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Antiquity and Continuity of Vedic Culture

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Title: Antiquity and Continuity of Vedic Culture


1
Antiquity and Continuity of Vedic Culture
  • Hindu Swayamsevak Sangh

2
Sources of History
  • Vedic Literature
  • Puraan, Ramayan, Mahabharat
  • Zend Avesta, Greek Sources
  • Astromical, Philological, Archaelogical, Literary

3
Early Kings
Manu the son of Vivasvan, was the 15th decendant
of Barhi. Manu's decendants are called Manav.
During his rule a terrible flood broke out. It
is believed that a shark (First incarnation of
Vishnu) helped Manu survive the floods.
4
Swayambhuva Manu
  • Kaliyug 3102 B.C (Varahamihira, Kalhana, Arya
    Bhatta, Vruddha Garga, Puraan)
  • ChaturYuga Cycle 12000 human years (4800 years
    Kruta, 3600 Treta, 2400 Dwapar, 1200 Kali)
  • Vaivasta Manu 13902 B.C (10,800 years before
    Kali)
  • Swayambhuva Manu 29000 B.C (71 Divya Years
    before) 1 Divya Year 360 human years)
  • The Matsya Puraan (129-76, 77) confirms
  • B.G.Tilak in his "Orion" has calculated 29101
    B.C., using astronomical data

5
Bhaarat Origins
  • King Nahush caretaker of Indra's Kingdom
  • King Yayati's thirst to remain young
  • Yayati rewards his youngest son Puru
  • Shakuntala is born to Apsara Menakaa
  • Prince Dushyant secretly marries Shakuntala.
  • Shakuntala looses the ring, that proves her to
    be Dushyant's wife.
  • Ring is found. Return of Shakuntala.
  • King Bharat. After whom the country is called
    Bhaarat.

6
Cradle of Civilization
  • Where?
  • When?
  • Spread?

7
40,000 year old Painting
  • White silica sandstone rock shelter
  • Bhimbetka Caves
  • Notice the horse with rider

8
River System
  • Sapta-Sindhu Region
  • Saraswati changes course 4 times
  • Finally disappears

9
Saraswati
10
Saraswati-Sindhu Culture
  • 300 cities many supporting villages covered
    1,500,000 sq. km. Bigger than Western Europe.
  • Most cities were shaped as parallelograms.
  • Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa had populations of
    100,000.
  • Cities had giant reservoirs for water.
  • Underground drainage system.
  • 2 or 3 storied houses, built with bricks of
    uniform size.
  • Weights were standardized.
  • The entire empire used same script.
  • Marine culture. A huge dock in Lothal.
  • They exported goods to Egypt (Nile) and Sumer
    (Iraq, Tigris-Euphrates).

11
RgVedic Places
12
Outbound Migration
  • War
  • Famine, Flood
  • Commerce

13
Dasharadnya Yuddha (War of Ten Kings)
  • Iranian (Abhivarta) Chayamana King of Paarthava
    people
  • Bhaaradwaj Rishi, Commander Divodaasa (Father
    Daivavatata, Son Sudas)
  • Sudas (Vasishtha, Agastya)
  • Sindhu River Migration to East and West

14
Paarthava and Bharata
15
Hindu Kush Region
16
Zarathushtra
  • Vedic Iranian (Dasyu)
  • Zarathustra, a contemporary of king Vishtaspa
    (Sage Kaksivan speaks of one Istasva) lived
    around 7100 B.C.
  • Greeks Herodotus / Strabo Caspian Sea and
    Caucasus mountains are named from Sage Kaspios
    (Sage Kashyapa of the Rg Veda)

17
Migration to West (Tigris, Euphrates)
18
Migration to the West
  • Iran-Iraq
  • Charles Vallency quotes Sir William Jones as
    saying "It has been proved by clear evidence and
    plain reasoning that a powerful monarchy was
    established in Iran, long before the Assyrian or
    Pishdadi government that it was in truth a Hindu
    monarchy ... that is subsisted many centuries.."
    (Collectania De Rebus Hibernicus, p.465).
  • Pococke observes, "that a system of Hinduism
    pervaded the whole Babylonian and Assyrian
    empires"

19
Migration to the West
  • Europe / Greece
  • Renfrew allows a date as early as 6000 B.C. for
    the migration of Vedic aryans into Europe ("The
    Origins of Indo- European Languages", Sc.Amer,
    Oct, 1989).
  • Egypt
  • Prof. Brugsch Bey writes in "History of Egypt"
    that "We have a right to more than suspect that
    India, eight thousand years ago, sent a colony of
    emigrants who carried their arts and high
    civilization into what is now known to us as
    Egypt. The Egyptians came, according to their
    records, from a mysterious land (now known to lie
    on the shores of the Indian ocean) ... led by
    Amen, Hor, Hathor (Brahma, Hari, Rudra)..."

20
Migration to the West
  • Greece
  • Pococke writes in "India in Greece" (quoted in
    Age of Buddha, by K.Venkatachalam, p.75), "The
    early civilization, the early arts, the
    indubitably early literature of India are equally
    the civilization of, the arts, and literature of
    Egypt and of Greece for geographical references
    conjoined to historical facts and religious
    practices, now prove beyond all dispute than the
    latter countries are the colonies of the former".
  • The Greeks (and Egyptians) derived their
    cosmogony from the Hindus is apparent from their
    respective literature (Deshpandey, "Bharat As
    seen and known by foreigners").

21
Great Epics
  • Ramayana
  • Mahabharat
  • Migration to East, Far West

22
Ramayana
5500 B.C
23
Evidence
  • Tradition informs that Mahabharata occurred at
    the end of Dwaapar Yuga and Ramayana at the end
    of Treta Yuga.
  • Some clues from Sumerian clay tablets, Isin and
    Kish chronicles which approximate the date of the
    first king (Ukhu Iksh-vaku) of the first
    dynasty of Sumeria to be 8350 B.C.
  • Shree Rama was 75th in Ikshwaku lineage and that
    60 generations passed between Shree Rama and
    Shree Krishna. (Shrimad Bhagvat) that Ramayanic
    date therefore falls at about 5300 B.C.

24
Rama Setu
  • Fictitious?
  • 30 km long Ramaeshwar and Srilanka

25
Ramayana Abroad
  • Nepal, Sri Lanka, South Easy Asia
  • Japan and China from Jataka
  • Cold Siberia
  • Mayans of Mexico, Poetry Peru and Vishnu Temple
    in Uruguay
  • work of the Nazca people for navigational aid.
    According to local legend, this carved trident
    represents the lightning rod of the god
    Viracocha, who was worshipped throughout South
    America.

26
Ramayana in South East Asia
  • Prambanan was built in Java, Indonesia by Rakai
    Pikatan, king of the Second Mataram Dynasty (late
    9th century AD).
  • Lions flee as Ravana uproots the mountain where
    Shiva sits with his consort Parvati. (Temple
    relief Angkor, Cambodia )

27
Ramayana in South East Asia
  • Rama, Sita and Lakshmana enter the forest (
    Golden Gong Puppet Theatre (Yok the pwe,
    marionettes) 
  • Yangon, Myanmar  

Ravana kidnaps Sita. Lakhon bassac (folk opera),
DaoTan Drama Theatre Binh Dinh, Vietnam
Jatayu tries to rescue Sita. Detail of mural
painting (late 18th C) at Wat Phra Si Ratana
Satsadaram (Wat Phra Kaeo) Temple Bangkok,
Thailand
28
Ramayana in South East Asia
  • Hanuman delivers Rama's ring to Sita.  Khon
    (court dance drama), Natyasala Dance School
  • Wiangchan, Laos

The monkeys build a causeway of rocks to Ravana's
kingdom. Hanuman dives below the sea and finds
Suvarnamatsya, Wat That Luang Ratsamahawihan
temple, Luang Phabang, Laos.
29
Mahabharat
3138 B.C.
30
Evidence
  • Archaeological evidence (Dwaraka, River
    Saraswati), inscriptions found at various places
    (Aihole, Belgaum, Nidhanpur)
  • Greek records (Megasthenes), etc. provide
    interesting clues to the dateline of the
    Mahabharat.
  • On one of the excavations obtained from the
    Egyptian Pyramid, dated to 3000 B.C, is found
    engraved a verse from the Bhagavad Geeta
    "vasanvsi jeernani yatha vihaya, navani ghrunnati
    naro parani" (Nava Bharat Times, 18-4-67).
  • A tablet found in the Mohenjodaro sites depicts
    Lord Krishna and is dated to be 2600 B.C
    (Mackay's report, Part 1)
  • According to B.B. Lal, horse bones, vestiges of
    the Ashwamedh, have been discovered at
    Hastinapur.

31
Immense Destruction
  • Krishna leaves his earthly abode
  • Kaliyug descends
  • Dwaraka submerged
  • 1500 years pass
  • Heavy Migration occurs (Maya in Mexico, Bheema in
    Siberia)
  • Bhagavad Geeta is sung

32
Mahaveer Jain
1864 B.C.
  • Born near Pataliputra (Bihar)
  • Jaina tradition holds that Bhagawan Mahaveer
    (Vardhamaan) left this world 15 years after the
    death of Bhagawan Buddha (1807 B.C.), i.e., in
    1792 B.C., and since Mahaveer lived for a span of
    72 years, he must have been born in 1864 B.C.
  • He preached that right faith (samyak-darshana),
    right knowledge (samyak-jnana), and right conduct
    (samyak-charitra) together will help attain the
    liberation of one's self.
  • Nonviolence (Ahimsa), Truthfulness (Satya),
    Non-stealing (Asteya), Chastity (Brahmacharya),
    Non-attachment (Aparigraha)

33
Gautam Buddha
  • Siddhartha to Shuddhodana the king of Kapilavastu
    (Nepal). Married to Yashodhara, who soon gave
    birth to a son who they called Rahul.
  • Gautam Siddharta was 23rd in the Ikshwaku lineage
  • Contemporary of Kshemajita, Bindusar and
    Ajatashatru, the 31st-33rd kings of the
    Shishunaga dynasty
  • Coronation of Ajatashatru tookplace, that is in
    1814 B.C.
  • Astronomical calculations suggest Gautam
    Siddharta to be 2259 years after the Bharata War
    (3138 B.C.). which turns out to be 1880 B.C.
  • Born in 1887 B.C., Renunciation in 1858 B.C.,
    Penance during 1858-52 B.C and Death in 1807 B.C.

Aarya-ashtangamarga (Eight-fold path)
34
Chandragupta Maurya
1534 B.C.
  • Magadha King
  • Greek chronicles silent on the names of Chanakya,
    Bindusar (his son) and even Ashoka (his grandson)
  • Shishunaga dynasty ruled for 360 years, beginning
    from 1994 B.C.
  • Nanda dynasty was 100 years (Mahapadma Nanda)
  • During this time dams were constructed on rivers
    for water storage and irrigation. Rainfall was
    measured. Silver coins were issued by the rulers
    to facilitate trade. (Earliest known coin is a
    coin issued by Ajatshatru.)

35
Aadi Shankaracharya
509 B.C.
  • Kaladi, Kerala (Sivaguru, Aaryamba)
  • Sri Govinda Bagawathpathar (Guru)
  • Established 4 Maths (pilgrimage site and seat
    of learning )
  • Jotirmath, Badrinath, Uttar Pradesh
  • Govardhana Matha, Puri, Orrisa
  • Sringeri Peetham, Shringeri, Karnatak,
  • Dwaraka Pitha, Dwaraka, Gujarat)
  • Upholding the underlying unity of the holy land
    of Bharat.
  • Lived for 32 years (Quem di diligunt, adolescens
    moratur -- Whom the gods love, die young)

36
Alexander meets Puru
King Porus Alexander Defeated Returns to the West
37
Gupta Dynasty
  • Gupta Dynasty
  • Xandramas, Sandrocotus, Sandracyptus
  • 2811 years after the Mahabharata War, i.e.,
    corresponding to 328 B.C.
  • Sandrokotus of the Greeks, the political and
    social conditions in India at that time, match to
    those of in the era Chandragupta Gupta (not
    Maurya)
  • "Golden Age" in the history of India
  • Art and architecture, polity and politics, wealth
    and wisdom flourished side by side.

38
Cholas in South East Asia
39
Aryan Migration
Myth of the Aryan Invasion (1500 B.C) Cause a
split between North and South, different castes,
aboriginals Justification to rule Bharat
Arya means noble, with good qualities (Rama,
Krishna, Buddha, Chanakya)
40
RgVed Oldest BookBelongs to All, irrespective
of class, colour or creed
  • Astronomical References
  • Taiteriya Brahman (3115), where Brushaspati
    (Jupiter) crossed the Pushya constellation, gives
    a date of 4650 B.C.
  • Aiteriya Brahmana refers to 6000 B.C.
  • From the calculation of the vernal equinox cycle,
    the Taiteriya Samhita provides dates that reach
    as far as 22000 B.C (Ref Vartak, Tilak).
  • The life sized head has a hair style which the
    Vedas describe as being unique to Vasishtha...
    Carbon 14 tests indicate that it was cast around
    3700 B.C., with an error in either direction of
    upto 800 years .. an age also confirmed by
    independent metallurgical tests" (J. of
    Indo-European Studies, v.18, 1990, p.425-46).

41
Conintuous History and Spread
  • Vedic culture had reached a state of supreme high
    idealism
  • Arya people wanted to propagate and share with
    rest of the world
  • From the original Sapta-Sindhu homeland, and
    later, from the regions of Caspian Sea, the
    Vedics appear to have migrated across the globe
  • Dravid were the early offshoots of the Vedic
    people through Sage Agastya
  • Common history of humanity
  • Commonality and affinity of the most ancient
    languages with Sanskrit

42
Timelines
  • Swayambhuva Manu 29,000 B.C.
  • Veda (early stages) 23,720 B.C.
  • Samhita (Taitiriya) 22,000 B.C.
  • Manu Chakshushu 17,500 B.C.
  • King Pruthu 16,050 B.C.
  • Manu Vaivasvata 14,000 B.C.
  • Indra-Skanda dialogue (Mahabharat) 13,000 B.C.
  • Glaciation period 8,000 B.C.
  • Dasharadnya War 7,000 B.C.
  • Ramayana 5,500 B.C.
  • Orion period 4,000 B.C.

43
Timelines Continued
  • Greeks separate 4,000 B.C.
  • Rajatarangini begins 3,450 B.C.
  • Gonanda-I of Kashmir 3,238 B.C.
  • Mahabharata 3,138 B.C.
  • Veda (last stages) 3,100 B.C.
  • Saptarsi era begins 3,076 B.C.
  • Saraswati-Sindhu Culture 3,000 B.C.
  • Gautam Siddharta born 1,887 B.C.
  • Gautam Siddharta Nirvana 1,807 B.C.
  • Mahaveer Jain born 1,862 B.C.

44
Timelines Continued
  • Chandragupta Maurya 1,534 B.C.
  • Ashoka Maurya 1,482 B.C.
  • Ashoka Gonanda 1,448 B.C. Kanishka 1,294 B.C.
  • Kumarila Bhatta 557 B.C.
  • Vruddha Garga 550 B.C.
  • Aadi Shankaracharya born 509 B.C.
  • Harsha Vikramaditya 457 B.C.
  • Shatkarani Gautamiputra 433 B.C. Chandragupta
    Gupta 327 B.C.
  • Shakari Vikramaditya 57 B.C.
  • Shalivahan 78 A.D.
  • Huen-Tsang 625 A.D.
  • Kalhana (Kashmiri historian) 1,148 A.D
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