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Cardiovascular diseases

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Cardiovascular diseases Done by: Isra Abu Alreesh Alice Tayseer Cardiovascular system The cardiovascular system carries oxygen and nutrients to all of the cells in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cardiovascular diseases


1
Cardiovascular diseases
  • Done by Isra Abu Alreesh
  • Alice Tayseer

2
Cardiovascular system
  • The cardiovascular system carries oxygen and
    nutrients to all of the cells in the body.
  • It also picks up carbon dioxide and other waste
    products that the body produces so that they can
    be disposed of.
  • The main components of this system are the heart,
    blood vessels, and blood.
  • When a problem arises within the system, it is
    known as a cardiovascular disease.

3
Infectious disease of blood
  • What is sepsis?
  • life-threatening medical condition, found in
    association with a known or suspected infection
    (usually but not limited to bacteria) whose signs
    and symptoms fulfill at least two of the
    following criteria of a systemic inflammatory
    response syndrome (SIRS)
  • tachycardia gt90 b/min (rest)
  • body temperature either high (gt100.4F or 38C) or
    low (lt96.8F or 36C)
  • increased respiratory rate of gt20 breaths per
    minute or a PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon
    dioxide in arterial blood) lt32 mm Hg
  • abnormal white blood cell count (gt12000 cells/µL
    or lt4000 cells/µL or gt10 bands an immature type
    of white blood cell)
  • Patients that meet the above criteria have sepsis
    and are also termed septic.

4
  • Terms that are often used in place of sepsis
    are bacteremia, septicemia, and blood poisoning.
  • However, bacteremia means the presence of
    bacteria in the blood this can occur without any
    of the criteria listed above and should not be
    confused with sepsis. For example, you can brush
    your teeth and get bacteremia for a short time
    and have no SIRS criteria occur.

5
What cause sepsis ? ?
  • Common bacterial causes of sepsis are
    gram-negative bacilli (for example, E. coli,P.
    aeruginosa, E. corrodens), S. aureus, Streptococcu
    s species and Enterococcus species.
  •  Candida species are some of the most frequent
    fungi that cause sepsis.

6
Bacterial sepsis
7
Streptococcal septicemia
  • A common cause (Streptococcus pyogenes).
    streptococcus causes severe fever, malaise, and
    dropping blood pressure.
  • An important complication of streptococcal
    septicemia is endocarditis.

8
Rheumatic fever
  • is an immune reaction taking place in the heart
    tissues and is usually stimulated by antigens
    derived from Streptococcus pyogenes.
  • Inflammation of the heart tissues is often
    accompanied by inflammation and arthritis of the
    joints, a condition called rheumatoid arthritis.

9
  • Tularemia is due to a Gram-negative rod
    Francisella tularensis.
  • Patients experience a blood disorder accompanied
    by fever, malaise, and numerous nonspecific
    symptoms.

10
  • Septicemic plague  When the Gram-negative rod
    Yersinia pestis enters the blood.
  • transmitted by its rodent reservoir, the rat flea.

11
Brucellosis
  • Brucellosis is also known as undulant fever.
  • The bacterial agents . genus Brucella.
  • They are transmitted to humans by unpasteurized
    milk and contaminated meat.
  • the bacteria cause fever, chills, and malaise.

12
Anthrax
  • due to the Gram-positive, aerobic, sporeforming
    rod Bacillus anthracis.
  • Spores are inhaled from the air, or they are
    acquired during contact with contaminated soil or
    animals such as sheep and cattle.
  • In the bloodstream, B. anthracis causes severe
    hemorrhaging, and the spleen, kidneys, and other
    bloodrich organs become engorged with blood

13
Relapsing fever
  • Relapsing fever is so named because of the
    recurrent periods of fever.
  • Borrelia recurrentis transmitted by lice.It may
    also be transmitted among humans by ticks.
  • Jaundice and rose-colored skin spots accompany
    the infection.

14
Lyme disease
  • Borrelia burgdorferi.
  • transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes.
  • first symptoms of Lyme disease is a bull's-eye
    rash occurring on the skin. The rash is called
    erythema chronicum migrans.
  • After the rash fades and spirochetes enter the
    blood, fever and other symptoms appear.
  • the heart is affected and irregular heartbeat may
    be observed.

15
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  • caused by the rickettsia Rickettsia rickettsii.
  • transmitted by ticks of the genus Dermacentor.
  • The disease is characterized by a maculopapular
    skin rash (a spotted rash) occurring on the
    appendages and then spreading to the trunk. The
    fever is very high, and headaches accompany the
    disease.

16
Viral Diseases
17
Viremia
  • is the presence of viruses in the bloodstream.
  • commonly occurs in viral infections, but is
    dangerous only in certain infections.
  • systemic symptoms
  • headache, fever, skin rash, diarrhea, and muscle
    pains. Exact symptoms depend on a type of
    infection there are no specific symptoms of
    viremia.
  • Primary and Secondary Viremia
  • Primary viremialtlt  invasion of viruses into the
    blood from the initial site of infection. Viruses
    can then infect various organs, like the lymph
    nodes or liver, and spread into the blood again
    after some days or weeks this is secondary
    viremia.

18
Yellow fever.
  • Transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti.
  • After injection, the virus spreads to the lymph
    nodes and blood, where it persists in the
    bloodrich organs such as the liver.
  • Very high fever, nausea, and jaundice accompany
    the disease. The mortality rate is high.

19
  • Transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito
  • cause fever and severe muscle, bone, and joint
    pains, leading to break bone fever.
  • Successive exposures to the virus may result in
    dengue hemorrhagic fever, in which extensive
    hemorrhaging occurs in the blood-rich organs.

20
Infectious mononucleosis
  • caused by Epstein-Barr virus.
  • remain latent in the B-lymphocytes.
  • Symptoms
  • sore throat, mild fever, enlarged spleen, and an
    elevation of infected B-lymphocytes known as
    Downey cells.
  • The viruses are often transmitted by saliva.
    Treatment usually consists of extensive bed rest,
    and recurrences are possible.
  • The virus of infectious mononucleosis is related
    to a type of tumor of the jaw tissues known as
    Burkitt's lymphoma.

21
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  • Destruction of T-lymphocytes of the immune
    system was associated with these infections.

22
Vasculitis
  • occurs when your body attacks your blood vessels.
    It's not always clear why this happens,
    infection, some cancers, certain immune system
    disorders or an allergic reaction may serve as
    the trigger.
  • primary vasculitis unknown
  • secondary vasculitis
  • Infections
  • Immune system diseases.
  • Allergic reactions.
  • Blood cell cancers.
  •  Rheumatoid vasculitisltlt

23
  • Lymphangitis is an inflammation of the lymphatic
    channels that occurs as a result of infection at
    a site distal to the channel. The most common
    cause of lymphangitis in humans is Streptococcus
    pyogenes (Group A strep).

24
Continue with Alice _
25
CARDITIS
  • Carditis, inflammation of the heart, is most
    conveniently broken down into three categories
  • Pericarditis
  • Myocarditis
  • Endocarditis

26
PERICARDITIS
  • Pericarditis, inflammation of the fibroserous sac
    enclosing the heart, manifests itself as one of
    three types as a result of the bodies reaction to
    the infecting agent
  •   Acute serofibrinous pericarditis - the result
    of virus infection 
  • Acute purulent pericarditis - the result of
    bacterial infection (except Mycobacterium
    tuberculosis)
  • Chronic pericarditis - the result of infection
    by M. tuberculosis or fungi

27
  • The most common viruses causing the disease are
    members of the Picornaviridae (enteroviruses)
  • most common bacteria infecting the pericardium
    are the pyogenic cocci (Staphylococcus, Streptococ
    cus, Neisseria)
  • Chronic pericarditis is most commonly caused
    by M. tuberculosis or Histoplasma capsulatum. 

28
MYOCARDITIS
  • Many species of viruses, bacteria, chlamydia,
    rickettsia, fungi and protozoans can cause
    myocarditis. However, viruses are the most
    important infectious agents. Of these, the
    enteroviruses are the single most important
    group.
  • Coxsackie B virus gtgt Direct viral damage of
    myocardial cell.

29
MYOCARDITIS
30
ENDOCARDITIS
  • inflammation of the membrane lining the chambers
    of the heart and covering the cusps of the
    various valves.
  • Is caused directly by microbial colonization of
    the endocardium.
  • or indirectly by induction of autoimmunity, as in
    acute rheumatic fever.
  • Direct colonization is termed infective
    endocarditis

31
  • Almost all bacteria and many fungi, when they
    get into the blood stream, can cause infective
    endocarditis.
  • 80 of the cases are caused by streptococci or
    staphylococci. 

32
  • Serologic findings include
  • Hypergammaglobulinemia 
  • High levels of rheumatoid factor 
  • High levels of antinuclear antibody 
  • High levels of circulating immune complexes
  • CLINICAL SYMPTOMS  
  • Low grade fever 
  • Anorexia
  • Fatigue 
  • Weight loss 
  • Anemia 
  • Splenomegaly
  • Urinary findings may include
  • Proteinuria 
  • Microscopic hematuria 
  • Red blood cell casts

33
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
  • Chylamydia pneumoniae
  •  infection is one of risk factors that can
    induce plaque rupture. The plaque debris lodges
    in a blood vessel upon rupture and blocks blood
    flow.

34
Myocardial abcesses
  • is a suppurative infection of the myocardium,
    endocardium, native or prosthetic valves or
    perivalvular structures.

35
Causes of myocardial abscess
  • Associated with endocarditis
  • Native valve endocarditis
  • Prosthetic valve endocarditis
  • Myocardial infection.
  • Miscellaneous
  • Complications of acute MI
  • Trauma
  • Mechanical interventions - Catheterization,
    angioplasty, stent
  • Infection associated with L.V aneurysm
  • Infection associated with atrial myxoma
  • Myocarditis and suppuration associated with HIV
  • Transplanted heart infection
  • Associated with septicemia
  • Bronchopneumonias
  • Genitourinary infections

36
Protozoal and Parasitic Diseases
37
Toxoplasmosis
  • caused by the sporozoan Toxoplasma gondii.
  • In humans, the protozoa multiply in the
    bloodstream and undergo a complex reproductive
    cycle.
  • Patients experience fever, with other
    constitutional abnormalities, but symptoms are
    generally mild.
  • AIDS patients, toxoplasmosis can result in
    seizures and then brain inflammation, and it may
    be a cause of death.

38
Malaria
  • blood disease due to many species of the genus
    Plasmodium.
  • transmitted by mosquitoes Anopheles.
  • they invade the red blood cells in the merozoite
    form. Within the red blood cells, the protozoa
    undergo various stages of their life cycle, and
    eventually the red blood cells rupture to release
    large numbers of parasites.
  • The toxic compounds released during the rupture
    cause the paroxysms of chills and fever that
    characterize malaria.
  • Treatment is effective with drugs such as
    quinine, chloroquine, and primaquine.

39
Schistosomiasis
  • Schistosomiasis is caused by Schistosoma mansoni.
  • The parasites multiply and live within the
    bloodstream
  • Interfere with the flow of blood and lymph and
    cause local tissue damage.

40
filariasis
  • Cause
  • (round worms) of the family Filariodidea. There
    are three types of these thread-like filarial
    worms
  • Wuchereria bancrofti,90
  • Brugia malayi, the remainder
  • B. timori, also causes the diseases.
  • transmitted to humans through mosquitoes.

41
Symptoms The majority of infections are
asymptomatic. still cause damage to the lymphatic
system Acute episodes of local inflammation
involving skin, lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels
often accompany the chronic lymphoedema or
elephantiasis.
42
Chagas disease
  • American trypanosomiasis, is caused by infection
    with  Trypanosoma cruzi.
  • Transmitted by blood-sucking triatomine insects
    (kissing bugs)

43
Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy Signs of
congestion due to isolated left-sided heart
failure Biventricular failure with peripheral
edema, hepatomegaly, ascites, and pulmonary
congestion are more common in the later
stages. Signs of thromboembolism may appear,
mostly with embolization to the brain, lungs, and
extremities.
44
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