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Group Counseling


Issue of role balance Types of Groups Task/Work content oriented Guidance/Psychoeducational content oriented Counseling process oriented Therapy used ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Group Counseling

Group Counseling
  • Session 1 (of 3)

Group Screening
  • Focus on screening questions from syllabus
  • TAP-In checklist (Appendix B, p. 283, Smead)
  • Informed consent (6 on TAP-In, p. 45, Smead)
  • Brigman Goodman
  • Introductionemphasize voluntary participation
  • What the student can gain
  • Goalsselect a general one, can change
  • Expectationsattend, participate, confidentiality
  • Advantages of individual interviews for screening
  • Heterogeneity vs. homogeneity (s and s)see
    pp. 44-49. Issue of role balance

Types of Groups
  • Task/Workcontent oriented
  • Guidance/Psychoeducationalcontent oriented
  • Counselingprocess oriented
  • Therapyused in clinical settings
  • See pp. 6-9 in text

Pre-group Issues
  • See slide 11, pre-group responsibilities, plus
  • Group size (5 or 6 to 8). Discuss balance
  • Scheduling
  • Typically 8-12 sessions (dont expect to see deep
    or long-term change)
  • 1-2 sessions weekly
  • 30 minutes for ages 6-8
  • 40-45 minutes for ages 9-13
  • 45-60 minutes for ages 13, if time available
  • Avoid pulling out of classes if in school

Pre-group Issues (2)
  • The meeting area
  • Confidentiality/privacy relate to trust-building
  • Room should close completely
  • Shouldnt feel too visually exposed
  • Sign on door for non-entry except for emergencies
  • Seating (comfortable as possible) for
    circledont get around a table
  • Writing surface available board or flip chart
    box for puppets, drawing materials box of tissues

Pre-group Issues (3)
  • Expectations
  • Dont expect child group members to understand
    group norms and expectations without modeling and
    practice (taking turns, self-disclosing,
    reinforcing each other, practicing new behaviors,
  • Dont expect children (and some adults) to
    understand the differences between thoughts,
    feelings and behaviors without being taught
  • Dont expect children to do talk therapyall
    benefit from structure/fun of activities and

Initial (Group-Building) Stage Dealing with
confusion/anxiety re group
  • Key issue is beginning development of trust
  • Have carefully designed ice-breaker
  • Dos and donts of initial stage (pp. 59-60 of

Initial (Group-Building) Stage(2)
  • Start session with designed icebreaker
  • Use linking skills from beginning (who connected
    with who during icebreaker)
  • Remind group members of confidentiality rule and
  • Discuss how group will deal with
    confidentiality violations
  • Discuss ground rules (yours and help with theirs)
  • Begin teaching desired group norms (talking
    directly to each other rather than to leader,
    self-disclosing, etc.)
  • Use drawing-out skills to help each child/member
    participate at least once
  • Clearly reinforce attempts at self-disclosure and
    sharing feelings

Initial (Group-Building) Stage(3)
  1. Ask group directly how they feeling about the
    development of trust what they need to have more
  2. Encourage trying out of new behaviors outside
  3. Save time for processing at end ask for
    commitments to do self-improvement homework
  4. Be patient with insecure children/members
  5. Dont overdo dyadsespecially after first two
  6. End session with praise (and snack if appropriate)

Initial (Group-Building) Stage(4)
  • Work on avoiding
  • Poor time management
  • Monopolizing or off-subject time by member(s)
  • Negative/hurtful behaviors toward each other
  • Pushing any member(s) too hard or fast
  • Too long an icebreaker (especially in first
  • Letting activities take the place of group
  • Using teacher voicemodel relaxed, genuine
  • Ending session without thanking group members and
    reminding of next meeting, time, place,
    assignments, etc

Initial Stage (Group-Building)
  • Role play of first group session
  • Name tag activity (p. 299 of large text)share in
    dyads, intro of partner to full group
  • Cover confidentiality, option of passing if not
    comfortable sharing, brainstorm about other
    ground rules write down and then share the best
    group experience youve ever hadand what made
    it so memorable
  • Summarize (or have members summarize) session,
    give what I most want to learn about leading
    groups as assignment for next session remind of
    next meeting time, place

Show group work video
  • Out of order (Subsequent sessions)

Ethical Guidelines and Professional Issues (1)
  • Orientation and providing info
  • Assent vs. consent for younger students
  • TAP-In selection checklist (text, App. B)
  • Screening of members
  • Role balancemix of heterogeneity and
    homogeneity, with a positive behavioral role
    model for each child
  • Confidentialityand its limits
  • Harm to self or others, abuse, courts

Ethical Guidelines and Professional Issues (2)
  1. Voluntary/Involuntary participation
  2. Leaving a groupemphasize right, responsibility
  3. Coercion and pressureavoid undue pressure
  4. Imposing counseling valuessensitivity a key
  5. Equitable treatment
  6. Dual relationshipsa problem
  7. Use of techniquesrationale, have training
  8. Goal developmentfor individuals and group

Ethical Guidelines and Professional Issues (3)
  1. Consultation between sessionslimit this for sake
    of group processing benefit
  2. Termination from groupsome difference for
    time-limited vs. open-ended groups. Opportunity
    to teach healthy letting go.
  3. Evaluation and follow-uppost-group evaluation
    within 2 weeks, follow-up within 3-4 weeks
  4. Referralssome group members will need this
  5. Professional development

Professional Issues (4)
  • Psychological risk to children
  • Commitment to value of freedom
  • Willingness to modelbeing authentic, honest,
    caring, supportive, competent, genuine, and
    willing to practice along with group members
  • Developing tolerance for ambiguity and
  • Pursuing your own counselingavoid having our
    professional judgement/functioning impaired

Organizing the Group Experience (1)
  • Pregroup Responsibilities
  • Conducting needs assessment
  • Developing written proposal
  • Advertising the group
  • Developing accountability strategystandardized
    vs. counselor-constructed, use of pretest and
    posttest, individual vs. group change data
  • Selection process
  • Preparing resources

Organizing the Group Experience (2)
  • Active Group Events
  • Conducting the sessionssession agenda
  • Ice-breaker or review1/4 of session
  • Working time1/2 of session
  • Process time1/4 of session
  • Postgroup Responsibilities
  • Posttest
  • Completing evaluation procedure
  • Conducting postgroup follow-up session(s)

Role Play Subsequent Group
  • Begin
  • Ice-breaker (name chain)
  • Review previous group content/processparticularly
    re confidentiality / rules
  • Share results with assignment (what I most need
    to learn about leading groups)

Role Play Subsequent Group (2)
  • Work content vs. process
  • Contentraw material to stimulate attitudinal and
    behavioral change, but there and then-focused
  • Process is about relationships, what thinking,
    feeling and doing right now
  • Learn to listen, express, give feedback, give
    support, confront appropriately
  • Leader needs to be able to let go of content
    sometimes to deal with immediacy of relationships
  • Requires more advanced skillslevel of awareness

Role Play Subsequent Group (3)
  • End/summarize
  • Content vs. process and feelings about each other
    and the topic
  • Complements to group members
  • Assignment write down examples of content vs.
    process interactions over the next week
  • Next session, plans
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