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King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella The Spanish Reconquest

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Title: King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella The Spanish Reconquest


1
King Ferdinand and Queen IsabellaThe Spanish
Reconquest
  • Lesson 12-5

1
2
  • TN SPI
  • 6.1.8 Recognize how migration and cultural
    diffusion influenced the character of world
    societies (i.e., spread of religions, empire
    building, exploration, languages).
  • 6.6.2 Recognize the impact of individuals on
    world history King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
  • 6.6.1 Identify examples of groups impacting world
    history (i.e., Muslims, Christians)

3
Christians Fight the Moors
  • The Crusades in Jerusalem was not the only place
    where Christians fought against Muslims.
  • In Spain and Portugal, armed Christian warriors
    fought to drive the Muslim Moors out of their
    lands.
  • The Moors population consisted of people from
    North Africa and Arab descent who settled in the
    lands of Spain for more than 800 years.

4
Weakening of Muslim Control
  • By 1002 the once powerful Muslim government of
    Spain weakened due to battles for power between
    political and religious leaders.
  • Caught up in fighting among themselves, Muslim
    leaders were too busy to guard against the
    Christian kingdoms of northern Spain.

5
Reconquista
  • The Spanish Reconquista (reconquest) was an
    effort to retake Spain from the Muslim Moors.
  • At the time, Spain was divided into several small
    kingdoms
  • Castile
  • Aragon
  • Granada
  • Portugal

6
The Reconquest of Spain
  • Christian armies won victory after victory. By
    the 1250s, the Moors were nearly pushed
    completely out of Spain and Europe.
  • In Spain the celebration of 1492 is not for
    Columbus, but a celebration of the fall of
    Granada the last hold that Muslims had on Spain.

7
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8
An End to the Reconquest
  • In 1469 Ferdinand, the prince of Aragon, married
    Isabella, a Castilian princess.
  • Ten years later in 1479, they became the king and
    queen of their countries.
  • Together they ruled all of Spain as King
    Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.
  • They brought an end to the Reconquista when the
    last of the Muslims were forced from Granada.

9
A Christian Kingdom
  • Ferdinand and Isabella only wanted Catholic
    Christians in their kingdom.
  • To ensure that Christianity alone was practiced,
    they created the Spanish Inquisition an
    organization of priests that looked for and
    punished anyone in Spain suspected of practicing
    non-Christian religions.

10
Spanish Inquisition
  • The Spanish Inquisition was ruthless in seeking
    Muslims and Jews.
  • People found guilty of heresy (failure to follow
    church beliefs) were sentenced in public,
    tortured, and killed.
  • Many were burned to death.
  • In total the Spanish sentenced 2,000 people to
    die, while the Portuguese put 1,400 to death.
  • The number of people who died in the various
    inquisitions across Europe are difficult to
    determine, but the number of victims can be
    numbered in the thousands.

11
Jews Face Discrimination
  • European Christians wanted to punish Jews because
    they believed the Jews were responsible for the
    death of Jesus.
  • Jews were also blamed with the arrival of the
    Black Death in Europe.
  • During the Inquisition, many Jews were killed and
    forced to leaves their homes. They were not
    wanted in Christian cities and towns.
  • Later added to the list of those wanted in the
    Inquisition were witches.

12
Torture Devices Used in the Inquisition
  • During the Middle Ages (AD 500-1500), torture was
    a very common way to punish offenders.
  • Many devices and methods were invented to slowly
    punish those accused of crimes, and those
    arrested during the Inquisition.

13
Knee Splitter
  • The knee splitter does what it says split
    victims' knees and render them useless.
  • Built from two spiked wood blocks, the knee
    splitter is placed on top of and behind the knee
    of its victims.
  • Two large screws connecting the blocks are then
    turned, causing the two blocks to close towards
    each other and effectively destroy a victim's
    knee.

14
Iron Gag
  • The Iron Gag was used to stifle the screams of a
    victim. A small hole in the front allowed air to
    pass in and out but muffled any screams.
  • A torturer could press a single fingertip to the
    air-hole and create an extremely distressing
    situation for the accused.  
  • This was used often during the Inquisition so the
    accused would not interrupt the ceremony with
    their irritating cries of distress.

15
Foot Press
  • The foot press was designed to uncomfortably fit
    a single foot between a sharp, ribbed iron plate
    and a bar of metal attached to a long screw.
  • When the screw was turned, the bar crushed the
    foot into a mangled pulp.

16
 Tongue Tearer
  • First, the mouth is forced open with the Mouth
    Opener.
  • Next, the iron Tongue Tearer was used to grab the
    tongue within it's rough grippers.
  • Once a firm hold was maintained, the screw could
    be firmly tightened and the tongue was roughly
    torn from the prisoner's head.

17
Ear Chopper
  • Used as an efficient way to cut the ears from the
    victim.
  • The helmet was placed on the head the ears
    sticking out just under the blades.
  • All it took was a quick chop and the ears would
    be amputated.

18
The Boots
  • The boots was made up of wedges that fitted the
    legs from ankles to knees.
  • Pure pain ensues when the torturer violently
    pounds the wedges with a large, heavy hammer.
  • A process that is done repeatedly until flesh
    and bone are completely destroyed.

19
Spanish Ladder
  • The wrists were tied to one of the rungs, the
    feet tied to the bottom cylinder.
  • Each turn stretched the victim further and
    further until the shoulders were dislocated.

20
Inquisitional Chair
  • The chair was wooden construction with up to
    2,000 metal spikes.  
  • The victim was strapped within the chair using
    tight leather straps.
  • The initial pain of hundreds of sharp rusty
    spikes penetrating the flesh could always be
    increased by the torturer pressing the prisoner
    down or back against the spikes.

21
 Cat's Paw
  • The Cat's Paw was used by the Spanish.
  • It was attached to a handle and was an extension
    of the torturer's hand.
  • It was used to rip and tear flesh away from the
    bone, from any part of the body.

22
Guillotine
  • The blade would be dropped separating the head
    from the body.
  • The head would neatly drop into a waiting
    basket, to be retrieved by the executioner and
    displayed to the crowd gathered to watch.

23
The Saw
  • Victims of this brutal device were made to hang
    upside down.
  • This position has a purpose to fill the victims'
    heads with blood, and therefore allow them to
    remain conscious as the torturers work the saw
    sometimes up to their midsection before they pass
    out or die.

24
Of course
  • Most recall Ferdinand and Isabella as the monarch
    to sponsor the Columbus expedition in 1492.
  • Columbus was to claim new lands for Spain
  • Spread the Christian religion to those he came in
    contact with
  • Return with new wealth (gold and silver) from
    newly discovered lands
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