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Medical Ethics Lecturer :Noha Alaggad

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Medical Ethics Lecturer :Noha Alaggad What is Ethics? Ethics is a system of moral principles. They affect how people make decisions and lead their lives. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Medical Ethics Lecturer :Noha Alaggad


1
Medical EthicsLecturer Noha Alaggad
2
What is Ethics?
  • Ethics is a system of moral principles. They
    affect how people make decisions and lead their
    lives.
  • Ethics is concerned with what is good for
    individuals and society and is also described as
    moral philosophy.

3
Ethics Dilemmas
  • Ethics covers the following dilemmas
  • how to live a good life
  • our rights and responsibilities
  • the language of right and wrong
  • moral decisions - what is good and bad?

4
What is Medical Ethics?
  • Medical ethics
  • is a system of moral principles that apply values
    and judgments to the practice of medicine.

5
Basic principles of medical ethics
  • A) respect for patient autonomy.
  • b) not inflicting harm on patients.
  • c) a positive duty to contribute to the welfare
    of patients .
  • d) justice or fair treatment of patients.

6
Why Ethics Become Important?
  • Nowadays, conflicts of interests between the
    government and medical institutions, between
    medical institutions and medical personnel,
    between physicians and patients are getting more
    and more serious and complex.
  • High technologies not only brought us hopes of
    cure but have also created a heavy economic
    burden.
  • The ethical dilemmas of high technology
    medicine-brain death, organ transplantation, and
    concerns about quality of life-have become
    increasingly prominent.
  • A new and more specific code of ethics must be
    developed to meet the demands of social
    development and medical service.
  • This new code integrates the traditional medical
    ethics with modern principles and values

7
Ethics and MoralityWhat are they?
  • The terms ethics and morality are often used
    interchangeably - indeed, they usually can mean
    the same thing, and in casual conversation there
    isn't a problem with switching between one and
    the other.
  • However, there is a distinction between them in
    philosophy!

8
Ethics and MoralityWhat are they?
  • Ethics and morals both relate to right and
    wrong conduct. However, ethics refer to the
    series of rules provided to an individual by an
    external source. e.g. their profession. On the
    other hand, morals refer to an individuals own
    principles regarding right and wrong.

9
Comparison chart
  • Ethics
  • Moral
  • The rules of conduct recognized in respect to a
    particular class of human actions or a particular
    group, culture, etc. It defines how thing are
    according to the rules.
  • Principles or habits with respect to right or
    wrong conduct . It defines how things should work
    according to an individuals' ideals and
    principles.

10
Comparison chart
  • Moral
  • Ethics
  • Social system External
  • Why we do it?
  • Because society says it is the right thing to do.
  • What if we don't do it?
  • We may face peer/societal disapproval, or even be
    fired from our job.
  • Individual internal
  • Why we do it ?
  • Because we believe in something being right or
    wrong.
  • What if we don't do it?
  • Doing something against one's morals and
    principles can have different effects on
    different people, they may feel uncomfortable,
    remorse?????, depressed etc.

11
Comparison chart
  • Ethics
  • Moral
  • Acceptability
  • Ethics are governed by professional and legal
    guidelines within a particular time and place
  • Acceptability
  • Morality transcends cultural norms

12
Ethics vs Laws
  • 1. Ethics are rules of conduct.
  • Laws are rules developed by governments in order
    to provide balance in society and protection to
    its citizens.2. Ethics comes from peoples
    awareness of what is right and wrong.
  • Laws are enforced by governments to its people.

13
Ethics vs Laws
  • 3. Ethics are moral codes which every person must
    conform to.
  • Laws are codifications of ethics meant to
    regulate society.4. Ethics does not carry any
    punishment to anyone who violates it.
  • The law will punish anyone who happens to violate
    it.5. Ethics comes from within a persons moral
    values.
  • Laws are made with ethics as a guiding principle.

14
Section 2 Professional ethics, medical ethics,
bioethics, clinical ethics
15
1.Professional Ethics
  • Professional ethics are standards of conduct that
    apply to people who occupy a professional
    occupation or role.
  • A person who enters a profession acquires ethical
    obligations because society trusts them to
    provide valuable goods and services that cannot
    be provided unless their conduct conforms to
    certain standards.
  • Professionals who fail to live up to their
    ethical obligations betray this trust.
  • Professional ethics studied by ethicists include
    medical ethics.

16
2.Medical ethics
  • Medical ethics
  • Concerns issues related to practice
  • of medicine
  • Explores and promotes principles guiding conduct
    of health care professionals
  • Involves the consideration of others in deciding
    how to act
  • It is applied ethics. It consists of the same
    moral principles and rules that we would appeal
    to ,and argue for, in ordinary circumstances.

17
3.Bioethics
  • Bioethics could be defined as the study of
    ethical issues and decision-making associated
    with the use of living organisms
  • Bioethics includes medical ethics. Bioethics is
    learning how to balance different benefits, risks
    and duties.

18
  • 4- Clinical medical ethics is a practical and
    applied discipline that aims to improve patient
    care and patient outcomes by focusing on reaching
    a right and good decision in individual cases.
  • It focuses on the doctor-patient relationship and
    takes account of the ethical and legal issues
    that patients, doctors, and hospitals must
    address to reach good decisions for individual
    patients.

19
The content of clinical ethics includes
  • Specific issues such as
  • 1.truth-telling,
  • 2.informed consent,
  • 3.end of life care,
  • 4. palliative care,
  • 5.allocation of clinical resources,
  • 6. the ethics of medical research.
  • 7. The study of the doctor-patient relationship,
    including such issues as
  • 1. honesty,
  • 2.competence, integrity,
  • 3.respect for persons.

20
  • The end
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