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Title: Lecture 7 E-Commerce Life Cycle & Development


1
Lecture 7 E-Commerce Life Cycle Development
Lecture
  • Electronic Commerce

2
This Lecture
  • Systems approach to development
  • Systems development life cycle
  • Methodologies for development
  • Techniques and tools
  • Web application considerations
  • Evaluation

3
Systematic Approach
  • Systems should not be built ad-hoc but should
    be developed following a systematic approach

4
Systems Theory
  • The trans-disciplinary study of abstract
    organisation of phenomena, independent of their
    substance, type, or spatial or temporal scale of
    existence. It investigates both the principles
    common to all complex entities, and the models
    which can be used to describe them.
  • Francis Heylighten Cliff Joslyn in Cambridge
    Dictionary of Philosophy

5
FEASIBILITY STUDY establish feasibility
business case
Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
client (sponsor) system analyst
SYSTEM ANALYSIS determine system
requirements understand old system and
problems logical view of the system
system analyst managers users
SYSTEM DESIGN physical design the system
system analyst developers
IMPLEMENTATION install and test train
users documentation user manuals
system analyst developers users
POST INSTALLATION REVIEW fix errors
maintain program add enhancements
developers users
6
Worlds in System Development
Subject World
Make sense of usage world?
Represent Information?
Requirements model
Analysis Model
System World
Usage World
Design Model
Systems Specification
Scenarios
Design System?
Justify System?
Development World
Computer System
Source Hawryszkiewycz (2001) p.83
7
Models in Development
8
Major Strategies forSystems Development
  • Modern Structured Analysis
  • Information Engineering
  • Object-oriented Analysis
  • Rapid Application Development
  • Evolutionary Design Prototyping
  • Joint Application Development
  • Business Process Redesign/Re-engineering
  • Modular and Component Development
  • Reverse and Reengineering
  • Combination

9
Modern Structured Analysis
  • Systems and business analysts draw a series of
    process models called data flow diagrams that
    depict the essential processes of a system along
    with inputs, outputs, and files.
  • The models are structured pictures which define
    business requirements and information system
    designs.
  • The model (the logical design for the system)
    becomes the design blueprint for constructing the
    final system

10
A Process Model
Data Flow Diagram
11
Information Engineering (IE)
  • Information engineering is a data-centered, but
    process-sensitive technique that is applied to
    the organization as a whole (or a significant
    part therefore such as a division), rather than
    on an ad-hoc, project-by-project basis (as in
    structured analysis).
  • In addition to data models, information engineers
    also draw process models similar to those drawn
    in structured analysis
  • The basic concept of information engineering is
    that information systems should be engineered
    like other products.

12
A Data Model
is enrolled under
placed by
Member
Agreement
Member
applies to
places
Order

established by
generates
sells
established
is sold on
generated by
sponsors
is featured in
Club
Product
Promotion
is sponsored by
features
Entity Relationship Diagram
13
Prototyping
  • Prototyping is a technique used to develop
    partial, but functional versions of a system or
    applications.
  • When extended to system design and construction,
    a prototype can evolve into the final,
    implemented system.
  • Evolutionary Prototyping

14
Joint Application Development (JAD)
  • Uses highly organized and intensive workshops to
    bring together system stakeholders to jointly
    define and design systems.
  • A systems analyst usually plays the role of
    facilitator for a workshop.
  • A JAD workshop will typically run from 3-5 full
    working days.
  • This workshop may replace months of traditional
    interviews and follow-up meetings.

15
Rapid Application Development (RAD)
  • Aims at delivering systems solutions fast
  • Combines five techniques
  • Evolutionary Prototyping
  • CASE tools with code generation
  • Specialists with Advanced Tools (SWAT)
  • Interactive JAD
  • Timeboxing

16
Business Process Re-engineering
  • the fundamental rethinking and radical design of
    business processes to achieve dramatic
    improvements in critical contemporary measures of
    performance, such as cost, quality service, and
    speed

Source Hammer, M. (1993) The Promise of
Reengineering, Fortune, 3 May, p.95
17
Business Process Redesign (BPR)
  • Business process redesign (also called business
    process reengineering) is the application of
    systems analysis (and design) methods to .. the
    goal of dramatically changing and improving the
    fundamental business processes of an
    organization, independent of information
    technology.

18
Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA)
  • Data and the processes that act upon that data
    are combined or encapsulated into things called
    objects.
  • The only way to create, delete, change, or use
    the data in an object (called properties) is
    through one of its encapsulated processes (called
    methods).
  • used to
  • (1) study existing objects to see if they can be
    reused or adapted for new uses
  • (2) define new or modified objects that will be
    combined with existing objects into a useful
    business computing application.

19
Reverse Engineering
NewSystem
Legacy System
Forward Engineering
Reverse Engineering
Required Model
Reference Model/Blueprint
20
System Development Phases
21
Techniques in Development
  • SWOT analysis
  • Business Plans
  • Requirement modelling
  • Rich Pictures
  • Scenarios
  • Use Cases
  • Entity Relationship Diagrams
  • Hierarchy Charts
  • Normalisation
  • Object Model Diagrams
  • Data Flow Diagrams
  • Workflow Diagrams
  • Pseudocode, Structured English
  • Transitions Diagrams
  • Interaction or Sequence Diagrams
  • Decision Tables Trees
  • Flowcharts
  • Prototypes
  • Network and Infrastructure diagrams
  • Database schema
  • Form, screen report layouts

22
Tools
  • Diagramming software
  • eg Visio, ABC Flowchart, Smartdraw
  • Code and Application generators
  • eg MyFirstStore, EziStore, ColdFusion
  • Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools
  • System Architect, Visible Analyst

23
Choosing the right approach
  • This is influenced by the nature of the problem
    or opportunity
  • May be based on
  • Degree of system structure
  • Familiarity with technology
  • The project size

24
Cross Life Cycle Activities
  • Activities that overlap many or all phases of the
    methodology are known as cross life cycle
  • Activities include
  • fact finding
  • documentation and presentation
  • estimation and measurement
  • feasibility analysis
  • project process management

25
Project Management Gantt Chart
26
Systems Support
  • System support is the ongoing maintenance of a
    system after it has been placed into operation.
  • Systems support consists of activities
    including
  • Fixing software bugs.
  • Recovering the system.
  • Assisting users.
  • Adapting the system to new requirements.

27
Implementation EC Plan
  • Starts with organising a project team
  • Undertake a few pilot projects (help discover
    problems early) gt Prototyping
  • Implementing EC
  • Redesigning existing business processes
  • Back-end processes must be automated as much as
    possible
  • Company must set up workflow applications by
    integrating EC into existing accounting and
    financial back-ends

28
Uncovering Specific ECOpportunities and
Application
  • Understand
  • How digital markets operate
  • How Internet customers behave
  • How competition is created and what
    infrastructure
  • is needed
  • What are the dynamics of EC
  • Map opportunities that match current competencies
    and markets
  • Many opportunities to create new products and
    services

29
Finding IT Applications
  • Brainstorming by a group of employees
  • Soliciting the help of experts, such as
    consultants
  • Review what the competitors are doing
  • Ask the vendors to provide you with suggestions
  • Read the literature to find out whats going on
  • Use analogies from similar industries or business
    processes
  • Use a conventional IS requirement analysis
    approach

30
Organization and Staffing
  • Define the roles and responsibilities of
  • Gatekeepers
  • Web team
  • Senior management
  • Web champion
  • Webmaster

EC Project Team
31
E-Business Development Team
  • Analysts
  • Project Manager
  • Network specialists
  • Database administrator
  • Programmers
  • Technical and professional communicators
  • Security Experts
  • System Integrators
  • Graphic artists
  • Multimedia designers
  • User Interface Designers
  • Legal experts Managers
  • Users

32
Evaluating Outsourcing
  • Factors to consider
  • Ease of configuration and setup
  • Database and scripting support
  • Payment mechanism
  • Sample storefronts
  • Workflow management
  • Documented database support
  • Integration into existing accounting and
  • financial back ends

33
Web Hosting
  • Hosting Internally Vs. Hosting Using ISP
  • System Cost
  • bandwidth
  • capabilities and specifications
  • firewall system
  • wireless delivery
  • buy, rent, or lease
  • maintenance, upgrade, and service of the equipment

34
Web Hosting (cont.)
  • Purchase a suite of software that claims to
    integrate storefront functions into a single box
  • iCat Corp.s Electronic Commerce Suite and
    Commerce Publisher
  • Open Markets Transact and LiveCommerce
  • Microsoft Corp.s Site Server Commerce Edition
  • IBM Corp.s Net. Commerce Pro
  • Saqqara Systems StepSearch Professional
  • ATT

35
Web Hosting (cont.)
  • Making a Web catalog into a multimedia
    extravaganza
  • Not easy and expensive
  • Lower end systems begin at 25,000 USD
  • May not link to existing systems
  • High end systems 250,000 to 2 million

36
Web Content Design
  • Content takes many shapes
  • Will change dramatically
  • More robust, comprehensive, and usable medium
  • Challenges in developing a successful online
    storefront
  • Choosing the right software solution for your
    site
  • 3 options
  • build your own software
  • purchase a commercial software product
  • rent from a Web host

37
Web content design considerations
  • The services wanted
  • How much your company can contribute to the site,
    from manpower to electronic content
  • The time to design your site
  • The time to create and program your site
  • Extra fees for software development
  • Fees for off-the-shelf applications tools
  • The size of the site
  • The amount of traffic the site generates Vs. flat
    rate
  • Training requirements
  • Installation and server maintenance
  • Programming
  • On corporate site hosting Vs. off-site
  • Secure Server for financial transactions
  • Your bandwidth needs
  • Your server capacity needs
  • Location of your server at the Web company or ISP
    company location

38
Web Application Features
  • Electronic shopping mall
  • Unique URL
  • Electronic commerce/financial transactions
  • Shopping cart software
  • Online catalogs
  • Direct order procedures
  • Dynamic databases
  • Static databases
  • Multimedia
  • Telephony
  • Audio
  • Video
  • FTP
  • Forms
  • Chat rooms
  • VRML
  • Statistics
  • Customer tracking
  • E-mail response and forwarding
  • Java applications
  • Animation
  • Security

39
Evaluate the EC Project
  • Perform a post-implementation review
  • Collect information
  • Measure results
  • Determine success
  • Are the goals and requirements being met
  • Is return on investment being achieved
  • Overall project cost
  • Suggest improvements or correction

40
Strategy Reassessment
  • Webs grow in unexpected ways
  • e.g. Genentec and Lockheed Martin
  • Reasons for a not having a worthwhile project
  • The goals were unrealistic
  • The web server was inadequate to handle traffic
  • The actual cost savings were not as much as
    expected
  • Important
  • Develop a checklist
  • Project Team compiles statistics that can be
    tracked
  • CIOs and other executives are trying to extract
    the business value from their investment in
    information technologies

41
Management Issues
  • Considering the strategic value of EC
  • Conducting strategic planning
  • Considering the risks
  • Integration
  • Existing data bases legacy applications
  • Development approach implementation
  • Pilot project

42
Summary
  • Systems approach to development
  • Systems development life cycle
  • Methodologies for development
  • Techniques and tools
  • Web application considerations
  • Evaluation

43
Private Study
  • Question ?
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