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Title: Osceola District Schools

Osceola District Schools
  • Laboratory Hygiene Program

Module 7 Hazard Identification
Hazard Identification
  • Certain regulations require that the receivers
    and occasionally the shippers, must be identify
    hazardous chemicals before transporting them. In
    order to do this, teachers must be aware of and
    understand the various common warning and
    identification systems. There is a language to
    these systems that teacher must learn.

Hazard Identification
  • Each of these systems has its place and each has
    limitations. Some will affect the teachers job
    and others might be incidental. In some cases,
    such as the NFPA 704 M system, the process has
    been adopted for purposes other than intended by
    its creators. It is essential that we understand

Identifying Hazardous Chemicals
  • What do we mean by Identification? It is
    determining specifically what chemical or what
    chemical class is involved in a particular
    shipment or container. We do this in the lab
    continuously from the time we receive the
    chemical until it leaves our facility.

Identifying Hazardous Chemicals
  • Identification might mean that we see and
    understand a label on the container or that we
    read the warning label on the bottle or it might
    mean we know how to ascertain important
    information from a secondary container label. In
    all these cases there is information that we need.

Identifying Hazardous Chemicals
Hazardous chemicals are classified by the
department of Department of Transportation in CFR
49. These hazard classes are common in almost
all systems in one respect or another. Here are
the classes. Note that some classes have
Divisions for further clarity.
  • Explosives
  • Gases
  • Flammable
  • Nonflammable
  • Poisonous Inhalation Hazard
  • Corrosive
  • Flammable Liquids
  • Oxidizers
  • Oxygen
  • Organic Peroxides
  • Poisons
  • Radioactive Materials
  • Corrosives
  • Miscellaneous
  • Other Regulated Materials

Identifying Hazardous Chemicals
  • Placards are found on transportation vehicles
    although one may occasionally see them on
    containers if the container is considered a Bulk
    Container. Placards are roughly 11 by 11 and
    are required on all four sides of a vehicle
    carrying a certain amount of the regulated
  • Labels are very similar and are placed directly
    upon the shipping container. This might be a
    box, bottle, carboys, or cylinder. These labels
    are 4 by 4.

Identifying Hazardous Chemicals
  • DOT requires that all labels and placards use the
    same format. This format provides several
    indicators as to the class and division of the
    chemical in the container but note it does not
    provide chemical specific information.

Placards have a Pictograph Warning Word(s) DOT
Class Number
To see all class labels
Identifying Hazardous Chemicals
  • DOT regulations require certain containers and
  • vehicles be signed with placards that contain
  • a 4 digit number.
  • This number is called the United Nations Common
  • Number and is a tool used to identify the
    chemical or chemical group. These numbers are
    also used on containers of hazardous waste
    although they are not usually required unless in
    shipment. You can look reference these UN
    Numbers in the Emergency Response Guidebook.

Identifying Hazardous Chemicals
  • One identification system has been around for
    many years. That is the NFPA 704M System for
    Fixed Facilities. The National Fire Protection
    Association created this system to mark buildings
    containing chemicals in which firefighters might
    be forced to fight fire. The system never really
    caught on nationally but has been given a second
    life in the marking of portable containers and
    hazardous waste containers. It is now fairly
    common on labels for chemicals.

Identifying Hazardous Chemicals
  • Each segment of the label using the NFPA 704M
    System denotes a particular hazard of the product
    in the container. The colors and the numbers are
  • The number range from 0 to 4 with each category
    having its own verbal equivalent.

4 Can cause death or major injury despite
medical treatment. 3 Can cause serious injury
despite medical treatment. 2 Can cause injury.
Requires prompt treatment. 1 Can cause
irritation if not treated. 0 No hazard.
Identifying Hazardous Chemicals
  • NFPA 704M System for Fixed Facilities
  • Flammability hazard
  • 4 - Very flammable gases or very volatile
    flammable liquids.
  • 3 - Can be ignited at all normal temperatures.
  • 2 - Ignites if moderately heated.
  • 1 Ignites after considerable preheating.
  • 0 No hazard.

Identifying Hazardous Chemicals
4 Readily detonates or explodes. 3 Can
detonate or explode but requires strong
initiating force or heating under confinement. 2
Normally unstable but will not detonate. 1
Normally stable. Unstable at high temperature and
pressure. Reacts with water. 0 Normally stable.
Not reactive with water.
  • Color Coding
  • NFPA 704M System for Fixed Facilities

Identifying Hazardous Chemicals
  • Color Coding
  • NFPA 704M System for Fixed Facilities

OTHER (white) indicates special warnings. ACID
acid ALK alkali COR corrosive P subject
to polymerization when mixed with water OXY
oxidizing chemicals W - do not use water
          - Radiation Symbol (trefoil)
Special Information
Identifying Hazardous Chemicals
  • Portable containers of chemicals used in the lab
    and Hazardous Waste must be identified according
    to the hazards they represent. The NFPA 704M
    diamond may accompany a variety of hazardous
    waste stickers depending upon the company
    providing the label. There is no regulation that
    says specifically how these labels must appear.
    They may use the diamond or may simply use the
    same colors as the 704 system. They may also
    provide information on the safe handling of the

Identifying Hazardous Chemicals
A Safety Glasses B Safety Glasses and Gloves C
Safety Glasses, Gloves and an Apron D Face
Shield, Gloves and an Apron E Safety Glasses,
Gloves and a Dust Respirator F Safety Glasses,
Gloves, Apron and a Dust Respirator G Safety
Glasses, a Vapor Respirator H Splash Goggles,
Gloves, Apron and a Vapor Respirator I Safety
Glasses, Gloves and a Dust/vapor Respirator J
Splash Goggles, Gloves, Apron and a Dust/vapor
Respirator K Airline Hood or Mask, Gloves, Full
Suit and Boots L - Z Custom PPE Specified by
Identifying Hazardous Chemicals
A common misconception is that a gas cylinders
contents can be identified by the color of the
cylinder. Where some gas chemical companies may
chose to use the color coding system recommended
by the American National Standards Institute, it
is not mandatory in any sense.  
Identifying Hazardous Chemicals
The following colors may be used by the medical
gas industry in the United States to aid in
identifying a medical gas.  
Carbon Dioxide - gray Helium - brown Medical
Air - yellow Nitrogen - black Nitrous Oxide -
blue Oxygen - green
Blends of medical gases use a combination of the
corresponding color for each component gas. For
example, oxygen and carbon dioxide would be green
and gray.
Labeling Requirements
Primary Containers
  • As the teacher receives each new chemical, care
    should be taken to protect the label on the
    container. The label has very valuable
    information as to formula and mixture. Each
    chemical should be accompanied by an MSDS. Make
    certain these are filed in the administration
    office as well as in the classroom lab.

  • Understanding and Using Material Safety Data
    Sheets (MSDS)

  • The MSDS is used by chemical manufacturers and
    vendors to convey hazard information to users.
  • MSDSs must be obtained when a chemical is
  • A chemical inventory list, and MSDS, for each
    chemical are required to be maintained by all OSD

Material Safety Data Sheets (contd)
  • MSDSs have no prescribed format. They look very
    different depending upon the manufacturers
    preference. MSDSs are not ordinarily prepared
    by chemists or in some cases not even by
    specialists. OSHA has no criteria for those
    assigned to prepare them. It is therefore
    possible that data on the MSDS is in error. Any
    serious attempt to discover the properties of a
    chemical should utilize multiple resources.

READING THE MSDSInformation on the MSDS is
organized in 8 sections as follows
  • Identity The chemical name, trade name and
    manufacturers name, address and emergency phone
    number can be found here.
  • Hazardous Ingredients Hazardous ingredients are
    identified here.
  • Physical and Chemical Characteristics,
    Boiling/Melting point, vapor pressure and
    density, water solubility, and appearance/odor
    can be found here.
  • Continued on next slide...

8 Sections Continued
  • Fire Data Flash point, flammable limits,
    extinguishing media, unusual fire/explosion
    hazards, and any special fire fighting equipment
    are listed here.
  • Health Data Routes of entry (inhalation,
    ingestion, etc), effects from short and long
    term exposure, emergency and first aid procedures
    fall in this section.
  • Reactivity Data Stability, incompatible
    materials, hazardous decomposition are among the
    topics in this area.
  • Continued on next slide...

8 Sections Continued
  • Spill or Leak Procedures You will find clean-up
    procedures, waste disposal, and precautions
    needed when handling/storing materials here.
  • Spill Precaution Information Any personal
    protective equipment (PPE), ventilation, and
    work/hygiene practices are noted here.

More on MSDS
  • Flammable A substance having a flash point
    below 100 (140 for DOT and EPA) degrees
    Fahrenheit - easily ignited and quick burning.
  • Toxic A substance which has the capacity,
    through chemical reaction or mixture, to produce
    injury or harm to the body by entry through
    absorption, ingestion, inhalation, or injection.
  • Caustic A substance with the capability of
    burning, destroying or eating away organic tissue
    by chemical reaction - Corrosive.

Chemical Hazards
Toxic MaterialsAssessing the risks due to the
toxic effects of chemicals
  • In order to understand what an MSDS is telling
    us we must understand a little about the hazards
    of chemicals so we will look at the following
    areas of concern
  • Route of exposure
  • Acute Toxicants
  • Corrosive Substances, Irritants and Allergens
  • Carcinogens
  • Teratogens and Mutagens

Routes of Exposure
  • Chemical exposure essentially means that the
    chemical has found a route into our body.
    Exposure occurs through one or more to four
  • Ingestion
  • Inhalation
  • Skin contact
  • Injection

Routes of Exposure
  • The users of chemicals seldom ingest chemicals on
    purpose. The most common way in which chemicals
    are ingested is when the chemical user fails to
    wash their hands after handling the chemicals.
    Subsequent eating, drinking or smoking may
    introduce chemicals into the body. Hand washing
    is an essential part of the laboratory teachers
    job and a habit that should be instilled in
    students as well.

Routes of Exposure
  • Inhaling chemicals is particularly dangerous
    since the respiratory system provides direct and
    rapid access to the blood stream. In general,
    one should not smell chemicals intentionally.
    This is a poor method of identifying the chemical
    since odor is not a reliable means of determining
    concentration. One can be over exposed prior to
    odor being detected.

Skin Contact
Routes of Exposure
  • It is not uncommon to discover a belief that skin
    is water proof. Quite the contrary, skin readily
    absorbs many liquids and gases from the air or on
    its surface. Again, hand washing is a critical
    tool for limiting exposure. Gloves are also
    important since the best way to decontaminate the
    skin is not to contaminate it in the first place.

Routes of Exposure
  • Injection can occur in several ways. One is the
    injection of a chemical using a syringe but this
    is rare. Much more common is injection while
    cleaning up after a spill where glassware has
    shattered. It may be advisable to either double
    glove with a cut protection glove and a
    chemically resistant glove during a cleanup of
    this type or to only pick the glass up with

What is Toxicity?
  • Toxicity is the degree to which a substance can
    harm humans, animals or other life forms.
    Toxicologists and physicians differ on what a
    toxin is. Physicians identify a toxin as a
    substance not intended for human consumption that
    is harmful.
  • Physicians call the harm caused by those
    substances that are intended for human
    consumption an overdose.
  • There are many common substances that can poison
  • Water
  • Salt
  • Alcohol

What is Toxicity?
  • Toxicologists call anything that enters the
    biological unit (body) from the outside a
    xenobiotic. The key to whether or not a
    xenobiotic is of concern for the biological unit
    is a matter of dosage.
  • Toxicology is based upon the concept that any
    substance in the correct amount is bad for you.

Signs of Arsenic Poisoning
Hazmat Toxicology
  • Dose is the amount of a xenobiotic taken into the
    body. The word dose is meaningless without a
    reference to time. It is measured in units of
    weight and volume and frequently considers the
    weight of the biological unit in kg.
  • Concentration is a measure of the degree of
    exposure. How much of the material (usually in
    the air) one was exposed to over a period of time.

Hazmat Toxicology
  • Exposures are categorized based upon how long the
    exposure occurred and how much of the material
    was involved.
  • Types of Exposure
  • Acute - A lot of the poison in a short period of
  • Chronic - A little of the poison over a long
    period of time.
  • Sub acute - many acute exposures over a long
    period of time.

Toxicity of commonly used chemicals
Hazmat Toxicology
  • Likewise the effects of the exposure are
    categorized depending upon their impact on the
    body and the period of time that expires before
    the effects are realized.
  • Internal Effects of Exposure
  • Acute effects - those that are seen immediately.
  • Chronic effects - those that are not seen for
    months or years

Hazmat Toxicology
  • Effects of Exposure
  • Mutagens are chemicals that alter the DNA of the
    person exposed. This causes a change in some
    element of subsequent generations of that person.
    The exposed person may or may not have effects
    while their children or grand children will.

Toxic MaterialsA Short List of Teratogens
  • Among the types of effects that chemicals might
    have on our bodies that of a teratogen is
    certainly attention getting.
  • Teratogens are substances which cause birth
    defects in the developing embryo or fetus. No
    other generation is affected.
  • Acetylsalicylic acid
  • Benzene
  • Caffeine
  • Camphorated oil
  • Cannabis
  • Diazepam
  • Dilantin
  • Folic acid
  • Glycol ethers

Hazmat Toxicology
  • Effects of Exposure
  • Irritants ordinarily do not cause serious harm.
    Typically they cause reactions such as tearing,
    burning, sneezing or some other irritating
    result. It is important to realize that every
    body is different and because one person reacts
    by coughing that does not mean another may not
    have an allergic reaction that leads to death.
    Complications such as asthma or bronchitis may
    also make chemical exposure more serious.

Hazmat Toxicology
  • Effects of Exposure
  • Asphyxiates cause illness and perhaps death by
    limiting the ability of the body to process
    oxygen. Perhaps the most common is carbon
    monoxide. CO has about 300 times the affinity
    for hemoglobin in the blood as does oxygen. Once
    CO gets into the blood the only way to get it out
    is for the blood cell to die.

Hazmat Toxicology
  • Effects of Exposure
  • Carcinogens are those chemicals that cause, it
    may be more correct to say activate, cancer. A
    known human carcinogen means there is sufficient
    evidence of a cause and effect relationship
    between exposure to the material and cancer in
    humans. Such determination requires evidence from
    epidemiologic (demographic and statistical),
    clinical, and/or tissue/cell studies involving
    humans who were exposed to the substance in
    question. See NIOSH carcinogen list.

Examples of materials with a High Level of Acute
  • Acrolein
  • Diazomethane
  • Hydrogen cyanide
  • Hydrogen fluoride
  • Biological toxins Tetrodotoxin, snake venoms
  • Osmium tetroxide
  • Beta-mercaptoethanol
  • Some chemicals have acute toxic effects. In
    other words they cause immediate negative health
  • Toxicity is always a matter of dosage against
    time. When the danger of a chemical is discussed
    in must be in those terms.

  • One way that we can determine the danger of a
    chemical is to examine the THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES
    (TLVs) of the chemical as assigned by the
    American Conference of Governmental Industrial
    Hygienists. These are a non-mandatory
    professional guideline for chemical exposures.
  • The TLVs are the airborne concentration limits of
    substances under which nearly all workers may be
    repeatedly exposed without adverse effect. TLVs
    are non-political, conservative limits to
    chemical exposure and are given as amount of
    chemical against a time or time weighted average.

  • Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) are the
    Federally regulated exposure limits as pronounced
    by OSHA and are described in CFR 29 - 1910.1000.
    These limits are agreed upon after public
    hearings are conducted and industry plays a role
    in their establishment. TLVs are usually more
    conservative than PELs however PELs represent the
    law of the land.
  • PELs are slow to change and are not periodically
    reviewed while TLVs are reviewed annually and
    changed based on any new information.

  • Both PELs and TLV/TWA are based upon the amount
    of a chemical to which an employee can be exposed
    without serious health effects. PELs and
    TLV/TWAs are based upon an 8 hour work day and a
    40 hour work week.
  • There are also Short Term Exposure Levels (STEL)
    This is the amount of a chemical that an employee
    can be exposed for 15 minutes no more than four
    times per day without suffering any serious
    health effects.

  • The OSHA also publishes Ceiling Limits. Ceiling
    limits are the amount of the chemical to which an
    employee should never be exposed. ACGIH
    publishes Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health
    (IDLH) exposure limits which is the amount of the
    chemical exposure which would cause irreversible
    harm after just 15 minutes.
  • One might find another warning with certain
    chemicals and that is a Skin Notation. This
    means that the chemical has been proven to cause
    negative health effects based upon skin exposure

  • A common notation associated with chemicals is
    LD50 or
  • LC50. This is the amount of the chemical that
    caused death in fifty percent of the laboratory
    animals exposed. Whereas this number has some
    shock value, it is not particularly valuable for
    school laboratory use. Most significantly, a lot
    on negative health effects could be realized
    before ones exposure got anywhere near the LC50.
    These numbers should not be depended upon for
    exposure control purposes.

  • When we say a chemical is flammable we mean
    something very specific. Neither paper nor cloth
    is flammable. In fact oil, grease and paraffin
    are not flammable either. Because a substance
    will burn does not mean it is flammable as will
    be seen.
  • Everything burns, even water. If water is heated
    rapidly even and hot enough it breaks down into
    Oxygen and Hydrogen. This is the essence of the
    perfect fire.

Flammable Liquids
Flash Point - The lowest temperature at which a
liquid has sufficient vapor pressure to form an
ignitable mixture with air near the surface of
the liquid. In general the lower the flash point
the more dangerous the liquid. OSHA and the EPA
consider any liquid with a flashpoint of 140
degrees F. or below to be Flammable. With these
materials the concern should be other materials
that may react with the flammables, ventilation
to eliminate the build up of explosive vapors,
and segregation from ignition sources such as
open flame or electrical sources.
Flammability Hazards
  • Below are some examples of chemicals and there

Flammable Gases
  • When we say a gas is flammable we mean is ignites
    readily in certain concentrations.
  • A flammable gas is any material which is a gas at
    68 oF or less and 14.7 psi of pressure which
  • Is ignitable at 14.7 psi when in a mixture of 13
    percent or less by volume with air or
  • Has a flammable range at 14.7 psi with air of at
    least 12 percent regardless of the lower limit.

Flammable Limits
Percentage in Air
Percentage in Air
  • Flammable Range


If the the Lower Flammable Limit is less than 13
the gas is flammable.
Flammable Limits
Lowest percentage in air that is ignitable
Highest percentage in air that is ignitable
  • Flammable Range


If there are 12 or more than percentage points
between the lower and upper flammable limits, the
gas is flammable.
Flammable Solid
  • A flammable solid is defined by the U.S.
    Department of Transportation (DOT) quite
    extensively as desensitized explosives such as
    those wetted with sufficient water, alcohol, or
    plasticizer used to suppress explosive
    properties. Self-reactive materials that are
    thermally unstable and that can undergo a
    strongly exothermic (heat-evolving) decomposition
    even without the participation of oxygen (air)
    are also considered flammable solids.

Magnesium burning on a tile floor
Flammable Solid
  • Mostly readily combustible solids fall into this
    category such as solids which may cause a fire
    through friction, such as matches of road fusees.
    Some materials are pyrophoric (literally,
    "fire-loving") materials, which can ignite with
    no external ignition source within five minutes
    after coming in contact with air. Others are
    self-heating materials, those that exhibit
    spontaneous ignition or heat themselves to a
    temperature of 200 deg.C (392 deg.F) during a
    24-hour test period. (This behavior is called
    spontaneous combustion). Finally there are
    dangerous when wet materials, those that react
    with water to become spontaneously flammable or
    to give off flammable gas or toxic gas at a rate
    greater than 1 liter per kilogram of the
    material, per hour.

Flammability Hazards
  • Also of concern is the chemicals ignition
    temperature. This is the minimum temperature at
    which the material will ignite without the aid of
    an ignition source. Ray Bradbury tells us that
    the ignition temperature of paper for example is
    451 degrees F. Materials which are being heating
    may ignite under a variety of circumstances but
    certainly if the ignition temperature is reached.
    The MSDS will provide the ignition temperature.

Examples of IT
Caustic Chemical Hazards
  • Accidental contact with corrosives is one of the
    potential dangers in a laboratory or industrial
    setting. Universally, the term corrosives refer
    to substances without any toxicological activity
    which produce severe tissue destruction. Most
    common are the strong acids or alkalis, but any
    strong oxidizing or reducing agent such as
    potassium permanganate and diborane respectively
    may also be included.

Photo of Acid Burn
Photo of Alkali Burn
Caustic Chemical Hazards
  • Most corrosives produce significant injuries
    through direct chemical reaction on living
    tissues rather than through heat damage. In most
    cases, the degree of tissue destruction depends
    on the concentration of the toxic agent and the
    duration of the contact.
  • When the skin is exposed to a corrosive, its
    keratinous covering is destroyed and its
    underlying dermal tissues are exposed to
    continuous necrotizing action. The absorption of
    some corrosives through the skin may cause
    systemic toxicity. For example picric acid and
    phosphorus burns may be followed by kidney damage.

Caustic Chemical Hazards
  • While both alkalis and acids cause tissue
    destruction, acids produce a coagulation necrosis
    which results in a superficial burn. Alkalis in
    contrast tend to produce a penetrating tissue
    destruction. Thus an ingested alkali more
    frequently causes esophageal bums leading to
    perforation. Acid ingestion, in contrast, more
    frequently cause burns in the stomach,
    particularly in the pyloric region.

Photo of Nitric Acid Burn
  • Recognizing that there are systems for
    identifying hazardous chemicals and using them to
    make everyone in the laboratory aware of the
    potential dangers of materials is a key to safe
    chemistry. Remember that the warning labels and
    systems are usually determined under ideal
    circumstances and may not reflect real world
    results. For example, anhydrous ammonia is
    listed as a non-flammable gas but in the real
    world it leaches hydrocarbons from everything it
    contacts and rapidly becomes a foul and
    flammable gas. Knowing the dangers and
    characteristics of the materials with which you
    work can help prevent accidents and govern
    emergency response. The more we learn about
    these materials the safer we are.

End of Module
Go to the Quiz
  • ASE (1996) Safeguards in the School Laboratory
    (10th ed..), Hatfield ASE.
  • Borrows, P. (1992) Safety in secondary schools,
    in Hull, R. (ed.), ASE Secondary Science
    Teachers Handbook, Hemel Hempstead Simon
    Shuster. (This highlights the common accidents in
    labs most of which involve chemicals in the eye
    or mouth or on the body and describes five main
    danger areas such as burns from alcohol fires
    and alkali metal explosions.) More recently
    Borrows has written Safety in science
    education, in Ratcliffe, M. (ed.) (1998).
  • DfEE (1996) Safety in Science Education, London
  • Everett, K. and Jenkins, E. (1991) A Safety
    Handbook for Science Teachers, London John
  • The MSDS Hyperglossary at http//www.ilpi.com/msds

  • 29 CFR 1910.1450 OSHAs Laboratory Standard
    also known as Title 29 of the Code of Federal
    Regulations Part 1910, Subpart Z, Section 1450
  • Action Level a concentration designated in 29
    CFR part 1910 for a specific substance,
    calculated as an eight hour-time weighted average
    (TWA), which initiates certain required
    activities such as exposure monitoring and
    medical surveillance. Action levels are generally
    set at one half the PEL but the action level may
    vary from standard to standard.
  • Acute toxicity is the ability of a chemical to
    cause a harmful effect such as damage to a target
    organ or death after a single exposure or an
    exposure of short duration.
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial
    Hygienists (ACGIH) a non-profit organization
    consisting of a community of professionals
    advancing worker health and safety through
    education and the development and dissemination
    of scientific and technical knowledge. The ACGIH
    develops and publishes recommended occupational
    exposure limits each year called TLVs for
    hundreds of chemicals, physical agents and
    biological exposure indices.
  • American National Standard Institute (ANSI) a
    non-profit organization that administers and
    coordinates the US voluntary standardization and
    conformity assessment system.
  • Biological Materials Biological or biohazardous
    materials include all infectious organisms
    (bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, etc.) that
    can cause disease in humans or cause significant
    environmental or agricultural impact.
  • Carcinogen - A substance capable of causing
    cancer. Carcinogens are chronically toxic
    substances that is, they cause damage after
    repeated or long-duration exposure, and their
    effects may become evident only after a long
    latency period.

Back to Module
  • CAS - Chemical Abstracts Number a unique
    number assigned to a chemical by the Chemical
    Abstracts Service.
  • CFR Code of Federal Regulations contains the
    listings of all US Federal regulations. The CFR,
    compiled by the Office of the Federal Register,
    is divided into 50 titles, which cover broad
    areas subject to Federal regulation.
  • Chemical Hygiene Officer an employee designated
    by the employer who is qualified by training or
    experience to provide technical guidance in the
    development and implementation of the provisions
    of the Chemical Hygiene Plan. Note that these
    duties can be in addition to the other job
    functions the employee performs in the
  • Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) a plan that
    addresses specific hazards in the laboratory and
    is required by OSHAs Laboratory Standard
  • Corrosive a substance which causes damage to
    skin, eyes or other parts of the body on contact.
    Concentrated acids are examples of corrosive
  • Embryotoxin a substance which retards the
    growth or affects the development of an unborn
    child up to and including deformities and death.
    Mercury compounds, certain heavy metals,
    aflatoxin, formamide, and radiation are known
  • Explosive means a chemical that causes a
    sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure,
    gas and heat when subjected to sudden shock,
    pressure, or high temperature.
  • Face velocity the average velocity of air drawn
    through the face of a chemical fume hood and
    generally calculated as the total volumetric
    exhaust flow rate for the hood divided by the
    area of the open face, less an adjustment for
    hood air leakage.

Back to Module
  • Irritant a chemical which may cause reversible
    inflammation upon contact.
  • Laboratory -Any facility where the "laboratory
    use of potentially hazardous chemicals" occurs. 
    It is a room where relatively small quantities of
    potentially hazardous chemicals are used during
    scientific experimentation.
  • Flammable means a chemical that falls into one
    of the following categories
  • aerosol flammable is an aerosol that when tested
    by the method in 16 CFR 1500.45, yields a flame
    protection exceeding 18 inches at full valve
    opening, or a flashback (a flame extending back
    to the valve) at any degree of valve opening
  • gas flammable is a gas that at ambient
    temperature and pressure, forms a flammable
    mixture with air at a concentration of 13 by
    volume or less or a gas that at ambient
    temperature and pressure, forms a range of
    flammable mixtures with air wider than 12 by
    volume, regardless of the lower limit.
  • liquid flammable means any liquid having a
    flashpoint below 100F (37.8C), except any
    mixture having components with flashpoints of
    100C or higher, the total of which make up 99
    percent or more of the total volume of the
  • solid flammable means a solid, other than a
    blasting agent or explosive as defined in
    1910.109(a), that is liable to cause fire through
    friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous
    chemical change, or retained heat from
    manufacturing or processing, or which can be
    ignited readily and when ignited burns so
    vigorously and persistently as to create a
    serious hazard. A chemical will be considered a
    flammable solid if, when tested by the method
    described in 16 CFR 1500.44, it ignites and burns
    with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater
    than one-tenth of an inch per second along its
    major axis.

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  • FM 200 a Halon replacement extinguishing agent
    which is a chemical blend (heptafluoropropane),
    stored as a liquid within the agent cylinder
    similar to that of Halon-type cylinders. It will
    not corrode sensitive electronic equipment, and
    contains no particulates or oily residues. In
    fact, it leaves very little residue and is a
    quite popular extinguishing agent in use today
    for the protection of computer rooms.
  • Fume Hood - a laboratory device, enclosed on five
    sides with a moveable sash or fixed partial
    enclosure on the remaining side constructed and
    maintained to draw air from the laboratory and to
    prevent or minimize the escape of air
    contaminants into the laboratory and allows
    chemical manipulations to be conducted in the
    enclosure without insertion of any portion of the
    employees body other than hands and arms.
  • Hazardous chemical the OSHA definition is a
    chemical for which there is statistically
    significant evidence based on at least one study
    conducted in accordance with established
    scientific principles that acute or chronic
    health effects may occur in exposed employees.
    The term "health hazard" includes chemicals which
    are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents,
    reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives,
    sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins,
    neurotoxins, agents which act on the
    hematopoietic systems, and agents which damage
    the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.
  • Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200
    - was first enacted on November 25, 1983, by the
    OSHA. It was later modified with minor changes
    and technical amendments to take effect March 11,
    1994. The purpose of the standard is to ensure
    that chemical hazards in the workplace are
    identified and evaluated, and that information
    concerning these hazards is communicated through
    MSDSs and labels. This standard is also known as
    the Right-to-Know Law.

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  • HEPA - high efficiency particulate air filter
    is a filter that is manufactured, tested and
    certified to meet applicable construction and
    efficiency standards for high-efficiency filters.
    The filters are manufactured from an ultra-fine
    glass-fiber medium designed to capture
    microscopic particles that can easily pass
    through most other filters by a combination of
    diffusion, interception, and inertial impaction.
  • Health Hazard - means a chemical for which there
    is statistically significant evidence based on at
    least one study conducted in accordance with
    established scientific principles that acute or
    chronic health effects may occur in exposed
  • Inergen - It is an inert gas used for fire
    extinguishment. It is a mixture of three
    naturally occurring atmospheric gases 52
    nitrogen, 40 argon, and 8 CO2. The Inergen gas
    curtails and extinguishes fire by lowering the
    oxygen content beneath the level that supports
    combustion. But it should be noted that due to
    the CO2 present in Inergen, the brain continues
    to receive the same amount of oxygen in an
    Inergen atmosphere as it would in a normal
    atmosphere, for reasonable periods of time.
  • Laboratory Scale - Working with substances in
    which the containers used for reactions,
    transfers, and other handling of substances are
    designed to be easily and safely manipulated by
    one person. 
  • Laboratory Standard a standard (29 CFR
    1910.1450) issued by OSHA addressing occupational
    exposures to hazardous chemicals in the
    laboratory. All laboratories must comply with
    this standard.

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  • Laboratory use of Potentially Hazardous Chemicals
    - the handling or use of such chemicals in which
    all of the following conditions are met
  • 1)       Use of laboratory scale.
  • 2)       Multiple chemical procedures or
    chemicals used.
  • 3)       Protective laboratory practices and
    equipment are available and in common use to
    minimize the potential for student/teacher
    exposure to hazardous chemicals.
  • LC50 or lethal concentration 50 this is a
    measure of toxicity which corresponds to the
    concentration in air that kills 50 of the test
    population. Note that most estimates of human
    toxicity are based on animal studies, which may
    or may not relate to human toxicity.
  • LD50 or lethal dose 50 this is a measure of
    toxicity which corresponds to the dose required
    to kill 50 of the test population. Note that
    most estimates of human toxicity are based on
    animal studies, which may or may not relate to
    human toxicity. The LD50 is usually measured in
    milligrams of the material per kilogram of body
    weight of the test animal. To estimate a lethal
    dose for a human based on animal tests, the LD50
    must be multiplied by the weight of an average
  • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) is a
    well-established document for disseminating
    health and safety information about chemical
    products to employees, customers, emergency
    responders, and the public. Information contained
    in the MSDS includes potential health, safety,
    and environmental hazards, safe handling
    practices, and applicable regulatory information.

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  • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
    private non-profit organization, is the leading
    authoritative source of technical background,
    data, and consumer advice on fire protection,
    problems and prevention
  • Organic peroxide - an organic compound that
    contains the bivalent -OO- structure and which
    may be considered to be a structural derivative
    of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the
    hydrogen atoms has been replaced by an organic
    radical. Peroxides can be very dangerous
    materials and may be shock and thermal sensitive.
    They are also strong oxidizers. OSHA
    Occupational Safety Health Administration
    http//www.osha.gov is part of the US Department
    of Labor. Its mission is to save lives, prevent
    injuries and protect the health of America's
  • Particularly hazardous substance is defined by
    OSHA in the Laboratory Standard and includes
    select carcinogens (strongly indicative of
    causing cancer in humans), reproductive toxins,
    and substances which have a high degree of acute
  • Permissible exposure limit (PEL) - which
    represents the maximum amount or concentration of
    a substance that a worker may be exposed to under
    OSHA regulations. There are ceiling values (at no
    time should this value be exceeded) and 8-hour
    time weighted averages (an average value of
    exposure over the course of an 8 hour work shift)
  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is all
    clothing and other work accessories designed to
    create a barrier against workplace hazards.
    Examples include safety goggles, respirators, lab
    coats, etc.

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  • Pyrophoric a pyrophoric material is one that
    ignites spontaneously in air and is derived from
    the Greek word meaning fire-bearing. Many of
    these materials will also react vigorously with
    water or high humidity and ignite upon contact.
  • Physical Hazard A hazard exhibited by certain
    chemicals due to their physical properties. These
    chemicals fall into the following classes
    combustible liquids, compressed gases,
    explosives, flammable liquids or solids, organic
    peroxide, oxidizers, pyrophoric materials, and
    unstable (reactive) or water reactive materials.
  • Reproductive toxins per OSHA any chemical that
    affects the reproductive chemicals which affect
    the reproductive capabilities including
    chromosomal damage/mutations and effects on
    fetuses (teratogenesis).
  • Select carcinogens per OSHA any substance that
    meets one of the following criteria
  • regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen
  • listed under the category, known to be
    carcinogens in the Annual Report on Carcinogens
    published in the latest edition by the National
    Toxicology Program (NTP)
  • listed under Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans)
    by the International Agency for Research on
    Cancer Monographs (IARC)
  • listed in either Group 2A or 2B by IARC or under
    the category, reasonably anticipated to be
    carcinogens by NTP and causes statistically
    significant tumor incidence in experimental
    animals in accordance with any of the following
    criteria after inhalation exposure of 6-7 hours
    per day, 5 days per week, for a significant
    portion of a lifetime to dosages of less than 10
    mg/m3, after repeated skin application of less
    than 300 mg/kg of body weight per week, or after
    oral dosages of less than 50 mg/kg of body weight
    per day.

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  • Sensitizer a chemical which may lead to the
    development of allergic reactions after repeated
  • Short term exposure limit (STEL) - which is the
    concentration employees can be exposed to
    continuously for a short period of time without
    suffering from irritation, chronic or
    irreversible tissue damage, or narcosis of
    sufficient degree to increase the likelihood of
    accidental injury, impair self-rescue or
    materially reduce work efficiency.
  • Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) is a
    document that describes the operations, analyses,
    or actions that are commonly accepted methods or
    the laboratory prescribed procedures for
    performing certain routine or repetitive tasks.
  • Target Organ - indicate which bodily organs are
    most likely to be affected by exposure to a
    substance. Certain chemicals may bio-concentrate
    in the liver while other target the brain.
  • Threshold Limit Values (TLV) are airborne
    concentrations devised by the ACGIH that
    represent conditions under which it is believed
    that nearly all workers may be exposed day after
    day with no adverse effect. TLVs are advisory
    exposure guidelines, not legal standards, that
    are based on evidence from industrial experience,
    animal studies, or human studies when they exist.
    There are three different types of TLV's Time
    Weighted Average (TLV-TWA), Short Term Exposure
    Limit (TLV-STEL) and Ceiling (TLV-C).
  • Tort Law is the law of liability and
    negligence. It involves that plaintiff who
    allegedly has been wronged and the defendant who
    is claimed to have perpetrated the injustice.
    Tort law deals with issues of property and
    personal injury law. Mass tort is the process of
    suing a major defendant on behalf of a large
    number of plaintiffs. Law suits involving drugs
    such as Vioxx are examples.

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  • Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)
    is a procedure (Method 1311) performed on a
    sample within the laboratory to determine whether
    or not a waste is considered hazardous. A sample
    is extracted with a buffered acid and the
    resulting extraction fluid or leachate
    approximates the fluid that would leach from the
    sample if it were in a landfill.
  • Toxicity Characteristic (TC) regulatory limits
    established for 39 compounds. If a waste analyzed
    via the TCLP procedure detects any of these
    compounds above the regulatory limits then the
    waste is said to exhibit the toxicity
  • Water Reactive - these substances are dangerous
    when wet because they undergo a chemical reaction
    with water. This reaction may release a gas that
    is either flammable or presents a toxic health
    hazard. In addition, the heat generated when
    water contacts such materials is often enough for
    the item to spontaneously combust or explode.

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Ignition Temperatures
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The f
Ignition Temperatures
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Burn on the feet from acid spill
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Burn on the feet from nitric acid spill
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Burn on the feet from alkali spill
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Quiz Seven
  • The three parts of a DOT label are the warning
    word(s), the class number and the
  • Pictograph
  • UN Chemical Abstract Number
  • Shape of the label.
  • Chemical abstract number.

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Quiz Seven
  • In the warning label above, what hazard does the
    red 3 refer to?
  • Health
  • Flammability
  • Reactivity
  • Special Hazards
  • None of the above

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Quiz Seven
  • In the label shown above, what is the four digit
    number in the center called?
  • The United Nations Common ID Number.
  • The NA ID Number.
  • The Division Number.
  • The Class Number.
  • None of the above.

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Quiz Seven
  • In the picture at right, what must the green
    cylinder contain by federal law?
  • Oxygen
  • Nitrogen
  • Hydrogen
  • A medical gas
  • There is no law requiring color coding of

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Quiz Seven
  • As each teacher receives a new chemical care
    should be taken to
  • Protect the label on the container.
  • Confirm that the MSDS is in the Lab three ring
  • Confirm that the MSDS is in the administration
  • That the chemical is entered into the inventory.
  • All of the above.

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Quiz Seven
  • Which section of an MSDS would one reference to
    determine the trade name of a chemical.
  • Section 1 - Identity
  • Section 2 Hazardous Ingredients
  • Section 3 Physical and Chemical Properties
  • Section 9 Chemical Commerce Information
  • None of the above.

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Quiz Seven
  • The EPA and the DOT refer to any liquid with an
    ignition temperature of __________ or less to be
  • 100 degrees F.
  • 120 degrees F.
  • 140 degrees F.
  • 212 degrees F.
  • None of the above.

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Quiz Seven
  • What is the most common way in which chemicals
    are ingested while at work?
  • As part of an experiment.
  • Through inhalation
  • Along with food or drink
  • Through skin absorption
  • None of the above

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Quiz Seven
  • Inhaling chemicals is particularly dangerous
    since the respiratory system
  • Provides direct access to the blood stream.
  • Contains the largest organ in the body.
  • Provides lymphatic access to the brain.
  • Cannot process gases effectively.
  • All of the above.

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Quiz Seven
  • The best way to decontaminate hands while working
    in the lab is to
  • Wash with soap and water.
  • Use a neutralizing agent.
  • Use water and a 10 bleach solution.
  • Avoid becoming contaminated in the first place.
  • None of the above.

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Quiz Seven
  • Toxicologists call anything that enters the body
  • Foreign object.
  • Xenobiotic.
  • Teratogen.
  • Mutagen.
  • Xenophobe.

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Quiz Seven
  • Exposure to a lot of poison in a short period of
    time is called a ___________ exposure
  • Chronic.
  • Subacute.
  • Acute.
  • Systemic.
  • Dangerous.

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Quiz Seven
  • Effects that result from chemical exposure and
    are observable soon after exposure are called
  • Chronic.
  • Subacute.
  • Acute.
  • Systemic.
  • Dangerous.

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Quiz Seven
  • Chemical that upon adequate exposure can cause
    birth defects in a developing fetus are called
  • Carcinogens.
  • Xenobiotic.
  • Teratogen.
  • Mutagen.
  • Irritants.

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Quiz Seven
  • The OSHA publishes chemical exposure limits as
    _______ where the ACGIH publishes _________
  • PELs, Ceilings.
  • Ceilings, PELs.
  • PELs, TLVs.
  • TLVs, TWAs.
  • TWAs, TLVs.

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Quiz Seven
  • That ACGIH exposure limit that represents serious
    health effects after just 15 minutes of exposure
  • TLV Ceiling.
  • IDLH.
  • LC50.
  • LD50.
  • None of the above.

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You have Finished Module Seven Good Job!
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