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Cable Television

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Cable Television Cable Television about 70 percent of U.S. households have cable TV Top 25 Cable Systems Top 25 MSO s (Multiple System Operator)) Cable Networks Ted ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cable Television


1
Cable Television

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Cable Television
  • about 70 percent of U.S. households have cable TV

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  • Top 25 Cable Systems
  • Top 25 MSOs (Multiple System Operator))
  • Cable Networks

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  • Ted
  • Turner

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Ted Turner and Jane Fonda
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  • Rupert
  • Murdoch

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Cable and Satellite Early Years
  • Late 1940s CATV
  • (Community Antenna Television)
  • Used to bring broadcast signal to people in..

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Cable and Satellite Early Years
  • Rural mountainous or hilly regions

15
Cable and Satellite Early Years
  • big cities
  • (tall buildings)

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  • Cable HELPED broadcasters get their signal to a
    wider audience.
  • But then Cable began to THREATEN, not help,
    broadcasters.

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Cable and Satellite Early Years
  • Satellites Envisioned in 1945 by science fiction
    writer Arthur C. Clarke
  • (author of 2001 A Space Odyssey)

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Clarke article, 1945

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Clarke article, 1945

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Cable and SatelliteEarly Years
  • Clarke imagined 3 satellites in geosynchronous
    orbit
  • (22,300 miles from earth, traveling at 6,800
    mph)
  • In this orbit, satellites maintain the same
    footprint

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  • 1958 First satellite launched
  • (Explorer I)
  • 1960 Echo satellite launched
    (geosynchronous orbit)

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  • First Communication Satellite Launched
  • TelStar
  • 1962
  • (Kennedy era)

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  • Today there are 2,500 satellites (operative and
    inoperative)
  • J-Track/Nasa shows 900

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  • Did you know there are over eight thousand
    artificial objects orbiting Earth? Over 2,500 are
    satellites, operative and inoperative. The
    remaining objects are orbital debris parts such
    as nosecone shrouds, lens, hatch covers, rocket
    bodies, payloads that have disintegrated or
    exploded, and even objects that "escape" from
    manned spacecraft during operations.
  • --NASA

27
FCC protects Broadcasting
  • 1. 1965 - The Must Carry rule
  • Local Cable company MUST carry local broadcasting
    Channels
  • 2. 1970s - Franchising begins
  • Only one cable company per municipality
  • Competition to win cable franchises.
  • Usually a 15-year monopoly

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FCC protects Broadcasting(and supports democracy)
  • 3. By 1972, all cable companies had to supply -
    Access Channels (PEG)
  • (public, education, government)

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Bigger threat to broadcasting New Content
  • HBO (1975) --just movies
  • 2. Showtime (1976) --just movies
  • 3. WTBS (1976) 1st Superstation

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  • TBS Logos, 1976 until today

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later other superstations WGN Chicago,
1978WWOR New York/NJ, 1978
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Satellites New Content
  • Cable begins to GROW
  • CNN (1980)
  • Chicken noodle network

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Satellites New Content
  • MTV (1981)
  • (video killed the radio star)

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  • Discovery Channel,
  • launched 1985
  • Comedy Central,
  • launched 1989

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  • Franchising FRENZY
  • Intense competition to acquire cable franchises

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FCC Allows Cable to GROWsoftens rules(DBS is
on the Horizon)
  • 1992 - Must Carry rules are relaxed
  • Every three years, choose Must Carry (no ) or
    Retransmission Consent (get )
  • Some large broadcast station chains use
    Retransmission consent to leverage new cable
    channels
  • Public access rules are eventually relaxed

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  • Fox News
  • --network launched
  • 1996

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  • Fox News
  • --network launched
  • 1996

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Cable Programming Narrowcasting
  • More than 250 cable video services offered
    nationally
  • About 7,090 cable Systems
  • Cable is available to 97 of all households
  • 73 of all U.S. households subscribe to cable
  • (27 use rabbit ears)

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Cable Programming Narrowcasting
  • Network Broadcasting satisfy the masses
  • Cable Services niche programming
  • Planned and Existing Networks

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Cable Programming Narrowcasting
  • GROUP PROJECT
  • Divide into groups of 6
  • Propose a new cable channel that does two things
  • It should find a unique market niche
  • It should be successful drawing an audience that
    appeals to advertisers (be ready to name
    advertisers)

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Cable Programming Narrowcasting
  • RULE 1 IT CANT BE YOUR DEMOGRAPHIC
  • Rule 2 It cant involve the 80s in terms
  • Of programming or culture

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Cable Programming Narrowcasting
  • Basic Cable - cable systems pay between
  • 5 cents (C-SPAN)
  • more than 3 (ESPN)
  • per subscriber, per month
  • (A la carte cable?)
  • Premium Cable
  • HBO
  • Showtime
  • Pay-per-view and Interactive Cable

53
Cable Programming Narrowcasting
  • VOD - Video on Demand.
  • Biggest new service.
  • For digital cable customers.
  • Downloads programs to digital cable set top box.

54
Ownership in Cable
  • About 7.090 Cable Systems
  • Most of cable is controlled by MSOs (multiple
    system owners)
  • Top 5 MSOs control about 70 of cable audience.
    (Comcast, Time Warner, Cox, Charter, Cablevision)
  • Prices keep going up
  • Increasing amounts of advertising

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Ownership in Cable
  • 1996 Telecommunications Act

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Ownership in Cable
  • 1996 TeleCommunications Act
  • ended rate regulation.
  • Allowed cable and other businesses to enter each
    others industries (e.g., cable companies now
    getting into telephone service).
  • Despite promises, cable rates have REMAINED
    HIGH AND INCREASED.
  • Less than 5 percent of cable customers have
    competition, which lowers prices significantly
  • (Cedar Falls example).

57
  • Video
  • Cable and the 1996 Telecommunication Act

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Ownership in Cable
  • Cedar Falls Utilities
  • (also Spencer, Hawarden, Larens) have invested in
    city-owned cable operating systems.
  • Ensured that Cedar Falls was part of the Internet
    revolution early on.

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Broadcast Satellites
  • DBS DIRECT BROADCAST SATELLITE
  • BIG THREAT TO CABLE

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Broadcast Satellites
  • How satellite companies operate
  • C-Bands Huge dishes

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Broadcast Satellites
  • Ku-bands DirectTV /News trucks, etc.

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  • Vincor satellite company

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Broadcast Satellites
  • mid-1970s. Big Dish (6.5-10 feet) satellites
    appear in rural areas.
  • 1994. DBS (Direct Broadcast Satellite) television
    begins. (3 feet or less)
  • DirecTV (owned by News Corp.) and EchoStar are
    the main corporations.
  • DirectV merges with Echostar, 2007--FCC JUST
    APPROVED IT BUT NOT QUITE DONE YET

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Broadcast Satellites
  • Satellite Radio
  • XM
  • Sirius

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Broadcast Satellites
  • Satellite Radio
  • XM
  • Sirius
  • INTERNET download Stream programming
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