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Ethics and Our Law

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Ethics and Our Law Chapter 2 GOALS Define ethics Describe each element of the definition Define business ethics What is Ethics? Lisa found a $20 bill in the girl s ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ethics and Our Law


1
Ethics and Our Law
  • Chapter 2

2
GOALS
  • Define ethics
  • Describe each element of the definition
  • Define business ethics

3
What is Ethics?
  • Lisa found a 20 bill in the girls restroom at
    school. She bought her sister a gift with part
    of the money and put the rest of the money in her
    savings.
  • Jim found 20 in the boys restroom. He knows
    whoever lost the money would probably need it, so
    he turned the money in to the office.
  • Who is displaying more ethical behavior?
  • What would you do?

4
Hot Debate
  • Should Julian inform the INS of Achmeds
    whereabouts? If so, why?
  • What are the reasons in favor of Julian not
    informing the INS?

5
Whats your Verdict?
  • Has Jane made an ethical decision?
  • If you were in Janes position, what would you
    do?
  • Why so you think Jane's decision is okay? Not
    okay?
  • What do you think Jane should do with the exam
    she found?

6
Ethics
  • Deciding what is right or wrong in a reasoned,
    impartial manner

7
3 Elements
  • Decision about right or wrong action
  • Decision is reasoned
  • Decision is impartial

8
1) Decision about Right or Wrong Action
  • Decision to buy blue jeans with wide pant legs or
    narrow pant legs?
  • Ethical component?
  • Decision to discontinue medical support for an
    unconscious, terminally ill relative.
  • Ethical component?
  • Many decisions have little effect on other
    persons or yourself
  • To involve ethics, a decision must affect you or
    others in some significant way

9
2) Reasoned Decisions
  • We often act in response to our ________.
  • EMOTIONS
  • Ethical decision must be based on reason, not our
    emotions
  • Usually refer to a written authority that
    provides consistency
  • Law
  • Religious texts
  • I believe that God is the source of the Bible
    and the Bible tells me not to lie. Therefore, it
    would be wrong, or unethical, for me to lie

10
3) Impartial Decisions
  • Impartiality
  • The idea that the same ethical standards are
    applies to everyone
  • Ethics does not value one person or group of
    persons more than any other does
  • Men vs. Women
  • Each person is an individual and should receive
    equal respect and consideration from others

11
Impartial Decisions (cont)
  • It requires us to make ethical decisions while we
    balance our self-interest with the interest of
    others
  • If you hit someones car and no one sees you, is
    it ethical not to report it?
  • Who is affected?
  • All of our actions affect others

12
Impartial Decisions (cont)
  • Particularly important when organizations and
    institutions are involved
  • It was only the schools property
  • Just the insurance company was cheated
  • Consider how the people behind the institution
    are affected by the action

13
In this Case
  • What would you have done in Gabes place?
  • Why?
  • What would prompt them to keep the wallet?
    Return the wallet?

14
Business Ethics
  • The ethical principles used in making business
    decisions
  • Too often, ethics are not considered when
    business decisions are made
  • Why?
  • PROFIT MAXIMIZATION

15
Business Ethics (cont)
  • Move factories offshore and cut jobs to reduce
    costs
  • Increase profits for the business owners
  • The profit maximization ethic will need to be
    replaced by the more humane ethical standards

16
Assignment
  • Pg 27 1-11
  • Make sure that you answer all parts of the
    question!!!!
  • Complete sentences

17
Reasoning About Right Wrong
  • 2-2

18
Goals
  • Reason based on consequences
  • Reason using ethical rules

19
Based on Consequences
  • Rightness or wrongness is based only on the
    results of the action
  • Particular acts have no ethical, or moral
    character
  • A good act good consequences
  • A bad act bad consequences

20
Based on Ethical Rules
  • Acts are either right or wrong
  • Truth right
  • Lying wrong
  • Good consequences do not justify wrong or bad
    acts
  • Cant justify lying if it has a good consequences

21
Same Conclusions
  • For almost all ethical decisions, you reach the
    same conclusion using either form of reasoning
  • One should not lie
  • Consequence-based reasoning
  • Recognizes that lying usually produces bad
    consequences
  • Rule-based ethics
  • Lying is always wrong

22
Ethical Reasoning Based on Consequences
  • Describe alternative action
  • Forecast consequences
  • Evaluate consequences
  • Selecting the standard for judging consequences
    as right or wrong
  • Counting the persons affected

23
The Good
  • The standard for judging right or wrong

24
Fundamental Ethical Rule
  • Fundamental Ethical Rule the acts themselves
    are judged as right or wrong
  • Standard for judging comes from 2 sources
  • Recognized Authority (law, religious text)
  • Human Reasoning (shows that things are basically
    wrong)
  • A test has been devised to determine whether an
    action is right or wrong

25
Universalizing
  • Picturing in your minds eye everyone in the
    world doing the action
  • Irrational?
  • Illogical?
  • Self-Defeating?
  • If any of the three are true, the action is
    inconsistent with reason and therefore ethically
    wrong

26
Moral Rights
  • Rightful claims on other people that flow from
    each persons status as human beings

27
How is Ethics Expressed in Our Laws?
  • Lesson 2-3

28
  • Majority Rule
  • Elected representatives vote for laws acceptable
    to the majority of people they represent
  • Do our laws more reflect consequence based or
    rule based ethics?
  • Consequence

29
National Legislature
30
Our Laws Reflect Rule-Based Ethics
  • Laws desired by the majority may conflict with
    moral rights
  • The majority may benefit from unjust laws
  • The courts would declare invalid because they
    deny equal protection of the law to the minority

31
Our Laws Reflect Rule-Based Ethics
  • The U.S. supports and recognized human rights
  • Undermine human rights unconstitutional
  • Civil Rights
  • Personal, human rights recognized and guaranteed
    by the U.S. Constitution

32
Our Laws Reflect Rule-Based Ethics
  • Federal Judges
  • Appointed NOT elected
  • Appointed for life
  • Protect human rights without risking their job

33
Declaration of Independence
  • Recognizes our fundamental rights
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that
    all men are created equal, that they are endowed
    by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,
    that among these are Life, Liberty, and the
    pursuit of Happiness

34
Other Ethical Goals Reflected in Our Law
  • Laws need to be clearly stated and communicated
  • Ex. Grades
  • Whats your Verdict?

35
Are We Obligated to Obey Laws?
  • Yes Ethical reasoning demands it (avoid
    punishment)

36
Are We Obligated to Obey Laws?
  • Ethics demands that we obey
  • We consent to be governed by laws
  • Integrity
  • The capacity to so what is right even in the face
    of temptation or pressure to do otherwise
  • We want to avoid punishment
  • Fined, jailed, put to death
  • Barred from jobs with security clearance (Banks)
  • Licensed (Lawyers, doctors, accountants)

37
  • Employers usually purchase fidelity bonds for
    persons who handle large sums of money (cashiers)
  • Fidelity Bond
  • An insurance policy that pays the employer money
    in the case of theft by employees
  • Serious crimes do cannot qualify

38
Are We Ever Justified in Violating The Laws?
  • Whats your verdict?
  • Civil Disobedience
  • Open, peaceful, violation of a law to protest its
    alleged injustice
  • Participants may be willing to be arrested in
    order to test the validity of the law in court
  • Goal to make the legal system more just

39
Are We Ever Justified in Violating The Laws?
  • Scofflaws
  • Persons who do not respect the law
  • They assess the risk of being caught against the
    benefits they obtain
  • They are NEVER ethically justified in violating
    the law

40
Chapter Review
  • Ethics applies when decisions affect people
  • Ethical decisions must be grounded on reason and
    impartiality
  • There are two basic forms of ethics those based
    on consequences and those based on fundamental
    ethical rules
  • Ethics based on consequences evaluates only the
    results or effects of acts

41
Chapter Review (cont)
  • The law tries to advance the goals of
  • Reflecting the will of those governed
  • Preserving natural rights
  • Maintaining order
  • Both consequential and rule-based ethics compel
    us to obey the law
  • Integrity is doing what is right even in the face
    of temptation or pressure to so what is wrong

42
Chapter Review (cont)
  • We are obligated to obey the law because, by
    accepting societys benefits, we have consented
    to be bound by laws
  • We are obligated to obey the law if we believe in
    helping others. Civil disobedience is only
    justifies in rare and extraordinary circumstances
  • We should obey the law if we desire to avoid
    punishment
  • Civil disobedience is the open, peaceful
    violation of a law to protest its alleged
    injustice or unfairness
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