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HACCP PRINCIPLES

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HACCP Emphasizes on process control Concentrates on the points in the process that are critical to the safety of the product CCP Decision Tree 1. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HACCP PRINCIPLES


1

HACCP PRINCIPLES

2
.
HACCP is.
  • A management tool used to protect the food supply
    against biological, chemical and physical hazards.

Preventive, not reactive
3

HACCP
  • Emphasizes process control
  • Concentrates on the points in the process that
    are critical to the safety of the product

4
HACCP Seven Principles
  • Hazard analysis and preventive measures
  • Identify critical control point
  • Establish critical limits
  • Establish Monitor Procedure for each CCP
    Establish corrective action
  • Establish recording and record-keeping system
  • Establish verification procedures

5

HA
6
Principle 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • Conduct a hazard analysis. where significant
    hazards occur and establish the preventive
    measures.

7

Hazard Definition
  • A biological, chemical or physical property that
    may cause a food to be unsafe for consumption.
  • .

8
Hazards analysis
The process of collecting and evaluating
information on hazards and conditions leading to
their presence to decide which are significant
for food safety and therefore should be addressed
in the HACCP plan. (Codex
Alimentarius, 1997) USA Hazard analysis
123.6(a) Every processor shall conduct or have
conducted a hazard analysis. A significant
hazard must be controlled if it is -
reasonably likely to occur, and - likely to
result in an unacceptable risk to consumers.
9
  • 1. Identify potential species related hazard
  • 2. Identify potential process related hazard
  • 3. Determine if potential hazard is
    significant
  • 4.Determine Preventive Measures for each
    significant hazard


10
Significant hazards
  • How to identify significant hazards ?

11
Significant hazards
  • How to identify significant hazards ?
  • Fishery products hazard guide books
  • US hazard guide, FAO/Huss assurance of seafood
    quality
  • Coming Australian hazard guide, FAO s
    international hazard guide.
  • Statistics
  • Food control Fish inspection services (import
    export domestic)
  • Human health data, hospitals, publications,
  • Research data
  • Published, unpublished,
  • Data from industry
  • monitoring, HACCP, customer complains,
    rejections,
  • Risk assessments (qualitative quantitative)

12
Recent changes in international trade
with fishery products
  • Source of fishery products
  • - Since the middle of the 80, developing
    countries have
  • become the major supplier of fishery
    products.
  • - Most of them are found in the tropical and
    sub-tropical belt.
  • - Globalisation of international trade
    (information and technology)
  • Aquaculture expansion
  • - Fastest growing food production system (10
    /an)
  • - 1 out of 4 fish comes from aquaculture
  • - 87 of aquaculture comes from developing
    countries
  • - by 2007, 50 of food fish will come from
    aquaculture

13
Food Safety Hazards
Raw material (Environment )
Transportation Process and Distribution
Hazards
Biological
Chemical
Physical
Pathogens Virus Parasite
Toxins Compound Residue Spoilage
Metal Glass Stone Radiate
14
Risk Evaluation
  • Decide which hazards must be considered in the
    plan
  • Consider hazards introduced outside the
    processing plant environment Include
    transportation and storage
  • Evaluate the severity of the hazard and if it is
    reasonably likely to occur

15
Preventive Measures
  • Activity taken to
  • prevent or eliminate
  • food hazard to an
  • acceptable level.

16
Biological Hazard prevention
EXAMPLE
  • Bacteria Time/Temp. control
  • Cooling and refrigeration
  • Virus Cook
  • Parasitewipe off dietary control.

17
Chemical hazard prevention
EXAMPLE
  • source control(area? supplier)
  • production control(SSOP)
  • Label control

18
Physical hazards preventiion
EXAMPLE
  • source control(supplier testify, material
    inspection)
  • production control(metal detect?sift out etc.)?

19
Hazard-Analysis Worksheet
(1) Ingredient/processing step (2) Identify potential hazards introduced controlled or enhanced (3) Are any potential food-safety hazards significant?(Yes/No) (4) Justify your decision for column 3 (5) What preventative measure(s) can be applied to prevent HA? (6) Is this step a CCP?(Yes/No)

20
Principle 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • Identification of
  • Critical Control Points

21
CCP Definition
  • C C P is a point, step, or procedure in a food
    chain at which control can be applied and , as a
    result, a food safety hazard can be prevented,
    eliminated, or reduced to an acceptable level


22
Hazard prevention
  • Raw-material control prevents pathogen
  • refrigeration or cooling prevents pathogen growth.

23
Hazard elimination
  • Cooking can kill pathogens.
  • Metal detector can eliminate metal bits
  • Refrigeration can kill parasites

24
Hazard reduce to acceptable level
  • Choose motley eye winker by manual work or
    auto-collector.
  • Receiving from approved water area can reduce
    some biological and chemical hazard.

25

CCP Decision
  • HACCP Emphasizes on process control
  • Concentrates on the points in the process that
    are critical to the safety of the product

26
CCP Decision Tree
  • 1. Do preventive measures exist at this step or
    subsequent steps for the identified hazard?

    Modify step,
  • Yes
    No or
    product Yes
  • 2. Can this step eliminate or Is
    control at this step necessary
  • reduce the likely occurrence of for
    safety?
  • a hazard to an acceptable level?

  • No
  • 3. Could
    contamination with identified hazards
    No
  • occur in excess
    of acceptable levels or could
  • Yes this increase to
    unacceptable levels?
  • Yes
    No
  • 4. Will a subsequent
    step eliminate
  • identified hazards or
    reduce the likely
  • occurrence to an
    acceptable levels?
  • No
    Yes

Not a CCP
C C P
27
CCPdecision tree
ccp
Not ccp
Decision tree is just a tool, you have to
consider the property of the product and the
process, as well as relevant data and information
when determining CCPs.
28
Hazard-Analysis Worksheet
(1) Ingredient/processing step (2) Identify potential hazards controlled or enhanced (3) Are any potential food-safety hazards significant?(Yes/No) (4) Justify your decision for column 3 (5) What preventative measure(s) can be applied to prevent HA? (6) Is this step a CCP?(Yes/No)

29
Principle 3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • Establish Critical limits for preventive measures
    associated with each CCP

30
Critical Limit Definition
  • CL
  • A criterion, which specifies the
  • acceptable limits.



31
Select Critical Limit
  • You should establish different critical limit in
    accordance with different control methods.?

32
e.g. CCPFryer meat patty



33
Option NO.1 monitoring pathogens Hazard
--pathogens(microbe) CCP--deep-fry CL-- no
pathogens detected
Option 2 control internal Temp.
Hazard-----pathogens(microbe) CCP-----deep-fry CL
-----min. internal Temp 66? one minute
No. 3 Controlling Factors Affect Internal
Temp. Hazard--pathogens(microbe) CCP--deep-fry
CL--min. fryer oil Temp 177? CL--min. patty
thickness0.25 inch (0.64cm) CL--min. passing time
1 min
34
  • The third option is easier to control and to
    monitor than the other two.
  • In addition, the cooking temperature and cooking
    time can be monitored continually, which gives
    greater confidence that every item has been
    adequately cooked

35
INFORMATION of CL
  • Science Publication Foodstuff journal
  • Book?Tech-criterion Related Guideline
  • Code Guideline Food scientist
  • Expert/Consultant Contrast Experiment
  • Consultation
  • Experiment Research

36
Establishing


OPERATIONAL LIMITS
37

  • OL Criteria that are more stringent than
    critical limits and that are used by an operator
    to reduce the risk of a deviation.

38
Remark
  • When an Operational Limit deviates it only needs
    process adjustment without keeping records.
  • When a Critical Limit deviates,
  • then the corrective action must be adopted and
    be recorded in HACCP documentation.

39

PROCESS ADJUSTMENT
  • An action taken by the firm to bring the
    process back within operating limits.


40
HACCP Plan Form
CCP Hazards Critical Limits Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Corrective Action(s) Records Verification
CCP Hazards Critical Limits What How How Often Who Corrective Action(s) Records Verification

41
Principle 4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • Establish monitoring procedures for process
    maintain control

42
Monitoring
  • CCP - Monitoring To conduct a planned
    sequence of observations or measurements to
    assess whether a CCP is under control

43
Purposes of Monitoring
  • Facilitates tracking of the operation
  • Indicates when there is a loss of control and a
    deviation occurs
  • Provides written documentation for use in
    verification

44
  • What a measurement or observation to assess
    if the CCP is operating within the critical
    limit.
  • How Usually physical or chemical measurements
  • or observations
  • Frequency can be continuous or intermittent.
  • Who someone trained to perform the specific
    monitoring activity.

45
Monitoring methods
  • Microbial tests are seldom effective for
    monitoring because they are slow and
    time-consuming
  • A sampling protocol is seldom possible which can
    reliably detect low levels of pathogens
  • Physical and chemical methods are preferred

46
Frequency of monitoring
  • Affects the level of confidence that a firm has
    in the safety of its product
  • Continuous monitoring provides the highest level
    of confidence
  • Discontinuous monitoring can produce suspect
    product

47
  • Discontinuous monitoring should consider
  • Common change in process,
  • The distance between operation limit and critical
    limit,
  • Risk to the product when exceed critical limit

48
MONITORING PERSONNEL
  • CCP Monitoring personnel shall be
  • manufacturing personnel
  • equipment operators
  • servicing personnel
  • quality personnel

49
PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION
  • Must have training related to HACCP monitoring
    aspect
  • have a full comprehension of the importance of
    CCP monitoring
  • Report the monitoring result accurately each time
  • Report any deviations immediately so as to
    correct it in time.

50
Suitable Monitoring
  • Visual observations
  • Temperature
  • Time
  • pH
  • Moisture level
  • Salt
  • Water activity

51
Monitoring Facility
  • Horologe
  • Thermometer
  • Balance
  • PH-meter
  • Water activity-meter
  • chemical analysis facility etc.

52
HACCP Plan Form
CCP Hazards Critical Limits Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Corrective Action(s) Records Verification
CCP Hazards Critical Limits What How frequency Who Corrective Action(s) Records Verification

53
Principle 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • When a deviation from a critical limit occurs, a
    corrective action must be taken

54
  • Corrective Actions
  • Establish corrective actions to be taken when
    monitoring indicates that there is a deviation
    from an established critical limit.

55
  • Deviation
  • A failure to meet a required critical limit for a
    critical control point.

56
Corrective Actions
  • Monitoring Result
  • Yes or No.
  • If no, then The Corrective Action Procedure must
    be implemented.

57
Corrective Action Components
  • To correct and eliminate the cause of the
    deviation and restore process control
  • To identify the product that was produced during
    the process deviation and determine its
    disposition.

58
CORRECTIVE ACTION RECORDS All CA shall be
recorded,which will help processor to summarize
the problem that has occurred to make HACCP plan
effective.In addition,the record must provide
evidence of disposition.
59
  • IMPORTANT
  • Because the deviation always is uncertain,the
    corrective action plan designed in advance may
    not be effective,our principle is to pay proper
    attention to construct an effective corrective
    action program!

60
HACCP Plan Form
CCP Hazards Critical Limits Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Corrective Action(s) Records Verification
CCP Hazards Critical Limits What How How Often Who Corrective Action(s) Records Verification

61
Principle 6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • Establish effective record-keeping procedures
    that documents the
  • HACCP system

62

Effective Record-Keeping
  • is an essential part of a successful HACCP
    program. Records provide evidence that the CLs
    have been met or that appropriate CAs were taken
    when the limits were exceeded.

63
  • Records serve as written evidence of the
    establishments compliance with its HACCP plan.
  • Records allow the plant to trace the history of
    an ingredient, in-process or a finished product
    (should problems arise).
  • Records help identify trends in a particular
    operation that could result in a deviation if not
    corrected.

64
  • In the event of a product recall, HACCP records
    could help identify and narrow the scope of such
    a recall.
  • Well maintained records are good evidence in
    potential legal actions.

65
Recording System Including
  • Description of HACCP system
  • Hazards analysis including modification
  • CCP determination
  • Critical Limit determination
  • CCP monitoring activity and results
  • Deviation and associated corrective actions
  • Training ? Verification
  • Modifications to the HACCP system
  • SSOP monitoring record
  • Complaint and recall
  • External audit ? Other activities

66
following must be kept
  • HACCP plan support document
  • CCP monitoring records
  • Corrective action records
  • Audit records.

67
Needs
  • Monitoring records are written on-site
  • Re-Checkers signature and date

68
HACCP Plan Form
CCP Hazards Critical Limits Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Corrective Action(s) Records Verification
CCP Hazards Critical Limits What How How Often Who Corrective Action(s) Records Verification

69
Principle 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • Establish procedures to verify
  • the HACCP systems
  • effectiveness

70
  • Trust what you verify
  • Definition the application of methods,
    procedures, tests and audits, in addition to
    monitoring to validate and determine compliance
    with the HACCP plan and /or whether the HACCP
    plan, needs modification.

71
System Verification
Suitability
1. HACCP Plan
Compliance
2. Ongoing Implementation
Effectiveness
3. Safety of Product
72
Suitability
  • 1. hazard analysis is satisfactory
  • 2. CCP establishment is reasonable
  • 3. CL and OL establishment is scientific
  • 4. monitoring procedure is reasonable
  • 5. support document is satisfactory

73
Compliance
  • 1. monitoring facilities calibration
  • 2. monitoring procedure is executed effectively
  • 3. corrective action is executed effectively
  • 4. all operational records are factual
  • 5. validation procedure is executed effectively

74
Effectiveness
  • 1. clients complaint records
  • 2. inspection report of administration department
    or serving institution
  • 3. examining report of lab in factory
  • 4. audit of third party
  • 5. audit of department that executes the law

75
Elements of Verification
  • CCP verification activities
  • --Calibration of monitoring
    equipments
  • -- Targeted sampling and testing
  • --CCP record review
  • HACCP system verification
  • --Internal audit
  • --External audit

76
Validation personnel
  • HACCP team
  • trained personnel with experience
  • Client
  • qualified third party
  • Official

77
When needs to verification
  • Initially when factors warrant.
  • Reconfirm the following
  • a. Changes in raw material
  • b. Changes in product and process
  • c. Adverse audit findings
  • d. Recurring deviations
  • e. New information on hazards or control
    measures
  • f. On-line observations, and
  • g. New distribution or consumer handling
    practices

78
HACCP Plan Form
CCP Hazards Critical Limits Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Corrective Action(s) Records Verification
CCP Hazards Critical Limits What How How Often Who Corrective Action(s) Records Verification

System Verification
79
(2)
(1)Ingredient/processing step Identify potential hazards introduced controlled or enhanced (3)Are any potential food-safety hazards significant?(Yes/No) (4)Justify your decision for column 3 (5)What preventative measure(s) can be applied to prevent HA? (6)Is this step a CCP? Yes/No

Hazard Analysis Worksheet
CCP Hazards Critical Limits Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Corrective Action(s) Records Verification
CCP Hazards Critical Limits What How How Often Who Corrective Action(s) Records Verification

HACCP Plan Form
80

HA
81
HACCP is not a zero risk system
  • It is designed to minimize the risk of food
    safety hazards, keeping to improve

82
HACCP
Mandatory
GMP (GHP)
ISO
Recommendation
Mandatory
83
Thank you!
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