all acknowledge
    in private, but there are none sufficiently
    commanding to be the basis of public union and
  • 90

Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine
1845 (2nd ed. of 1878)
  • "Considering the high gifts, and the strong
    claims of the Church of Rome and her dependencies
    on our admiration, reverence, love, and
    gratitude, how could we withstand her, as we do
    how could we refrain from being melted into
    tenderness, and rushing into communion with her,
    but for the words of Truth, which bid us prefer
    Itself to the whole world? 'He that loveth father
    or mother more than Me, is not worthy of Me.' How
    could we learn to be severe, and execute
    judgment, but for the warning of Moses against
    even a divinely-gifted teacher who should preach
    new gods, and the anathema of St. Paul even
    against Angels and Apostles who should bring in a
    new doctrine?" Records of the Church, xxiv. p.
    7. , p.IX

  • Christianity is no theory of the study or the
    cloister. It has long since passed beyond the
    letter of documents and the reasonings of
    individual minds, and has become public property.
    Its "sound has gone out into all lands," and its
    "words unto the ends of the world." It has from
    the first had an objective existence, 4 and has
    thrown itself upon the great concourse of men.
    Its home is in the world and to know what it is,
    we must seek it in the world, and hear the
    world's witness of it.
  • Introduction 1

  • . . .the testimony of our most natural
    informant. . .the history of eighteen hundred
  • 29

  • Till positive reasons grounded on facts are
    adduced to the contrary, the most natural
    hypotheses, the most agreeable to our mode of
    proceeding in parallel cases, and that which
    takes precedence of all others, is to consider
    that the society of Christians, which the
    Apostles left on earth, were of that religion to
    which the Apostles had converted them that the
    external continuity of name, profession, and
    communion, argues a real continuity of doctrine
    that, as Christianity began by manifesting itself
    as of a certain shape and bearing to all mankind,
    therefore it went on so to manifest itself. . .
    that the Christianity of the second, fourth,
    seventh, twelfth, sixteenth, and intermediate
    centuries is in its substance the very religion
    which Christ and His Apostles taught in the
    first, whatever may be the modifications for good
    or for evil which lapse of years, or the
    vicissitudes of human affairs, have impressed
    upon it. 6
  • Intro. 3

  • They say, in the words of Chillingworth, "There
    are popes against popes, councils against
    councils, some fathers against others, the same
    fathers against themselves, a consent of fathers
    of one age against a consent of fathers of
    another age, the Church of one age against the
    Church of another age"Hence they are forced,
    whether they will or not, to fall back upon the
    Bible as the sole source of Revelation, and upon
    their own personal private judgment as the sole
    expounder of its doctrine. . . I will address one
    remark to Chillingworth and his friendsLet them
    consider, that if they can criticize history, the
    facts of history certainly can retort upon them.
    It might, I grant, be clearer on this great
    subject than it is. This is no great concession.
    History is not a creed or a catechism, it gives
    lessons rather than rules still no one can
    mistake its general teaching in this matter,
    whether he accept it or stumble at it. Bold
    outlines and broad masses of colour rise out of
    the records of the past. They may be dim, they
    may be incomplete but they are definite. And
    this one thing at least is certain whatever
    history teaches, whatever it omits, whatever it
    exaggerates or extenuates, whatever it says and
    unsays, at least the Christianity of history is
    not Protestantism. If ever there were a safe
    truth, it is this.
  • Intro 4,5

  • Our popular religion scarcely recognizes the fact
    of the twelve long ages which lie between the
    Councils of Nicæa and Trent, except as affording
    one or two passages to illustrate its wild
    interpretations of certain prophesies of St. Paul
    and St. John. It is melancholy to say it, but the
    chief, perhaps the only English writer who has
    any claim to be considered an ecclesiastical
    historian, is the unbeliever Gibbon. To be deep
    in history is to cease to be a Protestant.
  • Intro. 5

  • It is indeed sometimes said that the stream is
    clearest near the spring. Whatever use may fairly
    be made of this image, it does not apply to the
    history of a philosophy or belief, which on the
    contrary is more equable, and purer, and
    stronger, when its bed has become deep, and
    broad, and full. It necessarily rises out of an
    existing state of things, and for a time savours
    of the soil. Its vital element needs disengaging
    from what is foreign and temporary, and is
    employed in efforts after freedom which become
    more vigorous and hopeful as its years increase.
    Its beginnings are no measure of its
    capabilities, nor of its scope. At first no one
    knows what it is, or what it is worth. It remains
    perhaps for a time quiescent it tries, as it
    were, its limbs, and proves the ground under it,
    and feels its way. From time to time it makes
    essays which fail, and are in consequence
    abandoned. It seems in suspense which way to go
    it wavers, and at length strikes out in one
    definite direction. In time it enters upon
    strange territory points of controversy alter
    their bearing parties rise and fall and around
    it dangers and hopes appear in new relations
    and old principles reappear under new forms. It
    changes with them in order to remain the same. In
    a higher world it is otherwise, but here below to
    live is to change, and to be perfect is to have
    changed often. Ch. 1, Sec. 1, 7
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