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Title: Telecommunications and Networking


1
Telecommunications and Networking
  • MIS 503 - Management Information Systems
  • MBA Program

2
A Significant Underestimation
This telephone has too many shortcomings to be
seriously considered as a means of communication.
the device is inherently of no value to
us. Western Union internal memo, 1876.
3
Telecommunications The Technology
4
AN OVERVIEW OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING
Networking the electronic linking of
geographically dispersed devices
Telecommunications communications (voice and
data) at a distance
Page 97-98
5
What is communication?
  • The Romans used the Latin word communicare when
    they meant "to make common, to share, or to
    impart.
  • Communication is the sharing of information or
    messages between two or more entities.

6
Elements of a Communication System
  • Source - the originator of the message, whether
    it is a person or machine.
  • Transmitter - the equipment that modifies the
    message (either data or voice) into the form
    required for transmission.
  • Communications channel - the means of carrying
    the signal from the source to the destination.

7
Elements of a Communication System
  • Transmission media - may be physical, like a
    copper wire or fiber optic cable, or atmospheric,
    like radio waves.
  • Receiver - is the device that captures the
    message from the communications channel and
    converts it into a form that the person or
    machine at the destination can understand.
  • Destination - the person or machine to whom the
    message is directed

8
Elements of a Communication System
9
KEY ELEMENTS OFTELECOMMUNICATIONS ANDNETWORKING
Analog and Digital Signals
Figure 4.1 Use of Modem in Analog Network
Page 99
10
Types of Signals
  • Analog signal - a continuous fluctuation over
    time between high and low voltage.
  • Digital signal - discrete voltage state - either
    high or low.

11
Transmission Modes
  • Data can flow between telecommunication devices
    in three ways
  • Simplex - the data can flow only in one
    direction.
  • Half-Duplex - the data can flow in both
    directions, but it can only flow in one direction
    at any point in time.
  • Full-Duplex - data can flow in both directions at
    the same time.

12
KEY ELEMENTS OFTELECOMMUNICATIONS ANDNETWORKING
Transmission Media
Typical Speeds
Table 4.2 Telecommunications
Transmission Speeds
Page 101
13
Data Transmission
  • Asynchronous transmission - the data is sent in
    packages of characters, one character at a time.
  • Each character set includes a parity bit
    surrounded by start and stop bits. The parity
    bit is used for error checking.
  • Synchronous transmission - data is sent in
    packages of more than one character at a time
    with each block sandwiched between a header byte
    and a trailer byte, called flags.

14
KEY ELEMENTS OFTELECOMMUNICATIONS ANDNETWORKING
Topology of Networks
Page 106
Figure 4.5 Network
Topologies
15
More Complex Networks
Page 107
Figure 4.6 vBNS Network Map
16
KEY ELEMENTS OFTELECOMMUNICATIONS ANDNETWORKING
Local Area Networks
  • LAN Topologies and Standards
  • Contention bus design IEEE 802.3
  • Token bus design IEEE 802.4
  • Token ring design IEEE 802.5
  • Wireless design IEEE 802.11

Page 109
17
Mesh Topologies
18
KEY ELEMENTS OFTELECOMMUNICATIONS ANDNETWORKING
Types of Networks
  • Backbone network terminology
  • Bridge connects two LANs using same protocol
  • Router (gateway) connects two or more LANs that
    may use different protocols
  • Switch connects more than two LANs using the
    same protocols

Page 113
19
Page 112
Figure 4.11 Sample Backbone Network
20
Microwave and Satellite Transmission
  • A communications satellite is a microwave station
    placed in outer space.
  • Satellites dont bounce the microwave signal
    rather, the signal is received and then
    rebroadcast at a different frequency.
  • Satellites can broadcast over long distances.

21
A Classic Case of MiscalculationIridium
  • Iridium communications
  • Launched November 1, 1998
  • Went into Chapter 11 bankruptcy on August 13,
    1999
  • Why?
  • Miscalculated competition from cellular
  • Development costs were high
  • Prices were too high
  • Technology was awkward and limited
  • The project was mismanaged
  • Visit http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iridium_28sate
    llite29Quotes for more informaiton

22
Other Transmission Options
  • Cellular transmission Well, you know about this
    one

23
Mobile Phone Infrastructure
24
Mobile Phone Generations
  • 1G The first generation of wireless technology
  • used analog communication
  • designed for voice communication
  • 2G The second generation of digital wireless
    technology
  • Uses digital circuit switched transmission
    protocols
  • Capable of providing voice/data/fax transfers,
    albeit at low data rates
  • SMS was introduced in 1994 and became a popular
    tool associated with GSM (Global System for
    Mobile communications)

25
Mobile Phone Generations (cont.)
  • 2.5G Interim wireless technology that has
    greater bandwidth
  • CDMA2000 1x (Code Division Multiple Access) and
    GPRS (general packet radio service)
  • Uses packet switching, which offers high data
    transfer rates (e.g., up to 307 kbit/s) compared
    to the circuit switching of GSM and other 2G
    networks

26
Mobile Phone Generations (cont.)
  • 3G The third generation of digital wireless
    technology
  • For example, UMTS and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO
  • High data transfer rates (2.4Mbit/s)
  • It has the potential to support rich media such
    as video and graphics

27
Mobile Phone Generations (cont.)
  • 4G The next generation of wireless technology
  • Very high data transfer rates (20 Mbps)
  • In the context of mobile phones, it is expected
    to be available by 2010
  • 4G also refers to the integration of mobile
    phones, Wi/Fi networks, and other components of a
    pervasive network

28
WLAN Architecture
29
Wireless Networking Standards
  • 802.11 - IEEEs Radio Frequency Wireless
    networking standard committee.
  • 802.11b - uses direct sequence spread spectrum
    (DSSS) signaling. Also used the 2.4 - 2.4835 GHz
    frequency range and separates it into 14
    overlapping 22-MHz channels.
  • 802.11g - designed to be just as affordable as
    802.11b while increasing its maximum capacity
    from 11 Mbps through different encoding
    techniques.
  • 802.11a - uses multiple frequency bands in the 5
    GHZ range. Like 802.11g, 802.11a provides a
    maximum throughput of 54 Mbps.

30
WIMAX
  • WiMAX is an acronym for Worldwide
    Interoperability for Microwave Access
  • IEEE 802.16d
  • WIMAX improves upon the limitations of Wi-Fi by
    providing increased bandwidth and range and
    stronger encryption
  • Applications
  • An alternative to cable and DSL for last mile
  • Connecting Wi-Fi hotspots
  • high-speed mobile data services

31
Bluetooth
  • A mobile wireless networking standard that uses
    direct sequence spread spectrum (DSS) signaling
    in the 2.4 GHz band to achieve a maximum
    throughput of less than 1 Mbps.
  • Designed to be used on small networks composed of
    personal communications devices, also known as
    personal area networks.

32
Significant Quotes
No sensible man would transact his affairs by a
means of communication such as Bells
telephone. Western Union Board of Directors
letter to shareholders - - October 1876. The
Americans have need of the telephone, but we do
not. We have plenty of messenger boys. Sir
William Preece, chief engineer of the British
Post Office, 1876
33
KEY ELEMENTS OFTELECOMMUNICATIONS ANDNETWORKING
Types of Networks
  • The Internet
  • Network of networks that use the TCP/IP protocol
  • Contain gateways to computers that do not use
    TCP/IP
  • Provides four basic functions
  • Electronic mail
  • Remote login
  • Discussion groups
  • Sharing of data resources

Page 117-118
34
Page 118
Table 4.4 Internet Applications
35
KEY ELEMENTS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING
DSL, Cable Modem, and Satellite
  • Internet access services
  • Digital subscriber line (DSL) service offered
    by telephone companies using copper wire already
    installed in homes moving data over wires
    without disturbing voice traffic
  • Cable modem connection obtained from cable TV
    company using existing home coaxial cable
  • Satellite most expensive, but may be only
    option for customers in rural areas

Page 120
36
KEY ELEMENTS OFTELECOMMUNICATIONS ANDNETWORKING
Intranets
Intranet a network operating within an
organization that uses the TCP/IP protocol
Page 122
37
KEY ELEMENTS OFTELECOMMUNICATIONS ANDNETWORKING
Internet2 not-for-profit consortium of over
200 universities, working with over 60 technology
companies and the U.S. government, to develop and
deploy advanced network applications and
technologies
Page 122
38
KEY ELEMENTS OFTELECOMMUNICATIONS ANDNETWORKING
  • Primary goals of Internet2
  • Create a leading-edge network capability for the
    national research community
  • Enable revolutionary Internet applications based
    on a much higher-performance Internet that we
    have today
  • Ensure the rapid transfer of new network services
    and applications to the broader Internet
    community

Page 123
39
KEY ELEMENTS OFTELECOMMUNICATIONS ANDNETWORKING
Network Protocols
Protocol agreed-upon set of rules governing
communication among layers or levels of a network
Page 124
40
Major Telecommunications Laws
  • Graham Act, 1921
  • Exempted telephone companies from antitrust laws
  • Communications Act of 1934
  • legislation which created the Federal
    Communications Commission
  • ATT Consent Decree of 1956
  • ATT and the US Justice department agree on a
    consent decree to end an antitrust suit against
    ATT in 1949
  • Carterfone Decision of 1968
  • allowed other businesses to attach telephones,
    equipment and business switchboards to the Bell
    network
  • MCI Decision
  • FCC decree in 1969 that granted MCI
    Communications Inc., as well as any other
    company, the right to offer long distance service
    to customers and to connect to ATT's network
  • Modified Final Judgment and Divestiture, 1984
  • Split up the Bell Network
  • The Telecommunications Act of 1996

41
The Telecommunications Act of 1996
  • The Telecommunications Act of 1996 was the first
    major overhaul of United States telecom policy in
    nearly 62 years. The focus of the Act was to
    enhance competition
  • The legislation regulates
  • Broadcasting by over-the-air television and radio
    stations
  • cable television operators
  • satellite broadcasters
  • Wireline telephone companies (local and long
    distance), wireless telephone companies, and
    others.

42
Technology Convergence
43
Voice Over IP (VoIP)
  • The use of packet-switched networks and the
    TCP/IP protocol suite to transmit voice
    conversations.
  • Reasons for implementing VoIP may include
  • To improve business efficiency and
    competitiveness
  • To supply new or enhanced features and
    applications
  • To centralize voice and data network management
  • To improve employee productivity
  • To save money

44
VoIP and IP Telephones
  • Popular features unique to IP telephones include
  • Screens on IP telephones can act as Web browsers,
    allowing a user to open HTTP-encoded pages and,
    for example, click a telephone number link to
    complete a call to that number.
  • IP telephones may connect to a users personal
    digital assistant (PDA) through an infrared port,
    enabling the user to, for example, view his phone
    directory and touch a number on the IP
    telephones LCD screen to call that number.
  • If a line is busy, an IP telephone can offer the
    caller the option to leave an instant message on
    the called partys IP telephone screen.

45
VoIP and Softphones
46
Virtual Organizations
47
Technologies for Virtual Teams
48
Collaboration-Enabling ToolsGroupware
  • Groupware Software products that support
    collaboration, over networks, among groups of
    people who share a common task or goal
  • Provide a way for groups to share resources and
    opinions

49
Collaboration-Enabling Tools Group Decision
Support Systems (GDSS)
  • Virtual meetings Online meetings whose members
    are in different locations, frequently in
    different countries
  • Group decision support system (GDSS) An
    interactive computer-based system that
    facilitates the solution of semistructured and
    unstructured problems by a group of decision
    makers

50
Collaboration-Enabling Tools GDSS (cont.)
  • Major characteristics of a GDSS
  • Its goal is to support the process of group
    decision makers by providing automation of
    subprocesses using information technology tools
  • It is a specially designed information system
  • It encourages generation of ideas, resolution of
    conflicts, and freedom of expression

51
Collaboration-Enabling Tools GDSS (cont.)
  • GDSSs improve the decision-making process by
  • providing structure to the planning process
  • support parallel processing of information and
    idea generation
  • make larger meetings possible

52
Collaboration-Enabling ToolsTeleconferencing
  • Teleconferencing The use of electronic
    communication that allows two or more people at
    different locations to have a simultaneous
    conference
  • Video teleconference Virtual meeting in which
    participants in one location can see participants
    at other locations on a large screen or a desktop
    computer

53
Collaboration-Enabling ToolsTeleconferencing
  • Data conferencing Virtual meeting in which
    geographically dispersed groups work on documents
    together and to exchange computer files during
    videoconferences
  • Web conferencing is conducted on the Internet
  • few as two and as many as thousands of people
  • allows users to simultaneously view something
  • interaction takes place via messaging or a
    simultaneous phone teleconference
  • is much cheaper than videoconferencing because it
    runs on the Internet

54
SharePoint
  • An integrated portfolio of collaboration and
    communication services designed to connect
    people, information, processes, and systems both
    within and beyond the organizational firewall.
    (MS Website)
  • A virtual desktop
  • A collaboration space
  • Shared workspace
  • Communication portal for teams

55
Unique Opportunities
That is the essence of virtualization rather
than simply re-creating in digital form the
physical thing we know as a letter, e-mail
reinvents and vastly enhances letter-writing.
Unbound by barriers of time and space and endowed
with new powers, the electronic letter does
something new altogether. The same sort of thing
happens when business, the arts, or government
are reborn in digital form. John Verity,
Business Week, 1994
56
Looking into the Future
Computers are getting smaller and smaller. You
can expect to have on your wrist tomorrow what
you have on your desk today, what filled a room
yesterday. Nicholas Negroponte , Being Digital
Todays average consumers wear more computing
power on their wrists than existed in the entire
world before 1961. Anonymous
57
Planning for Security and Control
  • In todays net-enabled environment, an
    increasingly important part of IT planning
    involves planning to control and secure the IT
    resource

58
Control Systems
  • The components of control systems are
  • Standards for performance
  • Sensory determination of actual conditions
  • Comparison of standard with actual conditions
  • Compensatory action if the deviation is too great

59
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60
When there are Failures of Control
  • Examples of control breakdowns
  • Worldcom
  • Qwest
  • Global Crossing
  • What caused these? Probably, it was in part the
    reward systems for senior managers that consisted
    of stock options. Managers were rewarded for
    inflating the bottom line.
  • IS has an important role to play in strengthening
    control systems
  • Audits
  • Monitoring
  • Information dissemination
  • Reporting

61
Vulnerability of Systems Where Does Control
Fail?
  • Errors in and intrusion of the operating system
  • Errors in application programs
  • Problems with database security
  • Lack of network reliability and security
  • Problems with adequate control of manual
    procedures
  • Failure of management to maintain proper
    organizational control
  • Open networks and connectivity
  • Misuse or mistakes made by users

62
Control in the Organization Controls can be
created through
  • The structure of the organization
  • Decentralized or centralized
  • Rewards
  • Management committee
  • Budget
  • Direct supervision
  • Routine audits
  • Establish and enforce standards and procedures
  • Develop a plan and policy for managing database
    resources
  • Data Backup/Recovery
  • Data Concurrency Management
  • Data Security

63
Control in the Organization
64
A Key Requirement for Control is Establishing IT
Security
  • Without security, the integrity of organizational
    IT resources will be at risk therefore,
    security is everyones business
  • Security is an increasingly important issue
    because of an increasing number of threats
  • According to the statistics reported to CERT/CC
    over the past several years (CERT/CC 2003) the
    number of cyber attacks grew from approximately
    22,000 in 2000 to 137,529 2003
  • According to the 2004 E-Crime Watch Survey, 43
    of respondents report an increase in e-crimes and
    intrusions versus the previous year and 70
    reported at least one e-crime or intrusion was
    committed against their organization

65
Security Concepts
  • Authentication The process by which one entity
    verifies that another entity is who they claim to
    be
  • Authorization The process that ensures that a
    person has the right to access certain resources
  • Confidentiality Keeping private or sensitive
    information from being disclosed to unauthorized
    individuals, entities, or processes
  • Integrity Being about to protect data from being
    altered or destroyed in an unauthorized or
    accidental manner
  • Confidentiality Keeping private or sensitive
    information from being disclosed to unauthorized
    individuals, entities, or processes
  • Nonrepudiation The ability to limit parties from
    refuting that a legitimate transaction took
    place, usually by means of a signature

66
Types of Threats and Attacks
  • Nontechnical attack An attack that uses
    chicanery to trick people into revealing
    sensitive information or performing actions that
    compromise the security of a network

67
Types of Threats and Attacks (cont.)
  • Social engineering A type of nontechnical attack
    that uses social pressures to trick computer
    users into compromising computer networks to
    which those individuals have access

68
Types of Threats and Attacks (cont.)
  • Multiprong approach used to combat social
    engineering
  • Education and training
  • Policies and procedures
  • Penetration testing

69
Types of Threats and Attacks (cont.)
  • Technical attack An attack perpetrated using
    software and systems knowledge or expertise

70
Types of Threats and Attacks (cont.)
  • Denial-of-service (DoS) attack An attack on a
    Web site in which an attacker uses specialized
    software to send a flood of data packets to the
    target computer with the aim of overloading its
    resources

71
Types of Threats and Attacks (cont.)
  • Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack A
    denial-of-service attack in which the attacker
    gains illegal administrative access to as many
    computers on the Internet as possible and uses
    these multiple computers to send a flood of data
    packets to the target computer

72
Types of Threats and Attacks (cont.)
  • Malware A generic term for malicious software
  • The severity of virus attacks are increasing
    substantially, requiring much more time and money
    to recover
  • 85 of survey respondents said that their
    organizations had been the victims of e-mail
    viruses in 2002

73
Types of Threats and Attacks
  • Malware takes a variety of forms - both pure and
    hybrid
  • Virus A piece of software code that inserts
    itself into a host, including the operating
    systems, to propagate it requires that its host
    program be run to activate it
  • Worm A software program that runs independently,
    consuming the resources of its host in order to
    maintain itself and is capable of propagating a
    complete working version of itself onto another
    machine
  • Macro virus or macro worm A virus or worm that
    is executed when the application object that
    contains the macro is opened or a particular
    procedure is executed
  • Trojan horse A program that appears to have a
    useful function but that contains a hidden
    function that presents a security risk

74
CERT Recommendations for Governing
Organizational Security
  • Questions to ask
  • What is at risk?
  • How much security is enough
  • How should an organization
  • Develop policies on security
  • Achieve and sustain proper security

The CERT recommendations are derived from a
report written by Julia Allen entitled Governing
for Enterprise Security, which may be found at
http//www.cert.org/archive/pdf/05tn023.pdf
75
CERT Recommendations for Governing
Organizational Security
  • What is at risk?
  • Trust that the public has in your organization
  • Reputation and brand
  • Shareholder value
  • Market confidence
  • Regulatory compliance
  • Fines
  • Jail time
  • Market share
  • Customer privacy
  • Ongoing, uninterrupted operations
  • Morale of organizational members

76
CERT Recommendations for Governing
Organizational Security
  • How Much Security is Enough?
  • Managements perspective needs to shift

77
CERT Recommendations for Governing
Organizational Security
  • Good Security Strategy Questions
  • What needs to be protected?
  • Why does it need to be protected?
  • What happens if it is not protected?
  • What potential adverse consequences need to be
    prevented?
  • What will be the cost?
  • How much of a disruption can we stand before we
    take action?
  • How do we effectively manage the residual risk
    when protection and prevention actions are not
    taken?

78
CERT Recommendations for Evolving the Security
Approach
79
CERT Recommendations for Evolving the Security
Approach
80
CERT Recommendations for Evolving the Security
Approach
  • What Does Effective Security Look Like at the
    Enterprise Level?
  • Its no longer solely under ITs control
  • Achievable, measurable objectives are defined and
    included in strategic and operational plans
  • Functions across the organization view security
    as part of their job (e.g., Audit) and are so
    measured
  • Adequate and sustained funding is a given
  • Senior executives visibly sponsor and measure
    this work against defined performance parameters
  • Considered a requirement of being in business
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