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Nouns, pronouns, and the simple noun phrase

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Chapter 4 Nouns, pronouns, and the simple noun phrase Getting an Overview of Chapter 4 Look carefully at page 55. Wow. Now, remember, this is a reference book. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nouns, pronouns, and the simple noun phrase


1
Chapter 4
  • Nouns, pronouns, and the simple noun phrase

2
Getting an Overview of Chapter 4
  • Look carefully at page 55. Wow.
  • Now, remember, this is a reference book. You need
    to have read through to have a general
    understanding.
  • But
  • You are not trying to memorize the whole book.
  • So, start by
  • Reading page 55 carefully. Get a sense of how
    the chapter is organized and where the authors
    are taking us. Note any terminology that you do
    not understand.
  • When youve done that reading, were ready to
    look at the essential information that you need
    to be sure you understand this chapter.

3
Section Summaries
  • STOP! Dont get impatient. Youll save time and
    energy by being a smart reader.
  • Go to each of the section summaries. Read each
    carefully. Then, start here again. Click to get
    a list of the pages for the summaries.
  • Page 64 Types of Nouns
  • Page 77 Types of Determiners
  • Pages 84-85 Number and case in nouns
  • Page 92 Gender and the formation of nouns
  • Page 101 Types of Pronouns
  • PLEASE read through these summaries
  • And then continue with the
  • PowerPoint
  • Slides

4
Check out visible data
  • Flip through the chapter to see where they put
    tables and/or figures. I expect that anything
    they put into a table or figure is important
    information that theyve given special treatment.
    So, looking ahead gives me some information about
    where to put my time and thought. After youve
    looked, click to see my list.

Table 4.1 (p. 65) Table 4.2 (p. 66) Table 4.3
(p. 66) Table 4.4 (p. 67) Table 4.5 (p. 76) Table
4.6 (p. 91) Table 4.7 (p. 93) Figure 4.1 (p.
67) Figure 4.2 (p. 72) Figure 4.3 (p. 82) Figure
4.4 (p. 84) Figure 4.5 (p. 84) Figure 4.6 (p.
91) Figure 4.7 (p. 93)
5
Types of Nouns
  • Nouns as a word classvarious sub-groups
  • Based on meaning concrete vs. abstract
  • Based on grammar count vs. noncount
  • As an ESL/EFL teacher, the most important
    information here is about count noncount
    because forming noun phrases with them can be
    tricky.
  • So, lets look at the top of page 57 and at
    section 4.2.2.

6
Count Noncount
  • Count Nouns
  • Singular
  • book, child
  • Plural
  • books, children
  • Noncount Nouns
  • Not singular not plural
  • this kinda stuff
  • Rice
  • Music
  • Knowledge
  • Homework
  • News

7
Culture Counting
  • Countability is partly a matter of how we view
    the world, rather than how the world really is.
    (p. 57)
  • Words can be countable in other languages and not
    in English.
  • In Japanese, the word for homework is
    countable Children turn in their homeworks.
  • Words can be countable in other version of
    English and not in U.S. English.
  • In Indian English, the word chalk is countable.
    Teachers can have 2 chalks.

8
Lists of Noncount Nouns
  • Many words can be either count or noncount
    depending on their meaning
  • I like coffee. (noncount)
  • I bought a coffee at Starbucks. (singular count
    noun)
  • However, most words have typical usesused more
    as noncount than count or used more as count than
    noncount
  • Tea typically used as noncount I like tea.
  • In Bank of Englishs 450,000,000 words
  • Tea is used 26,332 times!
  • A tea 922 times
  • Teas 1115 times

9
Merrily we go along.
But when we turn the pages and get to section B
on Determiners Were at a hugely important topic
for ESL/EFL Teachers and Our Students. So.. Turn
to Page 65
  • You need to read carefully everything you can
    find about count and noncount nouns
  • You can just flip through the pages on other noun
    categories to know whats there but not to give
    detailed attention right now.

10
Determiners
  • Determiners determine noun meaning. For example,
    think about how the meaning of a noun like book
    changes with different determiners
  • His book
  • Her book
  • That book
  • The basic noun phrase often involves the
    combination determiner noun
  • What to read here?
  • Every single word of section 4.5
  • Every single word of section 4.6
  • Every single word of section 4.7.
  • And anything that you do not understand you
    should ask me about. This is important for you
    and your students.

So, make a note To remember The importance
of These sections When you Settle down To read
The chapter.
11
Determinersssss
  • Why so many determiners?
  • Whats going on?
  • What are determiners really about?
  • What is it that we are doing when we make
    selections from among this really large system of
    words?
  • Come on.come on.its on the tip of your tongue.
    There are a lot of different determiners because
    we..

That is, Determiners need To be taught
learned As ways to control NOUNs Noun meaning
Because we have Lots of different Meanings we
want to make With nouns!
Determiners Are About NOUN PHRASES!
12
Definite vs. Indefinite Generic vs. Specific
  • These terms are used to talk about the meanings
    of the various combinations of determiners and
    noun
  • The terms are used especially to separate out the
    meanings involved with the articles
  • Indefinite and specific I bought an apple in the
    cafeteria.
  • Generic An apple is a type of fruit.
  • Definite and specific The apple on the table is
    for my lunch.
  • Generic The apple is an important agricultural
    product.
  • Indefinite and specific I bought some bread at
    the Market.
  • Generic Bread is a staple food in many
    countries.

13
Reference categories
Two Other Associated Terms Cohesion how
grammar ties a passage together using pronouns
and other grammar to tie sentences
together Coherence how conventional
organization cultural expectations tie a
passage together the storyline
  • Another way that linguists talk about meaning is
    to focus on meaning in context.and the ways that
    whole pieces of communication are tied together.
  • As we communicate in speech and in writing
  • sometimes we say things that point ahead to
    whats coming next.
  • sometimes we say things that point back to what
    happened or was said before.
  • sometimes we talk about things that are happening
    right there as part of the conversation and we
    kinda just point at the person or object to
    indicate what were talking about.
  • These different ways of making connections are
    talked about in terms of reference. Look at
    the A, B, C, etc., headings on pages 70-71
  • Its worth taking some time to learn this
    information and these terms because they show up
    all over the place in linguistics and various
    other related fields (socio, psycho, SLA, etc.)

14
Anaphoric
  • Looking back.
  • Pronouns are used for anaphoric reference. They
    connect back to previous nouns.
  • (like in these 2 sentences they connects back to
    pronouns)
  • The is often used for anaphoric reference, too.
  • Look at the examples on page 70. You can see how
    the refers back.and thus helps to tie the
    passage together. Thats an example of
    grammatical cohesion.

15
Cataphoric
  • This type of reference looks ahead.you say
    something that anticipates something new.
  • Check their examples on page 71 to see how the
    catapults the meaning aheadand suggests that
    theres more to come.

16
Situational
  • The situations can be local and immediate
  • In a classroom, we talk about the door, the
    chairs, the board, etc.
  • Larger settings the sun, the moon, the
    president, the city council members
  • Nice example
  • Take a look at 8 on page 71 when
    mis-communication takes place. Thats really
    nice to see because it does happen to us all the
    time when we assume that the context is shared
    when it isnt. ESL/EFL teachers and students
    have similar experiences all the time!

17
Number Case Gender
  • Number, case, gender are old and traditional
    grammar terminology.
  • And these 3 terms are still very commonly used
    today to help us think about the characteristics
    of English.
  • However, because they were developed in analysis
    of languages like Latin and Greek the terms are
    not always a completely useful fit with English.
    So, well proceed carefully.

18
Number
  • Number
  • count singular or plural nouns pronouns
  • Regular count nouns book, books
  • Irregular count nouns child, children
  • Number contrast in pronouns I, we

Theres useful information about noun spelling
for irregular plurals on pages 78-79. You do not
need to memorize all that information although
you probably know a lot of the words already. As
an ESL/EFL/ESOL teacher, you do need to know
that the categories exist and where to get the
details to use for vocabulary development for
your students!
19
Case
  • Case involves
  • changes in form to indicate changes in
    grammatical function. For example, a language
    can have one version of a word for the subject of
    a sentence and another version of a word for the
    direct object. These are often called
    subjective or nominative and objective or
    accusative case.
  • Other types are dative for indirect objects and
    genitive for possessive forms.
  • Well, now, what case forms do we have in English?
    Look at these sentences
  • The teacher gave the homework to the students.
  • The students thanked the teacher for the
    homework.
  • English nouns do not change form when they move
    from one grammatical function to another.
    Subject forms are the same as object forms.
  • However, we do have noun forms for the
    possessive.the genitive case
  • The teachers suggestions helped her students
    with their homework.

Pronouns have more case forms than
nouns. Subjective she, he, I, we Objective her,
him, me, us Genitive her, his, my, our Nouns
have possessive or genitive case forms. Pats
grammar students have questions about case.
Youll sometimes read linguistic studies that use
the term case for the grammatical meaning of
forms. Just realize that the linguist does
NOT think that English nouns have case forms But
that when used in sentences noun phrases take on
the meanings associated with subject or object
position.
20
Genitive ESL/EFL/ESOL
  • Youll have to teach students how to form and use
    the possessive.
  • They have to learn grammar and also spelling and
    pronunciation.
  • So, read through the examples and the headings to
    get a general sense of the resources here.
    Youll be coming back to these pages a lot in
    your teaching career.

Also, youll want to go to the BIG Longman
Grammar of Spoken Written English To get more
information to use In materials, lessons, and
curricular plans.
21
Of-phrase vs. Genitive
  • Pages 82-85 are really really important.
  • You and your students will struggle with this
    material. When to use s? When to use of?
  • Lots of what is in grammar textbooks is not
    accurate. You need to do some studying to be
    sure that you are teaching your students the real
    thing.
  • The Longman grammars.the student grammar and the
    Big grammarare based on research into how
    English is used. You can trust this information.

Make a note To study This content!
22
Grammatical Gender
Those differences are In the meaning of the
words Not in anything to Do with
grammatical Forms.
  • Section D of Chapter 4 begins with this
    statement Gender is not an important
    grammatical category in English. (p. 85)
  • English pronouns have gender based forms she vs.
    he
  • There are no GRAMMATICAL gender classes for
    nouns.
  • WHAT?!! What about the difference between man and
    woman or boy and girl? Isnt that gender?

23
Grammatical Gender ESL/EFL/ESOL
  • You need to recognize when students from
    languages like French, Spanish, Portuguese are
    having trouble with English because they are
    applying grammatical gender from their L1 to
    English.
  • You might see students from Chinese backgrounds
    struggling to keep the pronoun forms under
    control.using he when to mean she. Its really
    more of a vocabulary development problem than a
    grammar problem. (Although keeping grammar and
    vocabulary separated is often not wise or
    necessary.)

24
Gender Bias
  • You might need this information in your own
    academic writing since APA style requires that we
    avoid biased language in our academic writing.
  • You might also need to teach students how to use
    appropriate language in their academic writing
    and to understand the cultural values that lie
    behind these grammatical decisions.

25
Noun Formation
  • Pages 88-91 are just the kind of material that we
    need to remember we can find in a reference
    grammar.
  • We can use this information for vocabulary
    development.
  • Be sure to notice the register differences that
    they have found. So that learning these words
    can be put into correct contexts.
  • Also pay a lot of attention to their frequency
    data. While there are many affixes on the lists
    on pages 89 and 90, Figure 4.6 suggests that we
    should focus our teaching on a much smaller list.

26
Pronoun Types
  • What do you need to know?
  • You need to know the names for the types and some
    examples.
  • You need to know about the use of these forms in
    different registers. So look at the figures
    carefully and read the explanations that go with
    the figures carefully.

27
Now What?
  • Read the chapter.
  • Listen to and read the other parts of my lecture
    on WebCT.
  • Do the quizzes.
  • Make notes about any of the information that
    might be important for your paper.
  • Email me with your questions. Remember that I
    want to hear about what you do NOT
    understandyour questions about the parts of the
    chapter that confuse you.
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