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Enhancing Success and Safety in Schools

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Title: Enhancing Success and Safety in Schools


1
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
  • Enhancing Success and Safety in Schools

Teaching Skills for Success
Mission Statement
Function of Behavior
Intervention Strategies
Encouragement Strategies
Code of Conduct
Conflict Resolution
Research
Intermediate Unit I One Intermediate Unit
Drive Coal Center PA 15423-9642 Donna
Whoric 800 328 6481, ext. 238
whoricd_at_iu1.k12.pa.us
2
CODE OF CONDUCT
I participate in class activities. I use my cell
phone for emergency purposes. I share
information with the entire class.

3
Challenge
4

100 YEARS FROM NOW
A Hundred Years From Now ...it will not matter
what my bank account was, the sort of house I
lived in, or the kind of car I drove... but the
world may be different because I was important in
the life of a CHILD.
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
2
5
Objectives
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
1. Participants will understand that appropriate
behaviors must be taught. 2. Participants will
identify key prevention strategies. 3.
Participants will practice intervention
strategies with respect and dignity.
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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6
PREVENTION STATATEGIES
4
7
KWL CHART
Know Want Learned
5
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
8
SYSTEMS OF BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
80-90 of Students
5-15
1-7
Positive Behavior Support,University of Oregon
6
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
9
(No Transcript)
10
Myths or Facts about Discipline?1.
Punishment has power. I can make you.2. Role
bound authority has power. Because Im your
mother.3. Emotional intensity has power.
I really mean it this time.
MYTHS OR FACTS?
Randy Sprick, Safe and Civil Schools
Historical Approach to Discipline
A More Promising Approach to Discipline
ReactiveNegativeExclusionary
ProactivePositiveInstructional
Discipline ?
What is Positive Behavior Support? Process for
understanding the purpose of challenging
behaviors and developing a plan that promotes the
development of new skills while reducing the
individuals need to engage in challenging
behavior. Dunlap, Vaughn, ONeill, 1998
Nothing excuses inappropriate behavior!
7
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
11
Lets Take a Look
Randy Sprick
12
Behavior Support Assumptions
BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ASSUMPTIONS
Assumption 1 There is no place for ridicule or
humiliation of children in the process of
managing behavior. Assumption 2 Inappropriate
behaviors are learned and predictable. Assumption
3 A learners inappropriate behavior is
his/her best effort to be successful in meeting
his/her needs.
Knoster, Timothy A Quick Glance Establishing An
Ecology of Behavior Support in Schools
Pennsylvania Department Education
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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13
PROBLEM BEHAVIORS
List Problem Behaviors
A B C
Antecedent Behavior Consequence
COMMON INTERVENTIONS
List Common Interventions to Inappropriate
Behaviors
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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14
QUESTIONS PAST PRESENT
  • What were the issues in school?
  • Who were the delinquents?
  • What methods were used by students (with each
    other) for conflict resolution?
  • What were the drugs?
  • What were the headlines?
  • What were attitudes towards parents?


Family
Student
School
Peers
Community
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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15
IDENTIFY NEEDS
IDENTIFY BASIC NEEDS OF ALL PEOPLE
IDENTIFY WHAT HAPPENS WHEN NEEDS NOT MET
Abraham Maslow
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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16

BASIC NEEDS
William Glasser The Quality School
Fun
Freedom
Power, Achievement
Belonging
Survival
Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Self-Transcending
Self- Actualization
Esteem
Belongingness
Safety Needs
Physiological
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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17
THE FOUR GOALS OF MISBEHAVIOR
Power
Attention
Lets Fight!
Look at me!
Communication
To Get/To Avoid
Sensory
Leave me alone!
Revenge
Ill get even!
Avoidance
Behavior is a choice!
Rudolf Driekers, Children the Challenge
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
13
18
Knoster, Timothy A Quick Glance Establishing An
Ecology of Behavior Support in Schools
Pennsylvania Department Education .
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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19
THE GOOD NEWS
  • There are many schools that have well-managed
    classrooms and school buildings, regardless of
  • a. size
  • b. socioeconomic influences c. student
    composition
  • d. geographic setting
  • NOT A PRODUCT OF CHANCE!!!!
  • Punishing problem behavior without a school-wide
    system is associated with increased
  • a. aggression
  • b. vandalism
  • c. truancy
  • d. tardiness
  • e. dropouts
  • Mayer Sulzer-Azeroff
  • Approaches that are effective include
  • a. social skills training
  • b. academic/curricular restructuring

Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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20
VIOLENCE PREVENTION
  • Surgeon Generals Report on Youth Violence (2001)
  • Coordinated Social Emotional Learning
    (Greenberg et al., 2003)
  • Center for Study Prevention of Violence (2006)
  • White House Conference on School Violence (2006)
  • Positive, predictable school-wide climate
  • High rates of academic social success
  • Formal social skills instruction
  • Positive active supervision reinforcement
  • Positive adult role models
  • Multi-component, multi-year school-family-communit
    y effort

21
INVITING SCHOOL SUCCESS
  • Discussion
  • Consider your perception of what an inviting
    school would look like. Write down several
    specific aspects to discuss i n your group.
  • Reflect on your experiences of the past few days.
    Identify any that you would classify as inviting
    or disinviting.
  • Pretend that you are a visitor to your school.
    After being in the building for 15 minutes, what
    initial impression do you think you would have of
    your school? What caused those perceptions?
  • Describe the characteristics of a student-teacher
    relationship that reflects mutual respect. What
    are specific ways to enhance this kind of
    relationship?
  • Purkey, William, Inviting School Success

Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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22
CODE OF CONDUCT

CODE OF CONDUCT
17
23
(No Transcript)
24
THE CODE OF CONDUCT
The Code of Conduct
1. I am responsible. 2. I am safe. 3. I am
respectful.
___Created by teacher and students. ___Written in
the first person. ___Identifies the appropriate
behavior. ___Taught to students. ___Used for
self-evaluation ___Reviewed daily/weekly. ___Disp
layed in the classroom. ___Sent to parents.
Albert, Linda Cooperative Discipline Positive
Behavior Support,University of Oregon
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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25
Panther PRIDE
  • P Preparation
  • R Respect
  • I Integrity
  • D Dedication
  • E - Excellence

26
P.A.W.S.
  • ________________was caught following the
  • P.A.W.S. guidelines.
  • P Please listen
  • A Always be prepared
  • W Work/act responsibly
  • S Show respect
  • Caught by ________________

27
T-CHART
Code I am responsible Skill Put away materials
1. Materials on shelves 2. Labeled items 3. Turn
taking 4. Clean area 5. Check-list/pictures of
materials
Looks like
Sounds like
1. Excuse me 2. Good job! 3. Quiet voices 4.
Its my turn 5. I know where it is!
Code I am respectful Skill Hand raising
Sounds like
Looks like
1. Hand raised in air 2. Seat on seat 3. Feet on
floor 4. Material on desk 5. Pleasant
expressions
1. Student asking/answering 2. Teacher
asking/answering 3. Nice hand raising! 4.
Smiles 5. One person talking at a time
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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PROCEDURES/ROUTINES
  • Examples
  • attendance/tardiness procedures
  • heading papers
  • assigning and collecting work
  • homework
  • procedures for when there are classroom visitors
  • transitioning individual to group work
  • lining up
  • attention signal
  • sharpening pencils
  • organizing desks/workspace
  • restroom breaks
  • preparing for and returning from recess/assembly
  • requesting assistance
  • Additional

Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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T-CHART
Code Skill
Looks like
Sounds like

Positive Behavior Support,University of Oregon
21
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
30
THE EFFECTIVE TEACHER
THREE CHARACTERISTICS
  • Positive Expectations

  • Classroom
  • Management
  • Mastery
  • Teaching
  • How do positive expectations impact your role?

Harry Wong, The First Days of Schools
22
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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Lets Take a Look
Harry Wong
32
CLASS MEETINGS

23
33
THE CLASS MEETING
THE BASICS
___Personal reflection. ___Signal for
quiet. ___Partner talk. ___Whole group
discussion. ___Close the meeting.
___Form a circle. ___Agenda setting. ___Set the
code. ___Select partners. ___Pose the
problem/question.
WAYS TO CLOSE A CLASS MEETING
1. Review If the meeting produced an agreement,
review it. 2. Round the horn Lets go around
for final, brief comments you may pass if you
wish. 3. Remembering Whats something
somebody said that you thought was a good point,
even if you didnt agree with it? Take a moment
to think . . .then share. 4. Learning Think
of something you learned from todays meeting . .
. Then go around, or ask for volunteers. 5.
Questions Whats a question thats still on
your mind? 6. Complete the sentence Invite
all to complete a sentence starter (e.g., At
the end of this meeting, I think . . . or, I
feel . . . or, I hope . . .). 7. Partners
Students respond to any of the above, then share
it with their class meeting partner (or change
partners). 8. Future topics Suggested topics
for our next meeting? 9. Silence Take a
minute to think about todays meeting . . . a new
idea you got . . . something youll do
differently as a result of our discussion .. .
Write it down or just keep it in mind. 10.
Evaluation What did you like about todays
meeting? What made it a good discussion? What
could we do better or differently next
time? Thomas Lickona, Educating for
Character
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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THE CLASS MEETING
CLASS MEETING EVALUATION
1. Circle the word that best describes this
class meeting
Excellent Very Good Good Fair
Poor 2. Circle the word that describes
what you think of this meeting
Wow So-so Yuk 3. Complete these
sentences a. This class meeting
was ______________________________________________
__________________ b. In our meeting we
decided _________________________________________
_______________________ c. I helped this
meeting by _______________________________________
_________________________ d. I think the class
meetings have helped _____________________________
___________________________________ e. Since
we have class meetings, people have ______________
__________________________________________________
f. Our class meeting would be better
if ______________________________________________
__________________
Thomas Lickona, Educating for Character
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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35
THE CLASS MEETING
Thomas Lickona, Educating for Character
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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36
ENCOURAGEMENT
STRATEGIES

26
37
THE 3c OF ENCOURAGEMENT
  • Confidence Builders
  • Acknowledge Achievement
  • Learning is Tangible
  • Make Mistakes O.K.
  • Success-Revisit It
  • Acceptance
  • Attention
  • Appreciation
  • Affirmation
  • Affection
  • Students
  • The Class
  • The School
  • The Community
  • The Environment
  • The World
  • Capable
  • Connected
  • Contributing

Linda Albert, Cooperative Discipline
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
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READING ABOUT THE 5 As
Read 5 As Article

Linda Albert, Cooperative Discipline
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I

39
APPLYING THE 3 Cs
Time
CONTRIBUTING
CONNECTED
CAPABLE

Linda Albert, Cooperative Discipline
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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MISSION STATEMENT
  • A Mission Statement should be that statement
    which says and documents what is most important
    to you, and guides your interactions with
    students, parents, staff, and community members.
  • The mission statement also reflects your core
    values.
  • It does not reflect the environment around you
    because that will change.
  • It directs all your actions and reactions in a
    changing work environment.
  • It is also the standard that you evaluate your
    daily performance.

Adapted from Steven R. Covey, The 7 Habits of
Highly Effective People
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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Lets Take a Look
Mr. Hollands Opus
42
INTERVENTION
STRATEGIES
What am I going to do with th
is kid?
30
43
DATA COLLECTION

31
44
ABC Chart
Name______________________Dates ________ Setting
___________________________________
Time Antecedent
Behavior Consequence
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
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FUNCTION OF BEHAVIOR

Attention Power Avoidance Revenge Communication Se
nsory
33
46
THE FOUR GOALS OF MISBEHAVIOR
Look at me!
Lets Fight!
Leave me alone!
Ill get even!
Mistaken Goal Chart
What do I usually do? (Clue 2) Remind, nag,
scold, rescue Fight back, give in Retaliate,
punish severely, withdraw Give up trying, refer
student
What does the student do? (Clue 3) Stops
temporarily Continues, stops on own
terms, Continues, intensifies, stops on own
terms Continues avoiding tasks
Goal Attention Power Revenge Avo
idance of Failure
How do I feel? (Clue 1) Irritated,
annoyed Angry, frustrated Anger, hurt,
disappointed, sense of dislike Professional
concern, frustration
Whats the student message? Look at
me! Lets fight Ill get
even! Leave me alone.
Linda Albert, Cooperative Discipline
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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ATTENTION

35
48

ATTENTION
Describe the students attention seeking behavior
Antecedent Behavior Consequence ________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________
Prevention
Intervention
Linda Albert, Cooperative Discipline
36
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
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ATTENTION

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
Notice Appropriate Behavior ___Use proximity
praise. ___Use compliance praise. ___Make
recordings. ___Give a standing ovation. Clarify
Desired Behavior ___Use when-then
statements. ___Use target-stop-do. Legitimize
the Behavior ___Create a lesson. ___Go the
distance. ___Have the class join in. ___Use a
diminishing quota. Do the Unexpected ___Turn out
the lights. ___Play a musical sound. ___Lower
your voice. ___Change your voice. ___Talk to the
wall. ___Use one-liners. ___Cease teaching
briefly. Distract the Student ___Ask a direct
question. ___Ask a favor. ___Give
choices. ___Change the activity. Minimize the
Attention ___Refuse to respond. ___Give The
Eye. ___Stand close by. ___Use name
dropping. ___Send a general signal. ___Send a
secret signal. ___Give written notice. ___Use an
I message. ___Consider seating arrangement.
Linda Albert, Cooperative Discipline
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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ATTENTION INTERVENTION
  • Component Skills
  • Moving
  • Scanning
  • Encouraging
  • Proximity praise with follow-up
  • Characteristics of Effective Attention
  • Be sincere
  • Use eye contact
  • Make it descriptive
  • Vary the statements

Research Before grade 3 Attention for
appropriate behaviors is evident. Beginning
grade 3 More attention for inappropriate
behavior
38
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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STOP AND THINK
  • Is there a problem?
  • 2. Make a decision.
  • Is it a Good choice or Poor choice?
  • 3. Determine steps.
  • Steps to Good Choices
  • 1.___________________________
  • 2. .__________________________
  • 3.___________________________
  • 4. Implement choices.
  • Just Do It!
  • 5. Evaluate.
  • How did I do?
  • .___________________________
  • .___________________________

George M. Batsche, University of South Florida
39
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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POWER AND REVENGE

40
53
DEESCALATION STRATEGIES
41
54
DEESCALATION STRATEGIES
FIVE GUIDELINES TO AVOID AND DEFUSE CONFRONTATIONS
1. Focus on the behavior, not the student.
2. Take charge of negative emotions. 3. Avoid
escalating the situations. 4. Discuss the
misbehavior later. 5. Allow
students to save face.
PERSONAL SPACE
  • Respectful
  • Safe
  • Nonthreatening

STOP
PARAVERBALCOMMUNICATION
  • Tone
  • Volume
  • Rate

BODY LANGUAGE
  • Theirs
  • Yours

Nonviolent Crisis Intervention
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
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GRACEFUL EXITS
  • State the message. Go!
  • 1. ACKNOWLEDGE STUDENTS POWER
  • A student refuses to complete an assignment.
    Teacher responds, I cant make you do the work,
    you have the assignment-it is your choice. The
    expectation has not changed though the teacher
    has chosen not to fuel the confrontation and
    create a power struggle.
  • 2. REMOVE THE AUDIENCE
  • When a student demonstrates inappropriate
    behavior which does not require immediate action
    from the teacher, the intervention can be to
    remove the audience's attention. The teacher can
    make an important announcement or begin a new
    activity to redirect the attention of the class
    from the student.
  • 3. TABLE THE MATTER
  • A student has chosen to push our buttons. To
    deescalate the situation, the teacher may respond
    by discussing the matter at a later time or using
    the gripe box in the classroom. The student is
    directed to write the complaint and place it in
    the talk box.
  • 4. SCHEDULE A CONFERENCE
  • Keep a clipboard handy with the time available
    for student conferences. When a student begins to
    challenge you, indicate that he may sign-up for a
    conference to discuss the issue.

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Unit I
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GRACEFUL EXITS
5. AGREE WITH THE STUDENT A student states
that you are the worst teacher. The teacher
responds, You may be right, now lets begin
the lesson. The student will realize that
he is not able to engage the
teacher in a power struggle that the teacher
refuses to join. 6. CHANGE THE SUBJECT
We can respond to verbal attacks by changing the
subject. The student realizes the
teacher will not argue with him. This does not
condone the behavior our goal is to end
the misbehavior-and seek solutions later. 7.
STATE BOTH VIEWPOINTS The outline for this
technique is To you_______, to me_______. For
example, To you the science experiment
seems foolish, to me it is an important
concept that you need to know. If the student
continues to argue, specify the
difference between understanding and agreeing.
The student does not have to agree with
our viewpoint-that would extend the
power issue. 8. REFUSE RESPONSIBILITY
When a student provides excuses for not meeting
expectations, a comment such as, I know
you can figure it out or You are able to
complete the assignment does not provide
the student with additional justification to
argue. 9. DODGE IRRELEVANT ISSUES A
student may begin arguing about an assignment and
then include relevant issues to confuse
the situation. Use a simple response, such as,
That is not the issue, the issue is
________. 10. DELIVER A CLOSING STATEMENT
his technique uses one-line statements to
indicate to the student that the
confrontation has ended for us. Sarcasm is not
acceptable. An example is Youve
mistaken me for someone who wants to
argue.
Linda Albert, Cooperative Discipline
44
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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GRACEFUL EXITS
1.I dont know why I have to be in this dumb
class anyway. ____________________________________
____________________ Graceful exit_______________
___
2. Youre the worst math teacher Ive ever
had. ____________________________ ________________
____________
Graceful exit__________________
3. Who ever told you that you knew how to coach?
4. I cant learn anything the way you teach!
__________________________________________________
____
__________________________________________________
____
Graceful exit__________________
Graceful exit__________________
5. This sucks.
6.I cant wait for the bell to ring. This place
is driving me nuts!
__________________________________________________
__
__________________________________________________

Graceful exit__________________
Graceful exit__________________
7. Who needs to learn this stuff anyway?
8. You cant make me do this.
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
Graceful exit__________________
Graceful exit__________________
9. Youre not being fairno one else gives so
much work. ____________________________ _________
__________________ Graceful exit ___________
10. I told you I am not staying after class.
____________________________ _____________________
______
Graceful exit__________________
45
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
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POWER
UNDERSTANDING-NOT EXCUSING THE HOSTILITY CYCLE
Student Impulsive, Acting-Out, Refusal to
Cooperate (Has a hostile world
view)
Teacher Feels attacked
(Fight-flight, accepts challenge)
Teacher Feels more threatened (More fight or
flight)
Student Accepts challenge from Hostile Adult
(Increased Rage
LAAD ENDING THE HOSTILITY CYCLE
L Listening You are upset, Ill respect
that. This requires that the person receiving
the message (teacher) hears the content and mood
of the student and calmly restates that
understanding to the student. A Acknowledging
I hear you saying that you are not planning to
do what was asked. Did I hear you correctly?
Acknowledge by verbal response or a head nod that
you heard the student and redirect attention back
to the lesson. A Agreeing You are right, I
cannot make you do things. The real question is
whether you will make yourself do it. This is
very powerful because it shifts the
responsibility back to the student. D
Deferring I am not sure why you said that in
front of the class, lets talk after class.
This option provides time to talk-without an
audience.
Richard Curwin, Allen Mendller, Discipline with
Dignity
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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THE FOUR Rs OF PUNISHMENT
RESENTMENT REVENGE REBELLION RETREAT
  • People adapt to punishment-needs to be more
    severe each time to be effective (can become
    neutral So what?or even reinforcing).
  • Punishment can lead to lying, sneaking,
    aggression toward others, avoidance or escape
    behavior, or the substitution of other behaviors.
  • Punishment often works only while punisher is
    present or during those exact conditions, and
    for a limited amount of time.
  • Inconsistency, variability, and delay between
    behavior and punishment decreases effectiveness.
  • Alternative Teach strengthen acceptable
    behavior
  • rather than attempting to punish unacceptable
    behavior.

SOME PEOPLE BELIEVE THAT IN ORDER TO MAKE A
CHILD BE GOODYOU MUST MAKE HIM FEEL BAD.
Becky Bailey, Theres Got To Be A Better Way,
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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SETTING LIMITS
THE KEYS TO SETTING LIMITS
  • Explain exactly which behavior is inappropriate.
    Do not assume that the student knows which
    behavior is unacceptable. Be specific.
  • Explain why the behavior is inappropriate. Do
    not assume the student knows why the behavior is
    unacceptable.
  • Give reasonable choices and consequences.
    Present them in a positive context.
  • Allow time. If you do not allow time, it may be
    perceived as an ultimatum and the situation will
    escalate.
  • 5. Enforce the consequences. Limits are most
    effective as a teaching tool when the
    consequences are followed through.

KISS
Keep it simple, sweetie!
How to Set Verbal Limits, Crisis Prevention
Intervention
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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CONFLICT RESOLUTION
1. Define the Problem

2. Describe the Feelings

3. Declare the Needs

4. Discuss and Evaluate
Potential Solutions Advantages
Disadvantages 5. Decide on a Plan
6. Determine
Effectiveness Signatures Date Review
Date
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
Unit I
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REDIRECTING
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ADDITIONAL INTERVENTIONS
WHEEL OF CHOICE
Count to ten and cool off
Apologize
Ignore
Ask if there is a problem
Tell them to stop
Select another activity
I
Use an I message
Walk away
Try at least two, in case of an emergency, get an
adult.
Jane Nelsen, Positive Discipline
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
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ADDITIONAL INTERVENTIONS
CONSEQUENCES AND SOLUTIONS ___Reasonable ___Relate
d ___Respectful ___Reliably Enforced ___Helpful
Solutions Advantage
Disadvantage ______________________________
______ ____________________________________
___Reteach Appropriate Behavior
___Code of Conduct ___T-Chart
___Procedures/Routines ___Role Play
___Modeling by teacher/peers
The Rs of RECOVERY ___Recognize the mistake
with responsibility instead
of blame. ___Reconcile by apologizing to
those offended or hurt. ___Resolve the problem,
when possible, by working
together on a solution.
I MESSAGES I Feel When Because.. What I
need is
Jane Nelsen, Positive Discipline
52
Donna Whoric, Behavior Consultant, Intermediate
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POWER HIERARCHY
Begin with the Least Intrusive Intervention, if
necessary, proceed on the continuum. As you
intervene with Power behaviors, employ the
deescalation techniques to maintain the dignity
of all. Least Intrusive Strategies First
Options __Planned Ignoring __Acknowledge
Appropriate Behavior __Proximity
Praise __Use Compliance Praise __Make
Recordings (Posting of Positive
Behaviors) __Give A Standing Ovation __Review
Code of Conduct Successful intervention, no
immediate action needed. Later, follow COPING
during Therapeutic Rapport (CPI) If intervention
not successful, Second Options Graceful
Exits (Albert) __Acknowledge Student
Power __Remove The Audience (their focus on the
student) __Schedule A Conference __Agree
With The Student __Change The Subject
__State Both Viewpoints __Refuse
Responsibility __Dodge Irrelevant Issues
__Deliver A Closing Statement __Take Teacher
Time-Out Successful intervention, no immediate
action needed. Later, follow COPING during
Therapeutic Rapport (NCI).
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POWER HIERARCHY
If intervention not successful, __Choose
another graceful exit Successful intervention,
no immediate action needed. Later, follow COPING
during Therapeutic Rapport (CPI) If intervention
not successful, Third Options __Use an I
message (Curwin and Mendler)
When________I feel________because________
So, what I need is________. __Active
Listening (LAAD) Successful intervention, no
immediate action needed. Later, follow COPING
during Therapeutic Rapport (CPI) If intervention
not successful, Fourth Options __Set Limits
(NCI) __Clear __Enforceable
__Reasonable __Use when-then statements (NCI)
" When you have _______, then you may
___________." __Give Limited Choices
(Nelsen) __Wheel of Choice (Nelsen) __The
Four Rs of Solutions (Nelsen)
__Related-the solution is related to the
behavior __Respectful-respect and dignity
is maintained __Reasonable-not adding
punishment __Revealed-students know
solutions in advance __Positive Time-Out
(Nelsen) __Ask the student if they need time to
chill to feel better so that he/she will
behave better __Use the Language of Choice
(Albert) __"You may sit quietly and not
disturb instruction, or you may
___________. You decide."
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POWER HIERARCHY
Conflict Resolution (Albert) __Define the
Problem __Describe the feelings __Declare the
needs __Discuss/evaluate solutions __Decide
on a plan __Determine effectiveness __The Rs
of Recovery (Nelsen) __Recognize the mistake
with responsibility/not blame __Reconcile by
apologizing those offended or hurt __Resolve
the problem, work on a solution Successful
intervention, no immediate action
needed. Following, use COPING during Therapeutic
Rapport (NCI). If intervention is not
successful, and instruction can not
continue Fifth Options __Student is
directed to go to _____. __If student refuses,
the audience is removed to designated
area. __Student remains in class with
teacher or other staff __ Following, use
COPING during therapeutic Rapport (CPI)
__Employ previously stated consequences. La
st Resort Most Intrusive __If the student
becomes physically acting out at any time
and is a danger to himself, students, or staff,
NCI physical interventions are used by the
team trained and certified by Nonviolent
Crisis Intervention
to ensure the care, welfare,
and safety of all.
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AVOIDANCE

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69


AVOIDANCE OF FAILURE

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
Modify Instructional Methods ___Use concrete
learning materials. ___Use computer-based
instruction. ___Teach one step at a
time. ___Teach to the seven intelligences.
Encourage Positive Self-Talk ___Post positive
classroom signs. ___Require two put-ups for
every put-down. ___Encourage positive
self-talk before tasks. Reframe the I
Cant Refrain ___State your belief in students
abilities. ___Stage an I cant
funeral. ___Teach students to set goals. Teach
Procedures For Becoming Unstuck ___Brainstorm
ask-for-help gambits. ___Use sequence
charts. ___Provide tutoring.
Linda Albert, Cooperative Discipline
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ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

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71
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT Enhancing
Success and Safety in Schools
PREVENTION STRATEGIES
_______________________________________________
________________ ________________________________
_______________________________
_________________________________________________
______________ __________________________________
_____________________________ ___________________
____________________________________________
EDUCATORS MISSION STATEMENT
THE CODE OF CONDUCT
THE CLASS MEETING
___created by teacher and students. ___written in
the first person. ___identifies the appropriate
behavior. ___taught to students. ___used for
self-evaluation ___reviewed daily/weekly. ___disp
layed in the classroom. ___sent to parents.
___Form a circle. ___Agenda setting. ___Set the
code. ___Select partners. ___Pose the
problem/question. ___Personal reflection. ___Sign
al for quiet. ___Partner talk. ___Whole group
discussion. ___Close the meeting.
ENCOURAGEMENT STRATEGIES
HELP STUDENTS FEEL CAPABLE
Make Mistakes Okay ___Talk about
mistakes. ___Equate mistakes with
effort. ___Minimize mistakes effects. ___Plan
for the future. Build Confidence ___Focus on
improvement. ___Notice Contributions. ___Build on
strengths. ___Show faith in students. ___Acknowled
ge a tasks difficulty. ___Limit time on
difficult tasks. Focus On Past Successes ___Analyz
e past success. ___Repeat past success.
Make Learning Tangible ___I-Can
cans. ___Accomplishment albums. ___Checklists of
skills. ___Flowchart of concepts. ___Talks about
yesterday, today and tomorrow.
___Organize materials, use subject
folders. Recognize Achievement ___Select good
citizen for the day/wk/mo. ___Applause and
assemblies. ___Exhibits. ___Acknowledge student
progress o parent.
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HELP STUDENTS CONNECT
Attention ___Greet students. ___Listen to
students. ___Teach students to ask for
attention. ___Spend time chatting. ___Talk about
life outside of school. ___Mention previous
conversations. ___Eat with students. ___Attend
school events. ___Complete a project with
students. ___Schedule individual
conferences. ___Join students on the
playground. ___Chaperon school events. ___Recogniz
e birthdays. ___Maker baby-picture bulletin
boards. ___Send cards, messages to
students. ___Show interest in students
hobbies. ___Develop a coat of arms. ___Compile a
class directory. ___Establish pen pals (e-mail,
fax).
Acceptance ___Accept students cultural
differences. ___Accept students with
disabilities. ___Accept students personal
style. ___Accept the doer, not the deed.
___Celebrate diversity.
Appreciation ___Appreciate the deed, not the
doer. ___Use three-part appreciation
statements. ___Give written words of
appreciation. ___Teach students to give
appreciation. Affirmation ___Be specific affirm
the doer, not the deed. ___Be enthusiastic. ___Ack
nowledge positive traits verbally and in
writing, ___Teach students to be talent scouts
look for positive character
traits. Affection ___Give affection with no
strings attached. ___Demonstrate care when things
are difficult. ___Show kindness, and it will
multiply and be returned. ___Show
friendship. ___Use high fives and handshakes.
HELP STUDENTS CONTRIBUTE
Class ___Involve students in building the
learning environment. ___Invite
students help in daily tasks. ___Request
students curriculum choices. ___Designate class
liaisons. ___Conduct class meetings. ___Delegate
responsibility for specific functions. ___Be a
positive role model. School ___Create a Three
C-Team to build a school-wide
community. ___Schedule work service
periods. ___Establish a catch them being good
patrol. ___Complete special projects via an
integrated curriculum. ___Recruit and
train students as playground peer coaches.
Community ___Adopt a health care center. ___Adopt
a zoo animal. ___Contribute to community
drives. ___Promote volunteerism.. ___Acknowledge
random acts of kindness. ___Visit, fax,
write, or e-mail residents in nursing
homes
Environment ___Join and support worthy
cause. ___Participate in school and
community recycling, cleanup
campaigns. ___Establish information/help
centers for school and community.
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HELP STUDENTS CONTRIBUTE

Other Students ___Create a circle of
friends. ___Establish peer tutoring. ___Use
students as cross-age tutors.
___Be a peer mediator. ___Teach peer
recognition. ___Participate as a study buddy.
INTERVENTION STRATEGIES
ATTENTION-SEEKING
Notice Appropriate Behavior ___Use proximity
praise. ___Use compliance praise. ___Make
recordings. ___Give a standing ovation. Clarify
Desired Behavior ___Use when-then
statements. ___Use target-stop-do. Legitimize
the Behavior ___Create a lesson. ___Go the
distance. ___Have the class join in. ___Use a
diminishing quota. Do the Unexpected ___Turn out
the lights. ___Play a musical sound. ___Lower
your voice. ___Change your voice. ___Talk to the
wall.
___Use one-liners. ___Cease teaching briefly.
Distract the Student ___Ask a direct
question. ___Ask a favor. ___Give
choices. ___Change the activity.
Minimize the Attention ___Refuse to
respond. ___Give The Eye. ___Stand close
by. ___Use name dropping. ___Send a general
signal. ___Send a secret signal. ___Give written
notice. ___Use an I message. ___Consider
seating arrangement.
AVOIDANCE OF FAILURE
Modify Instructional Methods ___Use concrete
learning materials. ___Use computer-based
instruction. ___Teach one step at a
time. ___Teach to the seven intelligences.
Encourage Positive Self-Talk ___Post positive
classroom signs. ___Require two put-ups for
every put-down. ___Encourage positive
self-talk before tasks.
Reframe the I Cant Refrain ___State your
belief in students abilities. ___Stage an I
cant funeral. ___Teach students to set goals.
Teach Procedures For Becoming Unstuck ___Brainsto
rm ask-for-help gambits. ___Use sequence
charts. ___Provide tutoring.
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DEESCALATION STRATEGIES ___Revisit belief
system ___Focus on the behavior-not the
student ___Focus on the present ___Control
negative emotions ___Discuss misbehavior
later ___Allow students to save face ___Proxemics
(personal space) ___Kinesics (body
language) ___Paraverbal communication ___Tone _
__Volume ___Rate
POWER AND REVENGE


GRACEFUL EXITS ___Acknowledge student's power
___Table the matter ___Remove the
audience ___Schedule a conference ___Agree with
the student ___Change the subject ___State both
viewpoints ___Refuse responsibility ___Dodge
irrelevant issues ___Deliver a closing
statement ___Take teacher time-out
6 Ds of CONFLICT RESOLUTION ___Define the
problem ___Describe the feelings ___Declare the
needs ___Discuss/evaluate solutions ___Decide on
a plan ___Determine effectiveness
CONSEQUENCES AND SOLUTIONS ___Reasonable ___Relate
d ___Respectful ___Reliably Enforced ___Helpful
Solutions Advantage
Disadvantage ___Reteach Appropriate
Behavior ___Code of Conduct ___T-Chart ___Proc
edures/Routines ___Role Play ___Modeling by
teacher/peers
3 Rs of RECOVERY ___Recognize the mistake with
responsibility instead of
blame. ___Reconcile by apologizing to
those offended or hurt. ___Resolve the problem,
when possible, by working
together on a solution.
ENDING THE HOSTILITY CYCLE ___Listening
Calmly restate understanding that
the student is upset. ___Acknowledging
Acknowledge that student is heard and
redirect back to the lesson. ___
Agreeing
Agree with the student -keep
responsibility with the
student. ___Deferring Talk later-without an
audience.
ADDITIONAL INTERVENTIONS ___Wheel of
Choice. ___Set limits. ___Student
Conference. ___Student-directed plan. ___
I messages. ___Active listening. ___Team
directed plan. ___Language of choice.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
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(Eds.), Communicative approaches to the
management of challenging behaviors (pp.
363-406).Baltimore Paul H. Brookes. Bailey,
J.S., Pyles,D.A.M. (1989). Behavioral
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Pennsylvania Department of Education, Bureau
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(1998). Designing positive behavior support
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77

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Morelli-Robbins, M. (1993). Issues in
providing training to achieve comprehensive
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(Eds.), Communicative approaches to the
management of challenging behaviors (pp.
363-406).Baltimore Paul H. Brookes. Bailey,
J.S., Pyles,D.A.M. (1989). Behavioral
diagnostics. In E. Cipani (Ed.), The treatment
of severe behavior disorders behavior
analysis approaches (pp. 85-107). Washington,
D.C. American Association on Mental
Retardation. Bambara, L., Knoster, T. (1996).
Guidelines on effective behavioral support.
Pennsylvania Department of Education, Bureau
of Special Education. Bambara, L., Knoster, T.
(1998). Designing positive behavior support
plans. Washington, D.C.American Association on
Mental Retardation. Bambara, L., Knoster T.,
Lengyel, L., Krueger, J. (1995). A five step
planning process to design and deliver an
effective behavioral support plan. Instructional
Support System of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania
Department of Education. Bellanca, J.,
Fogarty, R. (1991). Blueprints for thinking in
the cooperative classroom. Palatine, IL
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(1974). Teacher-student relationships causes and
consequences. New York Holt, Rinehart, and
Winston. Carr, E.G., Levin, L., McConnachie, G.,
Carlson, J.I., Kemp, D.C., Smith, C.E. (1994).
Communication based intervention for problem
behavior A years guide for producing
positive change. Baltimore Paul H.
Brookes. Center for Systemic Educational Change.
(1996). (videotape). Creating caring communities
A responsive classroom for urban children.
District of Columbia Public Schools. Colvin, G.,
Sugai, G. (1988). Proactive strategies for
managing social behavior problems An
instructional approach. Education and treatment
of children, 11, 341-348. Curwin, R.L.
Mendler, A.N. (1988). Discipline with dignity ,
Reston, VA Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development. Dadson, S., Horner,
R.H. (1993). Setting events. Teaching exceptional
children, 25 53-55. Donnellan, A.M., LaVigna,
G.W., Negri-Shoultz, N., Fassbender, L.L.
(1988). Progress without punishment. New York
Teachers College Press. Donnellan, A.M.,
Mirenda, P.L., Mesaros, R.A., Passbender, L.L.
(1984). Analyzing the communicative functions of
aberrant behavior. Journal of the association for
persons with severe handicaps, 9, 201-212.
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