Lecture 8 The Management of Organisational Change and Conflict - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Lecture 8 The Management of Organisational Change and Conflict PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 1d37cc-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Lecture 8 The Management of Organisational Change and Conflict

Description:

The Management of Organisational Change and Conflict. Topics. Nature of organisational change ... facing employees in conflict: Leave organisation or work ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:385
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 40
Provided by: pch4
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Lecture 8 The Management of Organisational Change and Conflict


1
Lecture 8The Management of Organisational
Change and Conflict
2
Topics
  • Nature of organisational change
  • Key issues accelerating change (external and
    internal force)
  • Areas of the organisation managers expect change
  • Change management process
  • Managing change
  • Managing resistance to change
  • Emotions accompanying change
  • Overcoming resistance
  • Leadership and successful change
  • Managing conflict

3
What is change? Why change?
  • Change
  • Any alteration of the status quo.
  • Why change?

4
Change and Organisational Life Cycle
  • Life cycles
  • Predictable stages of development organisations
    typically follow.
  • Evolving through each stage requires
    organisational change to survive and grow,
    otherwise the organisation may cease to exist in
    an identifiable way.
  • There are four life-cycle stages.

5
Organisational Life Cycle
Entrepreneurial stage
Collectivity stage
Formalisation and control stage
Elaboration-of-structure stage
6
(No Transcript)
7
Two change types
  • Reactive change
  • Change occurring when one takes action in
    response to perceived problems, threats,
    opportunities.
  • Planned change
  • Change involving actions based on a carefully
    thought-out process anticipating future
    difficulties, threats, opportunities.

8
Key Issues Accelerating Change
competition
economy
technology
The organisation
Internal change factors
culture
jobs
politics
regulations
structure
employees
External change factors
technical development
9
Areas for Change in an Organisation
  • Changing structure
  • Changing technology (ex automation,
    computerisation, E-commerce or E-business)
  • Changing people (changing the quality and
    characteristics of employees)
  • Changing Culture

10
Areas for Change
Technology
Human Resources
Structure
Culture
11
Areas for Change Structure
  • Structural components
  • Job definitions
  • Job groupings
  • Teams
  • Delegation
  • Reporting relationships

12
Areas for Change Technology
  • Technology may drive change/innovation by
  • Requiring new work methods.
  • Providing/removing competitive edge.

13
Areas for Change People
  • Human resources is the vehicle for changing
  • knowledge, skills, perceptions behaviours
  • needed for a job. It utilises
  • Recruitment selection
  • Training
  • Performance appraisal
  • Reward systems.

14
Areas for Change Culture
  • Major organisational changes often require
    concomitant changes to organisational culture.

15
Change Management Process
Recognition of opportunity or problem
Prepare to overcome resistance
Line up powerful sponsors
Plan for reward visible progress
Develop and communicate a vision
Consolidate improvements facilitate further
change
Empower others to act out the vision
Monitor institutionalise change
Reading 8.4 covers detailed information on change
management process.
16
Managing ChangeManaging Resistance To Change
  • Why do employees resist change?
  • Self-interest not fear change but fear loss
    (what are losses?)
  • Security
  • Competence do not know how to do with the new
    job
  • Relationships afraid of the familiar contact
    with people like customers, co-workers or
    managers can disappear afraid of losing their
    sense of belonging to a team or group
  • Sense of direction
  • Territory
  • It is important to understand employees fears of
    loss caused by change as it is a normal part of
    transition and leaders have to assist them
    overcome these fears.

17
Why does individual resist change?
  • Misunderstanding
  • Lack of trust
  • Differential assessment
  • Ability to adjust
  • Laziness

18
What are emotions accompanying change?
  • Disbelief
  • Annoyance
  • Avoidance
  • Disappointment
  • Blaming
  • Given up
  • Hostility and sabotage
  • Acceptance
  • Optimism

19
Managing Resistance To Change
  • Managing resistance to change
  • Freeze cycle approach (Kurt Lewin 1947 )
  • Unfreezing
  • Initial awareness of need for change is
    developed
  • Changing
  • Focus on learning needed new behaviours
  • Freezing
  • Reinforcing new learned behaviours by positive
    results, feelings of achievement, and rewards
    from others.

20
Managing Resistance To Change
THREE-STEP PROCESS
CHANGE
UNFREEZE
REFREEZE
21
Managing Resistance To Change
  • Overcoming resistance

Participation involvement
Education communication
METHODS (Kotter Schlesinger)
Facilitation support
Explicit implicit coercion
Negotiation agreement
Manipulation cooptation
22
Managing Resistance To Change
Overcoming resistance to change
Force -Field Analysis (Kurt Lewin) a method
involving analysing the two types of forces,
driving forces and restraining forces, that
influence any proposed change, then assessing
how best to overcome resistance.
C H A N G E
Driving forces Factors pressuring for a
particular change
Restraining forces Factors pressuring against a
change
23
Managing Resistance To Change
  • Driving forces are factors pressuring for a
    particular change
  • Restraining forces are factors pressuring against
    a change
  • The status quo is a condition of equilibrium
    between the two forces
  • Change occurs by increasing driving or reducing
    restraining forces that is reducing resistance to
    change

24
Restraining forces against change
Driving forces for change
Deteriorating company-union relations
Good union relations
Stringent work rules
Foreign competition
Current benefit costs
Recent losses
Cheaper outside sources
Current pay costs
Union desire to save jobs
Employee absenteeism levels
Company reluctance to save jobs
Company desire for flexibility in layoff
decisions
Force-field analysis of the forces maintaining
high cost level at Xerox plant (p.587)
Desired low Cost level
Current high Cost level
25
Change the culture fit
  • Culture issue is the first issue needed to
    address before tackling any needed organisational
    change
  • Ex James McNerney, previous employee of GE, took
    over as CEO of 3M and brought with him managerial
    approaches from GE.

26
  • Evidences show that successful culture change
  • needs turnaround time for seven to ten
    years---need patient.
  • The corporate CEOs were outsiders
  • CEOs did started their jobs by trying to create
    an atmosphere of perceived crisis

27
Ongoing challenge of making change successfully
  • Change process do not always work the way they
    should, instead an organisation needs to embrace
    change, be ready for change all the time (be a
    change-capable organisation)
  • Managers need to act as change agents (change
    leaders) and build an effective change agent team
  • Get all organisational members involved-encourage
    employees to be change agents

28
Leadership and Change
  • People change being led, not from being told
  • Visionary leadership is needed
  • An energised leader will do more focus the
    efforts of his or her employees
  • Understanding and articulating a vision of where
    the group is going
  • Sharing that vision
  • Creating an environment where employees feel a
    sense of making the vision come true (ex setting
    a plan of action)
  • Creating incentives for change and rewards

Refer to Skills and competencies of a change
leader to know the Roles, responsibilities,
skills and competencies of a change leader.
29
What is conflict?
  • Conflict is the perceived difference between two
    or more parties resulting in mutual opposition.

30
Conflicts between individuals and organisations
  • Choices facing employees in conflict
  • Leave organisation or work to climb into upper
    management
  • Use defence mechanisms to defend their
    self-concepts
  • Psychologically disassociate (lose interest in
    their work)
  • Concentrate on material rewards
  • Find allies resist (e.g. strike)

31
Causes of conflict
  • Communication factors
  • Structural factors
  • Size
  • Participation
  • Linestaff distinctions
  • Reward systems
  • Resource interdependence
  • Task interdependence
  • Power

32
Causes of conflict (cont.)
  • Personal behaviour factors
  • Communication styles
  • Workforce diversity
  • Differences in goals
  • Reward structures
  • Differences in perceptions
  • Increased demand for specialists

33
Benefits losses from conflict
  • BENEFITS LOSSES
  • Productive task focus Energy diversion
  • Cohesion satisfaction Distorted
    judgment
  • Power feedback Loser effects
  • Goal attainment Poor coordination

34
Relationship between change and conflicts
  • Types of intergroup conflict
  • Functional
  • Dysfunctional
  • Changing views on conflict
  • Traditional viewconflict is destructive
    unnecessary
  • Modern viewconflict is inevitable, may produce
    better organisational performance
  • Stimulating conflict
  • Build group diversity, communicate to provoke
    change, encourage competition

35
Managing intergroup conflict
  • Changing situational factors leading to a problem
    (e.g. increase resources, redesign rewards)
  • Appeal to superordinate goals (e.g. survival or
    beating competitors)
  • Use interpersonal conflict-handling model.

36
  • Different styles of interpersonal conflict
    management and circumstances where each may be
    appropriate
  • Forcing (formal authority, power use).
  • Collaborating (combination of assertiveness and
    co-operation).
  • Competing (reaction to non-competitive
    behaviour).
  • Compromising (intermediate amounts of
    assertiveness and co-operation).
  • Avoiding (neutrality).
  • Accommodating (giving in to anothers wishes).

37
Conflict-resolution techniques
Soure Robbins et al. 2006.
38
Methods of resolving dysfunctional intergroup
conflict
Problem solving
Intergroup training
Expansion of resources
Intergroup conflict resolution
Confrontation negotiation
Smoothing
Bureaucratic authority
Limited communication
39
Activities
  • Case study Fremantle port, p.600
  • Case study Which theory is that? Managerial
    dilemmas, textbook p.586.
About PowerShow.com