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Grammar Unit 2 Phrases

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GRAMMAR UNIT 2 PHRASES & CLAUSES WHAT IS A PHRASE? A phrase is a group of related words that does not contain a subject and verb. Common Phrases Prepositional Phrases ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Grammar Unit 2 Phrases


1
Grammar Unit 2 Phrases Clauses
2
What is a Phrase?
  • A phrase is a group of related words that does
    not contain a subject and verb.
  • Common Phrases
  • Prepositional Phrases
  • Infinitive Phrases
  • Participial Phrases
  • Gerund Phrases

3
Prepositional Phrase
  • Begins with a preposition (in, on, under, over,
    around, of, about, through, etc.)
  • Followed by an object and any modifiers
  • Functions as an adjective or adverb
  • Examples
  • The cadets marched through the woods.
  • through is the preposition
  • the is the modifier for the object woods
  • functions as an adverb
  • Everyone in the class wrote an essay.
  • in is the preposition
  • the is the modifier for the object class
  • functions as an adjective

4
Infinitive Phrase
  • Begins with an infinitive to verb
  • Followed by an object and any modifiers
  • Functions as a noun, adjective or adverb
  • Examples
  • To exercise every day is a good habit.
  • to exercise is the infinitive
  • every is the modifier for the object day
  • Functions as a noun
  • I was relieved to finish my project.
  • to finish is the infinitive
  • my is the modifier for the object project
  • Functions as an adjective

5
Participial Phrase
  • Begins with a participle verb ending in -ed,
    -en, or -ing
  • Followed by an object and any modifiers
  • Functions as an adjective
  • Examples
  • The marine biologist, diving near a reef, saw a
    shark.
  • diving is the participle
  • near a are the modifiers for the object reef
  • Functions as an adjective
  • Known for her patience, Mrs. Garcia was his
    favorite teacher.
  • known is the participle
  • for her are the modifiers for the object patience
  • Functions as an adjective

6
Gerund Phrase
  • Begins with a gerund verb ending in -ing
  • Followed by object and any modifiers
  • Functions as a noun
  • Examples
  • Marching in unison builds teamwork.
  • marching is the gerund
  • in is the modifier for the object unison
  • Functions as a noun
  • The student enjoys taking morning classes.
  • taking is the gerund
  • morning is the modifier for the object classes
  • Functions as a noun

7
What is a Clause?
  • A clause is a group of related words that
    contains both a subject and a verb.
  • Two Types of Clauses
  • Independent Clause
  • Dependent Clause

8
Independent Clause
  • Contains a subject and a verb
  • Makes a complete statement
  • Can stand alone
  • Examples
  • Del Mar is a community college.
  • Del Mar is the subject
  • is is the verb
  • a community college completes the thought
  • The Writing Center offers a variety of services.
  • The Writing Center is the subject
  • offers is the verb
  • a variety of services completes the thought

9
Dependent Clause
  • Contains a subject and a verb
  • Does not make a complete statement
  • Cannot Stand Alone
  • Begins with a subordinating conjunction or a
    relative pronoun
  • Subordinating conjunctions after, although, as,
    because, before, if, since, until, when
  • Relative pronouns who, whom, that, which, whose

10
Examples of Dependent Clause
  • Because the student prepared for the exam, she
    answered all of the questions correctly.
  • because is the subordinating conjunction
  • the student is the subject
  • prepared is the verb
  • for the exam completes the dependent clause
  • The uniform that I am required to wear is green
    and brown.
  • that is the relative pronoun
  • I is the subject
  • am is the verb
  • required to wear completes the dependent clause

11
Practice Phrases
  • Identify the type of phrase in the following
    sentences
  • Being an excellent cook, Ryan hosted a dinner
    party.
  • To be elected president is his objective.
  • The puppy chased the kitten around the house.
  • Hoisting the sail correctly is a critical
    component of yachting.

12
Answer Key
  • Identify the type of phrase in the following
  • Being an excellent cook, Ryan hosted a dinner
    party. Participial Phrase
  • To be elected president is his objective.
    Infinitive Phrase
  • The puppy chased the kitten around the house.
    Prepositional Phrase
  • Hoisting the sail correctly is a critical
    component of yachting. Gerund Phrase

13
Practice Clauses
  • Identify the type of clause in the following
    sentences
  • I walk my dog every day.
  • Because he is a teacher.
  • As the soccer player scored the winning goal.
  • Zeke hit his thumb with a hammer.

14
Answer Key
  • Identify the type of clause in the following
  • I walk my dog every day. Independent
  • Because he is a teacher. Dependent
  • As the soccer player scored the winning goal.
    Dependent
  • Zeke hit his thumb with a hammer. Independent

15
Sentence Types
  1. Simple
  2. Compound
  3. Complex
  4. Compound-Complex

16
Simple
  • one independent clause
  • I like Spongebob.

17
Compound
  • two or more independent clauses
  • I like Spongebob, and I like Plankton.

18
Complex
  • dependent clause and independent clause
  • Because he makes me laugh, I like Spongebob.

19
Compound-Complex
  • two independent clauses and one dependent clause
  • Because they make me laugh, I like Spongebob, and
    I like Plankton.

20
Q What is a Subordinating Conjunction?
  • A A subordinating conjunction is a word that
    links sentence elements that are not of equal
    importance. The following is a list of common
    subordinating conjunctions
  • after once until
  • although since when
  • as that whenever
  • because though where
  • before till wherever
  • if unless while
  • Return to presentation.

21
Q What is a Relative Pronoun?
  • A A relative pronoun is a word that relates the
    dependent clause to the independent clause within
    a sentence. The following is a list of relative
    pronouns
  • who whoever what
  • whatever that whom
  • whomever whose whichever
  • which
  • Return to presentation.
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