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Inclusive Education:


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Title: Inclusive Education:

Inclusive Education
  • Making Rhetoric a Reality in England

In this presentation
  • Problems of nomenclature!
  • Special educational Needs-SEN
  • Inclusion- The making of a legal framework
  • The noughties
  • Research, Reports and recommendations
  • Outcomes -Rhetoric becomes reality?
  • Support and Aspiration A new approach to SEN and
    Disability 2011

Whats in a name?That which we call a rose
would by any other name smell as sweet(Romeo
Juliet II, ii, 1-2) The problems of
nomenclature -special educational needs and
Special Educational Needs -SEN
  • The term Special Educational Needs-SEN is a
    legal definition.Children with a SEN all have
    learning difficulties or disabilities that make
    it harder for them to learn than most children of
    the same age.
  • These children may need extra or different help
    from that given to other children of the same
  • (Reference Code of Practice -Special Educational
    Needs, 2002)

  • Special educational provision
  • means
  • for children of two or over, educational
    provision which is additional to, or otherwise
    different from, the educational provision made
    generally for children of their age in schools
    maintained by the LEA, other than special
    schools, in the area
  • for children under two, educational provision of
    any kind
  • Ref Section 312, Education Act 1996

Children have special educational needs if they
have a learning difficulty which calls for
special educational provision to be made for them.
Children have a learning difficulty if they a)
have a significantly greater difficulty in
learning than the majority of children of
the same age or (b) have a disability which
prevents or hinders them from making use
of educational facilities of a kind
generally provided for children of the same age
in schools within the area of the local
education authority (c) are under
compulsory school age and fall within the
definition at (a) or (b) above or would so do if
special educational provision was not made
for them.
A child is disabled if he is blind, deaf or dumb
or suffers from a mental disorder of any kind or
is substantially and permanently handicapped by
illness, injury or congenital deformity or such
other disability as may be prescribed. Ref
Section 17 (11), Children Act 1989
A person has a disability for the purposes of
this Act if he has a physical or mental
impairment which has a substantial and long-term
adverse effect on his ability to carry out normal
day-to day activities. Ref Section 1(1),
Disability Discrimination Act 1995
  • Special educational needs -SEN discourse
    supports within child deficit assumptions
    (Salt Report, 2010)
  • Educationally subnormal - term not used in UK /
    England after the 1970s
  • Moderate Learning Difficulties-MLD the generic
    term used
  • Retarded or mentally retarded to be removed
    from new edition DSM-5(pending 2012). New term
    learning and cognition needs

Language of meeting needs in England
  • Remedial education
  • Compensatory education
  • Special classes
  • Special treatment
  • The whole school approach
  • Differentiation
  • Integration

  • Integration- child adapting to the host
  • Is politically neutral and infers a model of
    service delivery
  • Gradually assimilating into a structured setting
    or environment
  • The setting is not required to change to meet
    the needs of the child

  • The host adapting in order to meet the needs of
    the child
  • Framed within the ecological paradigm(Mitchell,
  • Has a strong ideological element
  • Reflects a shift in a paradigm from a Needs
    base to a Rights base (Lindsay,2007)

Milestones to inclusion
  • 1970 Handicapped Children Act
  • 1976 Act-Integration
  • 1978 Warnock Report
  • 1981 Education Act
  • 1989 The Children Act
  • UNCROC-UK ratified 1991)
  • 1993 Education Act (Implemented 1994)
  • 1994 Salamanca (Inclusion Philosophy)
  • 1995 Disability Discrimination Act

Milestones to inclusion continued.
  • 1996 Education Act
  • 1998 Human Rights Act
  • 2001 Inclusive school design
  • 2001 Special Educational Needs and Disability Act
    -SENDA Duty (Part 1)
  • 2001Inclusive schooling- Statutory Guidance
  • 2002 SENDA ACT (Part 2) Added responsibility on
    1995 Act)
  • 2002 New Code of Practice for SEN
  • 2004 Children Act

Removing Barriers to Achievement (2004) A shift
in responsibility?
  • Every teacher should expect to teach children
    with special educational needs
  • Every teacher needs to be equipped with skills to
    do so effectively
  • Action to do so would be required at three levels

SPECIALIST SKILLS -in some local schools
ADVANCED SKILLS-some teachers in ALL schools
CORE SKILLS -for ALL teachers in ALL Schools
Reference Removing barriers to Achievement
Developing School workforce SEN skills. DFES
(2004) p 56.
Every Child Matters (2003)
  • Reforms Supported by Children Act (2004)
  • Every child has the right to
  • Be healthy
  • Stay safe
  • Enjoy Achieve
  • Make a positive contribution
  • Achieve economic well-being
  • Partnerships and Trusts established- the child
    is given a voice

The Lamb Enquiry (2009)
  • Reviewed provision of SEN and disability support
  • Established to investigate parental confidence in
    the SEN system of assessment and provision and
    how it might be improved
  • Found a disparity of provision across England
  • Demonstrated that changes can work-10 pilot
    studies in 460 schools in England

Bercow Report (2009)
  • Looked at services and support for students with
    speech, language and communication needs
    -SLCN(age 0-19)
  • 10 months of extensive data gathering found
  • Lack of consistency in provision across Local
    Authorities and Primary Care Trusts
  • Needs not being met for the majority
  • Insufficient understanding / insufficient
    priority given to addressing SLCN
  • Acute shortage of therapists/ teaching staff not
    trained/ no therapy during school holidays

Bercow Report (2009) Outcomes
  • Five key themes identified
  • Communication is crucial
  • Early identification and intervention are
  • A continuum of services designed around the
    family is needed
  • Joint working is crucial
  • The current system is characterized by high
    variability and lack of equity
  • 40 Recommendations made within these five

Rose Report (2009)
  • Identifying and Teaching Children and Young
    People with Dyslexia and Literacy Difficulties
  • As with Lamb review, this found parents had to
    fight for support or assessment
  • Teacher knowledge and sufficient expertise was
  • Language development requires more stringent
  • Insufficient links to INCLUSION DEVELOPMENT

Achievement for all aims (2009)
  • to improve outcomes for all children and young
    people with special educational needs and
    disabilities (SEND)
  • to improve the engagement of parents of children
    and young people with SEND with their school and
  • to improve the wider outcomes of children and
    young people with SEND

Identifying and teaching young children with
dyslexia and literacy difficulties (Rose 2009)
  • Parents had to fight for their childs assessment
    and support
  • Teacher knowledge of dyslexia lacking
  • Provision of support disproportionate across
  • Fundamental change in the approach to providing
    for students with dyslexia and reading
    difficulties needed

Salt Review (2010)
  • Review of Teacher supply for pupils with severe
    learning difficulties(SLD) and profound and
    Multiple Learning difficulties (PMLD)
  • Found.
  • Average age of current staff could mean an exit
    through retirement - workforce potentially a
    serious shortage
  • Expertise sharing between mainstream and special
    schools weak

Outcomes and recommendations
  • Lamb Review (2008)
  • Bercow Review (2009)
  • Rose Review (2009)
  • Achievement for All (2009)
  • Salt Review (2010)

Lamb(2008) Review Outcomes 51
recommendations made parents need to be
listened to 4m set aside to take
recommendations forward Fully funded
NASENCO mandatory course
Bercow Review (2009) Outcomes 52million
allocated to implement recommendations.
(41.2m Every Child a Talker-ECaT-
project) (12m to SLCN up to 2011)
2011 National Year of Speech, Language and
Communication Established communication Trust
Appointment of Jean Gross - A Communication
Champion The Hello Campaign-to increase
understanding of how important it is for
children and young people to develop good
communication skills
Rose (2009
  • 19 recommendations made
  • All accepted, 20million set aside to fund
  • 4000 funded places to train mainstream teachers
    as specialists
  • Share expertise between groups of schools
  • Specialist to Conduct in-house in-service
  • Head teacher and Governors should audit provision
    regularly to ensure needs being met.

Salt (2010) recommendations
  • Aging teacher population-Recruitment and
    retention urgently needed
  • Raise incentives to boost the entry into this
    sector of teaching
  • 28,000 SLD/PMLD pupils in Special schools
  • 9500 included in mainstream schools (England)
  • Remove barriers to qualification-open routes to
    non graduates
  • Strengthen parent choice

Achievement for all (2009)
  • Radical scheme Achievement for all successfully
    piloted in some 500 schools across 10 local
    authorities since launched in 2009
  • Where piloted, it has reduced the number of SEN
    pupils by 10 per cent
  • (Source Director of the scheme Professor Sonia
  • 450,000 children were being wrongly labeled as
    requiring special needs teaching !
  • (Ofsted Report)

May 2010 General Election
  • Change of Government
  • Conservative/Liberal Coalition
  • Change of policy
  • Financial constraintsRecession!

/sen/types The Salt review This page may not
reflect Government policy. More
information.Information and recommendations from
the Salt review, which reviewed the training
needs of teachers looking after children with
severe learning difficulties.General article 21
September 2010 The Bercow Review This page may
not reflect Government policy. More
information. A review of services for children
and young people with speech, language and
communication needs, led by John Bercow
MP. General article 21 September 2010 The Rose
Review This page may not reflect Government
policy. More information. Outcomes and
recommendations from the Rose Review, a report on
the provision of education for children with
dyslexia. General article 21 September 2010 Lamb
Inquiry - SEN and parental confidence This page
may not reflect Government policy. More
information. Information about the Lamb Inquiry,
which was established to identify ways in which
parental confidence in the SEN assessment could
be improved. General article 19 August 2010

Michael Gove cuts special needs register for
children by 170,000(Source Daily Mail March
  • Schools have wrongly labeled too many pupils as
    'special needs' to cover up poor teaching
  • SEN label was introduced under legislation that
    decreed that any pupil with a Greater difficulty
    in learning than the majority of the same age
    had a Special educational Need
  • Currently a fifth of all children in England are
    identified as having SEN - 21 per cent or
    1.7million out of a total school roll of
  • children that are just naughty

What Inclusion studies have shown
  • anything which divides pupils in a school,
    particularly in terms of cognitive abilities, is
    virtually guaranteed to produce school failures
    (Blaug, 2001 pp42-43)

What the research tells us
  • Effects of inclusion are not huge but they are
    positive (Lindsay 2007)
  • Students perform better in regular mainstream
    classes (Baker, Wang Walberg,1994)
  • Effect for students of different achievement
    levels close to zero (Slavin,1993)
  • Students seldom enjoy high levels of acceptance
    in integrated classrooms but social competence
    and academic achievement benefits (Freeman
    Alkin, 2000)

  • is not simply about where a child is taught it
    is about the quality of a childs experience of
    school life, including both the formal and
    informal curriculum, in and beyond the classroom
  • Its a distinctive value position
  • Conceptualizing difference as an issue in the
    schooling of ALL children

Inclusion can be seen as
  • Giving rise to genuinely new forms of practice
  • Concerning the rights of marginalized pupils and
    building a particular sort of inclusive
  • and making a real advance in special
    educational needs.

References Baker,E.T Wang,M.C. Walberg,H.J
(1994) The effects of Inclusion on learning
Educational Leadership December 1994/January
1995, 33-35 Dyson A. Special Needs in the
twenty-first century where weve been been and
where were going. British Journal of Special
Education 28.(1) (March 2001) 24-29. Freeman,
S.F.N. Alkin,M.C (2000) Academic and Social
attainments of children with mental retardation
in general education and special settings
Remedial and Special Education 21 (1),
3-18. Lindsay,G.(2003) Inclusive education a
critical perspective British Journal of Special
Education 30 (1), 3-12 Myklebust,J.O (2006)
Class placement and competence attainment among
students with special educational needs British
Journal of Special Education. Vol 33, No 2
76-81. Blaug,M (2001) What are we going to do
about school leavers? European Journal of
Vocational Training 22. 40-46 Mitchell, D.
(2001). "Paradigm Shifts in and around Special
Education in NewZealand " Cambridge Journal of
Education 31(3) 319-335.
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