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Alabama Extended Standards, Kindergarten - Grade 6


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Title: Alabama Extended Standards, Kindergarten - Grade 6

Alabama Extended Standards, Kindergarten - Grade
  • DaLee Chambers, Ph.D.
  • Alabama Department of Education
  • July, 2011

  • Reproductions of the slides and/or information
    from the slides in this PowerPoint related to
    Alabama Extended Standards,
  • Kindergarten - Grade 6should be credited to
  • Alabama Department of Education,
  • Special Education Services
  • P.O. Box 302101
  • Montgomery, AL 36130
  • 334.242.8114

Students learn when the teacher knows
  • What a teacher knows and does influences what a
    student learns
  • Teachers content knowledge determines not only
    what a teacher teaches, but also how.
  • National Staff Development Council,

QA Extended Standards
  • Click on Sections
  • Click on Special Education
  • Click on Standards
  • Select QA - Alabama Extended Standards.pdf

Alabama Alternate Assessment
  • Reading Grades 3-8, 11
  • Mathematics Grades 3-8, 11
  • Science Grades 5, 7, 11

Alabama Alternate Assessment
  • Alignment determined.
  • Complexity Points awarded based on the
    complexity of the extended standard
  • Level of Support Points awarded based on the
    level of assistance (Independently, with
    Prompting, with Support)
  • Content Mastery
  • 0 points for 0-24 mastery
  • 1 point for 25-49 mastery
  • 2 points for 50-74 mastery
  • 3 points for 75-100 mastery
  • Assessment and Accountability, ALSDE, Regional
  • Workshops, Fall 2007

Level of Support
  • Independently-the student performs the task
    without prompting or support. The cognition of
    the task is performed entirely by the student.
  • Prompting-the student is provided cues by the
    teacher or aide (oral cues, repeat or additional
    directions, and/or gestures that initiate or
    sustain a task). The cognition of the task is
    performed entirely by the student.
  • Support-the student receives direct instruction
    to achieve the skill. The cognition of the task
    is not performed by the student alone however,
    the task is not completed by the teacher. This
    assistance is more than prompting.
  • Assessment and Accountability, ALSDE, Alabama
    Alternate Assessment Making a Connection Workshop
    Handout, Fall 2009

Types of Evidence
  • Written Performance Summary
  • Worksheet/Teacher Test
  • Work Sample
  • Photograph(s) (with captions/written summary)
  • Audio (5 minutes or less with word for word
  • Video (5 minutes or less with word for word

Written Performance Summary
  • Explain exactly what occurred
  • What books?
  • What problems?
  • What materials/computer programs/games?
  • What questions?

Written Performance Summary
  • Describe exactly what happened
  • Expectations for success.
  • What the teacher said/did.
  • What the student said/did.
  • Which student responses/actions were correct.
  • Which student responses/actions were incorrect.

Worksheet/Teacher Test
  • Ten (10) items of related content
  • are required.
  • Less than 10 items, invalid
  • 10 items, but some items do not match content ?
    unrelated items count against the content mastery
    score (e.g., 10 items, but 4 are unrelated, 60
    content mastery is most student can earn).

Work Sample
  • Original student projects
  • Students written work on a blank sheet of paper,
  • or something that has been manipulated (e.g.,
    cut, pasted)

AAA Minimum Evidence
  • Click on Sections
  • Click on Assessment and Accountability
  • Click on Publications
  • Scroll over and select AAA Information
  • AAA Minimum Evidence Per Extended Standard
    Reading Grades 3-8 and 11.pdf
  • AAA Minimum Evidence Per Extended Standard
    Mathematics Grades 3-8 and 11.pdf
  • AAA Minimum Evidence Per Extended Standard
    Science Grades 5 7 and 11.pdf

AAA Minimum Evidence
R. ES 3.2 (3) 3 pieces of evidence with at least
2 different blends per piece of evidence.
AAA Minimum Evidence
M. ES 3.2 (3) 3 pieces of evidence with at least
10 different addition and 10 different
subtraction problems across the pieces of
  • If the extended standard says mimic, the
    teacher must give the student something to mimic.

  • Teacher defines and describes participation.
  • Answering correctly is not necessary involvement
    in the specified activity is what is required.

Expectations for Success
  • Be clear and specific.
  • Do not include trials!
  • Evidence should only include however many times
    are necessary to meet minimum evidence.
  • No! 7.1(1)
  • When given a choice of 4 books, student will
    correctly associate 3 certain characters with
    their stories, by pointing to the correct book,
    during 2/3 trials.
  • Yes!
  • ???

Avoid Questionable Tactics
  • Examples
  • Student is supposed to identify main character
    main character is the one word story title in all
    pieces of evidence.
  • Correct answer is always in same location (e.g.,
    10 multiple choice questions with correct answer
    always on left).
  • Performance Summaries across multiple students
    with the same wording, same exact student
    responses, etc.

Reading Materials
  • Passage or story must consist of at least three
    (3) sentences.
  • Different stories are required across the three
    pieces of evidence. Give the name of the story
    used each time so the scorer can verify a
    different story was used.

Reading Materials
  • Complexity 3 4
  • Student must read the passage or story
  • Complexity 2 in some cases
  • Complexity 1
  • Student can read with assistance, or the teacher
    can read the passage or story

Hi Lo Books for Reluctant Readers
  • High Interest
  • Low Vocabulary
  • http//
  • cks/tp/hi_lo_books.htm

  • The smallest unit of sound in a spoken
  • word.
  • An example of a phoneme is the /k/ sound in the
    words kite and car.
  • K.1

Track Words As They Are Read
  • Students must be taught print concepts, including
    following words from left to right and from top
    to bottom on the printed page.
  • K.2

Print Concepts
  • Identify the front cover, back cover, and title
    page of a book.
  • Follow words from left to right and from top to
    bottom on the printed page.
  • Understand that printed materials provide
  • Recognize that sentences in print are made up of
    separate words.
  • K.2

Identify Letters
  • Flash cards (homemade or store bought)
  • Foam or wooden letter blocks
  • Learning videos
  • Books
  • ABC song
  • Leap Frog Fridge PhonicsRepetition is Key!!
  • K.3

Real Life Objects Actions
  • Which picture represents the word crying?
  • K.4

Initial Letter Sound
  • The sound at the beginning of a word.
  • Instructional Suggestion
  • Show pictures of book, dog, hand, and fox.
  • This is book, dog, hand, and fox.
  • Which picture begins with /b/?
  • 1.1

Match Sounds and Letters
  • Phoneme a phoneme is the most basic unit of
  • Grapheme a grapheme is the written
    representation of a phoneme. A grapheme can
    consist of one, two, and rarely three or four
  • The sound /k/ can be represented by the letters
    C, K, or CK as in cat, kite, and duck.
  • 1.2

Match Sounds and Letters
  • Instructional Suggestions
  • Take egg cartons and put a paper letter in each
    slot. Say letter-sounds and ask students to pick
    out the letters that match those sounds
  • http//
  • 1.2

Sort Picture Cards into Given Categories
  • Categorizing involves grouping objects or
  • ideas according to criteria that describe
  • common features or the relationships among
  • all members of that group. This procedure
  • enables students to see patterns and
  • connections and it develops students' abilities
  • to manage or organize information.
  • 1.3

Teaching Categories
  • Focus on concrete objects
  • Provide the criteria by which objects are to be
    grouped such as size, color, shape or use
  • Encourage students to explain their reasons for
    placing items in particular categories
  • Ensure that all students see and understand the
  • Encourage students to question each other's
  • 1.3

Teaching Categories
  • Procedure continued
  • Provide opportunities for students to categorize
    their objects according to criteria of their
  • Demonstrate this strategy with the whole class,
    then progress to small group and individual
    categorizing activities
  • Move students from categorizing concrete objects
    to categorizing pictures
  • http//
  • 1.3

Who, What, and Where Questions
  • The answers to questions such as who, what
    and where are parts of story structure. By
    identifying these basic structures it will help a
    student be able to recall or retell a story.
  • 1.4

Who, What, and Where Questions
  • http//
  • 1.4

High Frequency Words
  • A word that appears many more times
  • than most other words in spoken or written
  • language.
  • Many of these words such as the, is, to, and are
    do not follow commonly taught phonics rules and
    cannot be sounded out.
  • http//
  • Dolch
  • Frys 300
  • 1.5 2.5

Initial Sound / Final Sound
  • Initial
  • The first sound you hear in the beginning of a
  • Final
  • The last sound you hear at the end of a word.
  • Example boat
  • Initial sound /b/
  • Final sound /t/
  • 2.1

  • The ability to recognize individual sounds in a
  • Example of initial isolation
  • Teacher What is the first sound in van?
  • Student The first sound in van is /v/.
  • Example of final isolation
  • Teacher What is the last sound in top?
  • Student The last sound in top is /p/.
  • 2.1

Consonant Sounds
  • The word consonant is used to refer to a letter
    of an alphabet that denotes a consonant sound.
    Consonant letters in the English alphabet are B,
    C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V,
    X, Z, and usually W and Y
  • The letter Y stands for the consonant j in
    yoke, and for the vowel ? in myth
  • Y also commonly makes the long i and e sounds
  • W is almost always a consonant except in rare
  • 2.2

Vowel Sounds
  • Some Generalizations about English vowels
  • English vowels have "long" and "short" forms.
  • The long form is the "name" of the letter
  • The short form is as follows
  • 2.2

Real Life Objects Actions
  • What are they doing?
  • 2.3

Real Life Objects Actions
  • What is this?
  • Tell me what you do with this.
  • 2.3

Events / Sequence
  • Sequencing is one of many skills that contributes
    to students' ability to comprehend what they
    read. Sequencing refers to the identification of
    the components of a story, such as the beginning,
    middle, and end, and also to the ability to
    retell the events within a given text in the
    order in which they occurred.
  • http//
  • 2.4

Blend (one-syllable words)
  • Blend to draw individual sounds together to
    pronounce a word,
  • Example c-a-p,
  • blended together, reads cap
  • 3.1

2 3 Letter Blends
  • When two or more letters appear together and you
    hear each sound that each consonant would
    normally make, the combination is called a blend.
  • For instance, the word blend has two consonant
    blends bl, for which you hear the sounds for
    both b and l, and nd, for which you hear the
    sounds for both n and d.
  • 3.2

READ (one-syllable words)
  • See sample list of one-syllable words.
  • 3.3

Context Clues
  • The first step to learning how to use context
    clues is to understand what they are. The meaning
    of the phrase is easy context are the words
    surrounding the particular word in question, and
    of course clues are supposed to help you figure
    out the mystery of the word in question.
  • The value of context clues lies in the ability to
    figure out the definition without using a
    dictionary. This is important especially for
    teachers who want to instill in their students a
    sense of independence in learning.
  • http//
  • 3.4

Context Clues
  • Different Kinds of Context Clues
  • Definition
  • Synonym
  • Antonym
  • Example
  • Explanation
  • http//
  • 3.4

Context Clues
  • The joey, which is a baby kangaroo, peeked out of
    his mother's pocket. (definition)
  • The beach was covered with debris like paper and
    cans, and the children picked up all the trash.
  • The ancient dress looked like new after she
    washed it. (antonym)
  • http//
  • 3.4

Context Clues
  • Every day he brought a delectable, delicious,
    wonderful, yummy lunch to school. (example)
  • My mother used to pull across the bay to catch
    flounder. Pull is a word that is sometimes used
    to mean row. (explanation)
  • http//
  • 3.4

Retell / Beginning and End
  • Story Retelling is a procedure that enables a
    child to play a large role in reconstructing
    stories. It underlies both social and academic
    development. When narrating stories, the speaker
    uses language for an extended period of time.
    This active participation with stories results in
    increased language development, comprehension and
    an interest in books and in learning to read.
  • http//
  • 3.5

Blend Segment
  • Blend Refer to 3.1
  • Segment to split up a word into its individual
    phonemes in order to spell it,
  • Example the word 'cat' has three phonemes /c/,
    /a/, /t/
  • 4.1

Vocabulary / Simple Sentences
  • Perhaps the greatest tools we can give
  • students for succeeding, not only in their
  • education but more generally in life, is a
  • large, rich vocabulary and the skills for
  • using those words. Our ability to function
  • in todays complex social and economic
  • worlds is mightily affected by our language
  • skills and word knowledge.
  • http//
  • 4.2

Vocabulary / Simple Sentences
  • In addition to the vital importance of
  • vocabulary for success in life, a large
  • vocabulary is more specifically
  • predictive and reflective of high levels
  • of reading achievement.
  • http//
  • 4.2

  • Synonyms are different words with identical or at
    least similar meanings.
  • An example of synonyms are the words car and
  • 4.3

Main Character
  • A main character is the central character of the
    story, the one that the reader follows through
    the story or account. The main character is
    usually involved in the problems of the tale, the
    climax, and its resolution.
  • 4.4

Important Details
  • Important details are used to support the main
  • Details add description to a story.
  • Details support the main idea by telling how,
    what, when, where, why, how much, or how many.
  • 4.4

Consonant Blends / Letter Combinations
  • A consonant blend is a group of consonants that
    appear together in a word without any vowels
    between them.
  • When reading blends, each letter within the
    blend is pronounced individually.
  • 4.5

Consonant Blends / Letter Combinations
  • Letter combinations are a series of letters whose
    sound would not be produced correctly by a
    student pronouncing one letter sound at a time.
  • Letter combinations include digraphs, diphthongs,
    r-controlled vowels, etc., but do not include
    blends such as gr and bl.
  • http//
  • 4.5

Consonant Blends / Letter Combinations
  • ph
  • oi
  • oy
  • wr
  • au
  • aw
  • al
  • igh
  • Letter Combination Examples
  • th
  • er
  • sh
  • oa
  • wh
  • ol
  • ar
  • http//
  • 4.5
  • qu
  • ee
  • ea
  • oo
  • ch
  • ai
  • ay
  • ay
  • or
  • kn
  • ou
  • ir
  • ur
  • ph

Words with More than One Meaning
  • Multiple Meaning Words are words that have
    several meanings depending upon how they are used
    in a sentence.
  • We use context clues to help us figure out which
    meaning is correct.
  • 5.1

Words with More than One Meaning
  • Examples
  • Trip
  • Light
  • Check
  • Show
  • Bank
  • Play
  • Can
  • 5.1
  • Pupil
  • Game
  • Raise
  • Dance
  • Break
  • Store
  • Bowl
  • Sign
  • Watch
  • Scale
  • Row
  • Right
  • Saw
  • Pit

Characters Actions
  • Every action a character performs influences
    something else in the story. 
  • Perhaps it's simply that character's next action,
    or it could be a plot complication, or the arc of
    the story. 
  • Each action can have consequences that ripple
    through the entire story.
  • 5.2

Phonetic Skills
  • Use a range of strategies and skills including
    phonetic skills to read unfamiliar and/or
    multi-syllable words.
  • 5.3

Fiction / Non Fiction
  • Fiction (Latin fictum, "created") is a branch of
    literature which deals, in part or in whole, with
    events that are not true at the time of writing.
  • In contrast to this is non-fiction, which deals
    exclusively in factual events (e.g., biographies,
    histories). Books that are non-fiction, or true,
    are about real things, people, events, and
  • 6.1

Main Idea
  • Main Idea
  • The central topic of a piece of writing.
  • It is what the writing is all about.
  • 6.2

Grasping the Main Idea
  • Ask yourself the question, "What is this
  • paragraph about?"
  • To answer, say to yourself in your mind, "The
    author keeps talking about XX and XX. This must
    be the topic
  • ."
  • http//
  • 6.2

Locate Information in Informational Functional
  • Use strategies including locating information in
    informational and functional materials.
  • 6.3

Textual/Informational Materials
  • Informational/textual reading materials are
    generally read for information, such as materials
    containing charts or graphs and materials found
    in encyclopedias, textbooks, lab manuals, essays,
    and news magazines.
  • Literary/recreational reading materials are
    generally read for pleasure, such as magazine
    articles, poetry, novels, and short stories.
  • (Alabama Reading and Mathematics Test Item
  • Specifications for Reading)
  • 6.3 9.2 10.3 12.1 12.2

Functional Materials
  • Functional reading materials are generally read
    for a precise action, such as directions, maps,
    schedules, menus, catalogues, instructions, and
    other materials generally encountered in everyday
    life beyond the classroom.
  • (Alabama Reading and Mathematics Test Item
    Specifications for Reading)
  • 6.3 9.2 10.3 12.1 12.2

Special Thanks
  • Special thanks to Alabama Reading
  • Initiative (ARI) staff for assisting with the
  • development of the reading slides, in
  • particular Rosie Merold and Kim Bailey!

Count in Sequence 1-3
  • K.1

Differentiate Shapes
  • K.2 1.3

Name Days of the Week
  • Instructional Suggestions
  • Songs
  • Games
  • Bulletin Board
  • K.3

Count Identify Numbers
  • The student must count to 10 or 20 and identify
    all the numbers.
  • 1.1 2.1

Join Sets to Model Addition
  • Seeing two sets of counters or other objects, the
    student determines the correct combined total.
    The student may count the total number of objects
    in the set or use some other strategy in order to
    arrive at the sum.
  • 1.2

Identify Birth Month
  • 1.4

Separate Sets to Model Subtraction
  • The student establishes the total number of
    counters or objects in a set then, after some
    have been removed, the student figures out how
    many are left.
  • 2.2

Separate an Object into Two Parts of a Whole
  • 2.3

Top, Bottom, Side
  • 2.4

  • 3.1 4.1 5.1

  • 3.1 4.1 5.1

Add Subtract Single Digit
  • No calculator, touch math, or preprinted
  • 3.2

Continue Pattern of 3 Shapes
  • Make your own worksheets or activities and use
    the shapes students have learned.
  • Students must use the terms first, next, last in
    the lesson.
  • 3.3

Identify TimeAnalog Digital Clocks
  • Analog Digital
  • 3.4 4.4

Identify Coins and Their Value
  • ?
  • Students must identify each coin and tell the
    value in order to get credit.
  • 4.2

Determine Place Value for 1s, 10s, and 100s
  • ..321
  • There is a 1 in the ones (1) place.
  • ..321
  • There is a 2 in the tens (10) place.
  • ..321
  • There is a 3 in the hundreds (100) place.
  • 4.3

Add 2 Digit Numbers w/out Regrouping
  • No calculator, touch math, or preprinted
  • 5.2

Count Like Coins Up to 1.00
  • In order to do this
  • Student must know coins and coin values.
  • Student must know how to skip count 25s, 10s,
    5s, and 1s.
  • 5.3

Analyze Data Collected to Determine the Amount of
TimeRequired for Familiar Activities
  • Examples of Familiar Activities for 5th Graders
  • Walk to lunch
  • Lunch
  • Walk to P.E.
  • P.E.
  • 5.4

Subtract 2 Digit without Regrouping
  • No calculator, touch math, or preprinted
  • 6.1

Divide Object into Equal Parts Label½, 1/3, ¼
  • The student must divide the object and label in
    order to get credit.
  • (You cannot give the student a box or circle on a
    worksheet that has already been divided)
  • 6.2

Identify Bill Amounts1.00, 5.00, 10.00,
  • 6.3

Organize PicturesTally Charts Graphs
  • Tally charts help people count.
  • Each tally mark in a tally chart represents one
    object. For example, to count three apples, you
    make three tally marks in the chart.
  • Tally marks are grouped in sets of five, which
    facilitates counting. Instead of counting marks
    one-by-one, you can skip-count by fives and add
    on any remaining marks.
  • Have students practice counting objects in class
    or home by using tally marks. Then practice
    skip-counting by fives in order to get your
    students familiar with multiples of five
  • 6.4

Organize PicturesTally Charts Graphs
Organize PicturesTally Charts Graphs
  • A picture graph uses pictures or symbols to show
  • One picture sometimes stands for more than one
    item so a key is often necessary to understand
    the symbols.
  • 6.4

Organize PicturesTally Charts Graphs
Organize PicturesTally Charts Graphs
Organize PicturesTally Charts Graphs
Organize PicturesTally Charts Graphs
Property of Motion
  • Recognize that objects can move in different
    directions and at different speeds.
  • Recognize that when an object moves, it changes
  • What makes objects move?
  • Roll a pencil, cotton ball, marble, marshmallow
    down the table.
  • Identify a property of motion.
  • K.1

Basic Needs
  • Animals and people need air, water, food, and
    shelter to survive.
  • Plants need air, water, nutrients, and light to
  • K.2

Basic Types of Weather
  • K.3

Identify Objects by a Basic Property
  • Size
  • Shape
  • Color
  • Texture
  • The small block.
  • The big yellow ball.
  • 1.1

Identify Basic Parts of the Human Body
  • 1.2

Items to be Recycled
  • 1.3

Distinguish Between Solid and Liquid
  • Solids
  • Explore and compare the properties of solids.
  • Define a solid in terms of its properties.
  • Liquids
  • Explore and conclude that water takes the shape
    of the container it is in.
  • Define a liquid in terms of its properties.
  • 2.1

Parts of a Plant
  • 2.2

Features of Earths Surface
  • Globe bodies of water and land masses
  • Map rivers, lakes, and oceans
  • 2.3

  • Light and Heat
  • The sun warms our planet every day, provides the
    light by which we see and is necessary for life
    on Earth.
  • 3.1

Life Cycle of Plant
  • Seed when the seed is dormant (i.e., inactive or
  • Seed germination the process in which a plant
    emerges from a seed and begins growth. Seeds need
    oxygen, water, and proper temperatures to
  • Growth After the plant sprouts from the seed, it
    starts to grow. The growth and development of a
    plant is one of the most spectacular events in
    nature. Yet, because it happens so slowly, over
    the course of days or weeks, it is difficult to
    observe in real time.
  • 3.2

Response to Weather
  • Thunderstorms
  • Tornado
  • Hurricanes
  • 3.3

Electrical Objects
  • Light
  • Heat
  • Sound
  • 4.1

Plants Animals Help Each Other
  • Plants help animals by providing them with food,
    shelter, building materials, places to hide and
    air to breath.
  • Plants produce chemicals and fibers used in
  • Plants produce nearly half of all the medicines
    used to treat diseases.
  • The remains of ancient plants is the source of
    fossil fuels such as coal and gas.
  • Animals help plants by pollinating them,
    distributing their seeds, and providing
    fertilizer for the soil.
  • Some plants grow better after being grazed on.
  • 4.2

Solar System
  • Sun Earths Moon
  • 4.3

Chemical Change
  • A physical change in a substance doesn't change
    what the substance is. In a chemical change there
    is a chemical reaction, a new substance is formed
    and energy is either given off or absorbed.
  • For example, if a piece of paper is cut up into
    small pieces it still is paper. This would be a
    physical change in the shape and size of the
    paper. If the same piece of paper is burned, it
    is broken up into different substances that are
    not paper.
  • 5.1

Chemical Change
  • Physical changes can be reversed, chemical
    changes cannot be reversed with the substance
    changed back without extraordinary means, if at
    all. For example, a cup of water can be frozen
    when cooled and then can be returned to a liquid
    form when heated.
  • If one decided to mix sugar into water to make
    sugar water, this would be a physical change as
    the water could be left out to evaporate and the
    sugar crystals would remain. However, if one made
    a recipe for a cake with flour, water, sugar and
    other ingredients and baked them together, it
    would take extraordinary means to separate the
    various ingredients out to their original form.
  • 5.1

Chemical Change
  • Examples of Chemical Changes
  • Burning a log of wood
  • Cooking examples popcorn, cake, pancakes, eggs,
    toast, caramel icing
  • Rotting of fruit
  • Explosion of fireworks
  • Lighting a match
  • Digesting food
  • Rusting nail
  • Roasting a marshmallow
  • 5.1

Plants Animals in a Habitat
  • Habitat
  • A place where plants and animals live and grow
  • Animals get food, water, and shelter in their
  • Plants get sunlight and water in their habitat
  • 5.2

Plants Animals in a Habitat
  • Dependent on each other within a habitat.
  • Field/Park/Backyard Grasshoppers eat grass
  • Forest/Backyard Birds nest in trees
  • Forest/Park/Backyard Squirrels eat acorns
  • Forest/Field Animals eat leaves and berries
  • 5.2

Plants Animals in a Habitat
  • Dependent on each other within a habitat.
  • Field/Garden/Along Road Monarch butterflies lay
    eggs on milkweed, larvae feed on the milkweed
  • Garden/Backyard/Park Adult monarch butterflies
    pollinate flowers
  • Forest/Backyard/Field Earthworms eat dirt and
    dead leaves, digesting the material for food and
    in the process breaking down the organic matter
    and releasing nutrients in the soil
  • Forest/Field Deer eat plants
  • 5.2

Plants Animals in a Habitat
  • Dependent on each other within a habitat.
  • Desert Plants in the desert help animals stay
    out of the sun
  • Desert Plants in the desert, such as the cactus,
    save water for animals
  • Field/Forest/Coastal Area Some animals get seeds
    from plants stuck on their fur and move the seed
    to a different place so plants are spread
  • Lake/Swamp/Pond Insects eat plants that float on
  • 5.2

4 Planets Closest to the Sun
  • The first four planets are called the inner
  • They are closest to the sun.
  • Their names are Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
  • These planets are made mostly of rock.
  • 5.3

Identify Weather ConditionsUsing Instrument or
  • A THERMOMETER measures the air temperature. Most
    thermometers are closed glass tubes containing
    liquids such as alcohol or mercury. When air
    around the tube heats the liquid, the liquid
    expands and moves up the tube. A scale then shows
    what the actual temperature is.
  • 6.1

Identify Weather ConditionsUsing Instrument or
  • A BAROMETER measures air pressure. It tells you
    whether or not the pressure is rising or falling.
    A rising barometer means sunny and dry
    conditions, while a falling barometer means
    stormy and wet conditions. An Italian scientist
    named Torricelli built the first barometer in
  • 6.1

Identify Weather ConditionsUsing Instrument or
  • A RAIN GAUGE measures the amount of rain that has
    fallen over a specific time period.
  • A WIND VANE is an instrument that determines the
    direction from which the wind is blowing.
  • An ANEMOMETER measures wind speed. The cups catch
    the wind, turning a dial attached to the
    instrument. The dial shows the wind speed.
  • 6.1

Identify Weather ConditionsUsing Instrument or
  • WEATHER MAPS indicate atmospheric conditions
    above a large portion of the Earth's surface.
    Meteorologists use weather maps to forecast the
  • http//
  • 6.1

Changes in Earths Surface
  • Newer human impacts to the earths surface are
    more and more damaging. Landscape is wounded with
    newer and bigger structures and other
    irreversible interventions to the earths
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  • Manmade causes that shape the earths surface
    agriculture, mining, pollution, construction,
    harvesting of natural resources, etc.
  • 6.2

Changes in Earths Surface
  • Natural forces that shape the earths surface
    volcanoes, earthquakes,
  • hurricanes, landslides, weathering,
  • erosion, animals, and plants.
  • 6.2

Changes in Earths Surface
  • Volcanoes
  • Volcanoes change the surface of the earth by
    erupting out matter.
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  • 6.2

Changes in Earths Surface
  • Earthquakes
  • Earthquakes cause the earths surface to shake,
    roll, and heave.
  • At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest
    themselves by shaking and sometimes displacing
    the ground. http//
  • 6.2

Changes in Earths Surface
  • Hurricanes
  • Damage from hurricanes and tropical storms is
    usually the result of strong winds, storm surges,
    or heavy rain. Winds of over 100 miles per hour
    can tear roofs off of houses or knock trees down.
    Heavy rain can ruin crops, damage buildings,
    cause flash flooding, and spark deadly
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  • 6.2

Changes in Earths Surface
  • Landslides
  • Landslides cause rocks, soil, and debris to
    suddenly roll down a slope.
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  • 6.2

Changes in Earths Surface
  • Weathering
  • Weathering is the breaking and changing of rock.
  • Causes of weathering
  • Freezing water
  • Thawing ice
  • Flowing water
  • Plant roots
  • Temperature changes
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  • 6.2

Changes in Earths Surface
  • Erosion
  • Erosion is the process by which weathered rock
    and soil are moved  from one place to another.
    Erosion carves the Earth's surface creating
    canyons, gorges, and even beaches. There are five
    agents of erosion
  • Gravity (constant pulling on all matter on Earth)
  • Running water (rivers and streams)
  • Wind
  • Glaciers
  • Waves
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  • 6.2

RelationshipsEarth, the Sun, Earths Moon
  • 6.3
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