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Understanding Islam


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Title: Understanding Islam

Understanding Islam
Why spend time studying Islam?
  • Islam is the second largest religion in the world
  • Islam is the fastest growing religion both in the
    world and the USA
  • Many terrorists, including Osama Bin Laden
    those associated with Al Qaeda are Muslims, who
    claim the teachings of Islam as the main reason
    behind their acts of terrorism
  • There is a world of confusion about Islam today,
    especially in the media, in our government, and
    in the church

What is Islam?
  • Islam is the fastest-growing religion in the
  • The word Islam comes from an Arabic word which
    means submission
  • Followers of Islam are called Muslims

Facts about Islam
  • There are over 1.3 billion Muslims in the world
  • Islam is currently the fastest growing religion
    in the world (2.9)
  • Islam is also the fastest growing religion in
  • It is the second largest religion practiced in
    the world, next to Christianity

(No Transcript)
Facts about Islam
  • Countries with significant Muslim population
  • Indonesia 88 - 210 million
  • Pakistan 97 - 154 million
  • India 12 - 128 million
  • Bangladesh 83 - 117 million
  • There are approximately 7 million Muslims living
    in the United States today

According to the CIA Handbook, 2004
Roots of Islam
  • Islam began in Saudi Arabia by an Arab man named
    Muhammad (570-632 AD)
  • At the time, the Arabian tribes living in that
    area practiced polytheism, with some 360 known
  • In 610 AD, Muhammad claims to have received the
    first of several visions from the angel Gabriel
  • He continued to receive visions for the next 22
    years until his sudden death in 632 AD
  • These visions comprise the holy book of Islam,
    the Quran

Roots of Islam
  • Muhammads visions led him to believe that there
    was only one god, Allah and he began to preach
    against the polytheism of his day
  • In 622, persecution eventually led to Muhammad
    and about 100 families fleeing from Mecca (his
    home town) to Yathrib (which is now called
  • This event is now referred to as Hijrah, and
    marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar

Roots of Islam
  • Muhammad and his army led several sieges against
  • After forming a treaty with his own tribe, the
    Quraysh, he and his army took control of Mecca
    without a fight in 630
  • He personally destroyed the idols in the Kabah,
    and was able to unify all of the Arab tribes
    under Islam within year
  • Muhammad died suddenly on June 8, 632

Types of Islam
  • After his death, much confusion and disagreement
    among Muslims led to the forming of different
    sects of Islam
  • Although there are more than 72 different sects
    (denominations) of Islam practiced today, there
    are two main types that make up the majority of

Major sects of Islam
  • Sunni
  • Believe the successor to Muhammad should be
  • Believe religious authority comes from the
    Quran, the Hadith, and the counsel of the elders
  • Believe there should be a separation between
    religiuos and civil authority
  • Shiite
  • Believe the successor to Muhammad should be from
    his bloodline
  • Believe that authority comes from the Iman, and
    later the ulama
  • Believe there should be no separation between
    religious and civil authority

Sources of authority
Say "O People of the Book! you have no ground to
stand upon unless you stand fast by the Law, the
Gospel, and all the revelation that has come to
you from your Lord. (Quran 568)
  • Muslims view Islam as the final revelation,
    superseding the Law of Moses (Taurat), the Psalms
    of David (Jabur), and the Gospel of Jesus Christ
  • While the holy book of Islam, the Quran,
    indicates that the Old and New Testaments of the
    Bible are both authoritative and uncorrupted
    (568), modern Muslim belief is that the Bible
    has been corrupted and is no longer authoritative

Sources of authority
  • The Quran
  • Hadith the traditions of the prophet
  • Qiyas analogies taught by Muslim scholars based
    upon the Quran and the Hadith
  • Ijma the consensus of the community
    especially of Islamic scholars

What is the Quran?
  • The Quran (also spelled Koran) is the holy book
    of Islam
  • The word Quran means recitations
  • The Quran contains the visions which Muhammad
    received from the angel Gabriel
  • The Quran is made up of 114 surahs or chapters
  • The Quran is written in Arabic, an ancient
    Semitic language similar to Hebrew Aramaic

One of the earliest manuscripts of the Quran,
dated to the 7th century AD (or the 1st Islamic
Two early manuscripts, dated to the 8th century
AD or the 2nd Islamic century
The earliest complete manuscript of the Quran,
dated to 1002 AD (393 AH After the Hijrah)
Alif Laam Raa, A Book which We have revealed
unto thee, in order that thou mightest lead
mankind out of the depths of darkness into light
- by the leave of their Lord - to the Way of
(Him) the Exalted in power, worthy of all
praise! Quran 141
What is the Quran?
  • The revelation of Allah in His own words the
    eternal, uncreated speech of Allah
  • Delivered by the Angel Gabriel
  • Given to the prophet Muhammad
  • Which supercedes all previous revelation (ie, the

What is the Quran?
  • The Quran was not written by Muhammad
  • The Quran was written shortly after Muhammads
    death by his followers over a period of about 30
  • Muhammad was said to have recited to his
    followers the contents of his visions, which his
    followers memorized
  • His followers then wrote down the contents of the
    Quran from memory
  • There are no original manuscripts of the Quran

5 Pillars of Islam
  • Faith (Confession of the Faith) Shahadah
  • La ilaha illa Allah. Muhammad rasul Allah
  • There is no god but Allah. Muhammad is the
    Messenger of God.
  • Spoken with sincerity, this confession is all
    that one must do to become a Muslim

5 Pillars of Islam
  • Prayer Salat
  • Pray 5 times a day (early morning, noon,
    mid-afternoon, sunset, evening)
  • A Friday afternoon service is also required
  • Pray facing Mecca
  • Salat is also required at funerals and during the
    two eclipses (sun moon)

5 Pillars of Islam
  • Almsgiving Zakat
  • A tax of 2.5 due once annually
  • Some Muslim governments collect the tax
  • Every man 16 years and older pays the tax

5 Pillars of Islam
  • Fasting Sawm
  • A 30 day fast that occurs from sunrise to sunset
    during the 9th month of Ramadan (Sept/Oct)
  • During the last 10 days, Muslim men observe the
    night of power (a vigil-type retreat)
  • Muslims must fast from food, drink, smoking, and
    sexual relations
  • However, they can partake of any of those
    activities after sunset
  • The fast is a commemoration of Muhammads
    receiving of the Quran during the 9th month

5 Pillars of Islam
  • Pilgrimage - Hajj
  • The pilgrimage to Mecca is required once in each
    Muslims life
  • They must be able to afford the trip no loans
    are allowed
  • Before entering Mecca, the male Muslim must put
    on special clothes, and observe several
    complicated rites during the trip
  • Guides are offered to help Muslims through the
    obscure and difficult rituals

What Muslims Believe
The Muslim Creed
I believe in Allah and in His Angels and in
His Scriptures and in His Messengers and in The
Final Day and in Fate, that Good and Evil are
from Allah, and Resurrection after death be
Truth. I testify that there is nothing worthy of
worship but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is
His Messenger.
Six Articles of Belief
1. Belief in Allah
  • The word Allah in Arabic means the deity, or
    the god.
  • Allah is the general word in Arabic for god, and
    thus is not a proper name (i.e., like the name
    Yahweh or Jesus)
  • This is why missionaries to Arabic-speaking
    countries often use the word Allah to translate
    the Hebrew word Elohim or the Greek word Theos
    from the Old New Testaments into Arabic.

1. Belief in Allah
  • However, in many parts of the world, the word
    Allah has come to mean the god of Muslims or
    the god of the Quran.
  • Therefore it can function almost as a proper name
    for the Muslim god, depending upon the context
  • But because Allah is just the general word for
    god in Arabic, English-speaking Muslims will
    often just use the word God to refer to the god
    of the Quran which creates a lot of confusion.

1. Belief in Allah
  • The Oneness of Allah absolute monotheism
  • In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Ever
    Merciful. Proclaim He is Allah, the One and
    Only Allah, the Eternal, Absolute He begetteth
    not, nor is He begotten And there is none like
    unto Him. - (Quran 1121-5)
  • Allah has no partners or associates (son, spirit,

1. Belief in Allah
  • Allah is Transcendent the Creator
  • Allah is He beside Whom there is no god,
  • Knower of the unseen and the seen.
  • He is the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.
  • Allah is He beside Whom there is no god,
  • the Sovereign, the Most Holy,
  • the Source of Peace, the Bestower of Security,
  • the Protector, the Mighty,
  • the Subduer, the Exalted.
  • Holy is Allah, far above that which they
    associate with Him.
  • Allah is He, the Creator, the Maker, the
  • His are the most beautiful names.
  • All that is in the heavens and the earth
    glorifies Him.
  • He is the Mighty, the Wise.
  • (Quran 5922-24)

1. Belief in Allah
  • Allah is Merciful
  • Every chapter in the Quran except one begins
    with the phrase In the name of Allah, the
    gracious, the merciful
  • But the Muslim concept of mercy is more about
    benevolence and providential care (for example,
    sending rain) It is not his gracious mercy in
    not punishing people as they deserve

1. Belief in Allah
  • Allah is Holy
  • Allah is Omnipotent, Omniscient, and Omnipresent
  • Allah is the judge

2. Belief in Angels
  • Angels fill the gap as mediators between god and
  • Most angels are good messengers and helpers of
    Allah. One, however, is evil Iblis (Satan), who
    was thrown out of heaven for refusing to bow down
    to Adam (Quran 711-18).
  • Each person has 2 angels assigned to him one to
    record a persons good deeds and the second to
    record his bad deeds
  • Other supernatural beings of fire are the jinn.
    They are lower than angels, limited in life-span,
    male or female, good or evil.

3. Belief in the books (sent by Allah)
  • The Quran - the uncreated, perfect word of Allah
  • The Bible Muslims acknowledge the Bible as real
    revelation, but believe it has become corrupt and
    is therefore no longer authoritative

4. Belief in all prophets and Messengers (sent by
  • A messenger (rasul) is sent with the Word of God
    (Scripture) to guide and reform the recipients
    Moses (the Taurat), David (the Zabur), Jesus (the
    Injil), and Muhammad (the Quran).
  • A prophet carries information or declares the
    word of Allah, but does not necessarily receive a
    divine book
  • The Quran mentions 25 prophets, the Hadith
    mentions 124,000 prophets
  • Adam, Abel, Abraham, Lot, Moses, Jonah, Jesus,
    John, etc.
  • Muhammad (the last messenger or seal of the

5. Belief in fate (Qadar)
  • Muslims believe in Qadar or fate
  • While believing also in a certain amount of free
    will, Muslims believe that Allah has sovereignty
    predestined all that will happen
  • Qadar also includes the belief in Allah as the
    creator of all things

6. Belief in the day of judgment and the
  • Islam teaches a day of judgment, bodily
    resurrection, the immortality of the soul, and a
    literal heaven and hell
  • The living and the dead shall be gathered in the
    presence of Allah and judged by the book placed
    in their hands. The book will be handed to each
    in either the left hand or the right hand.
  • Those men that enter heaven will also have their
    wives and children with them
  • Islam even teaches that Jesus will be involved in
    some end-time events

Salvation in Islam
  • Islam calls all people to repentance

The messengers of God, whose proud lives were
never penetrated by any element of sin, would
always invite sinners to seek Gods forgiveness
and encourage them to place their hopes in His
mercy, for His kindness and compassion toward His
believing servants are such that He would never
abandon them in the dark pit of disobedience and
sin. On the contrary, He invites all men to
return to Him, and it is up to us to answer His
call and thus act to attain our salvation. Gods
acceptance of repentance indicates a particular
worthiness in man to receive Gods mercy, a
worthiness which causes the gates of forgiveness
to remain open before sinners. They have the
opportunity to express contrition and shame
before God over their dark past and to abandon
and attempt to make up for the evil they have
committed. If they do this, all their misfortune
will be turned to good fortune, and all their
darkness to light. Sayyid Mujtaba Musavi Lari,
Resurrection Judgement and the Hereafter Lessons
on Islamic Doctrine (Book Three), trans. By Hamid
Algar (N.p. Foundation of Islamic Cultural
Propagation in the World, 1992), 163
Salvation in Islam
  • Islam does not allow fox-hole conversions

The one who continues to sin until he witnesses
death and then begins to experience regret,
saying, Now I repentthe repentance of such a
one will not be accepted. (Quran 418)
Salvation in Islam
  • Islam teaches salvation by works

It is only those gifted with understanding who
take heed those who fulfill Allahs pact and
break not the covenant who join together the
ties of kinship that Allah has bidden to be
joined, and fear their Lord, and dread the evil
reckoning those who are steadfast in seeking the
favour of their Lord, and observe Prayer, and
spend secretly and openly out of that with which
We have provided them, and overcome evil with
good. For them is the best reward of the
Hereafter Gardens of Eternity, which they shall
enter and also those who are righteous from among
their ancestors, and their consorts and their
progeny. (Quran 1320-23)
Salvation in Islam
  • Islam teaches a different concept of forgiveness
    than the Bible
  • Allah forgives whom he will
  • No one can be sure of their forgiveness the Day
    of judgment will reveal it
  • There is no forgiveness for certain sins (for
    example, shirk associating god with a created
  • The Quran gives no personal confessions of sin
    (Psalm 51) or developed analogies of forgiveness
    (Hosea, Prodigal Son)

Salvation in Islam
  • Islam offers some a second chance after death

Those who have wronged themselves in this world
will be asked by the angels when they die what
they have done. They will say, We were weak and
oppressed and unable to move. Then the angels
will ask, Was Gods earth not wide enough for
you to travel in it (so that you might hasten
from the land of ignorance to that of faith and
knowledge)? The abode of these evildoers shall
be hellfire how evil and terrible an abode!
Excepted from this shall be those men, women and
children who were indeed unable to act or to
move they could not flee and they had no path of
escape. It may be that God will forgive and show
mercy to them, for He is Merciful and Pardoning.
(Quran 497-98)
Salvation in Islam
  • Islam also offers hope to unfaithful Muslims who
    do not go to heaven through a purgatory type
    temporary stay in Hell

Those Muslims who do not inherit heaven will be
punished with a temporary stay in hell, and will
go to heaven later as long as there is "one atom
of faith in their hearts" as stated by the
Prophet Muhammed. (Islam, Wikipedia Encyclopedia,
Islam vs. Christianity
GOD Singular unity no partners One in essence, three in person
HUMANITY Good by nature Sinful by nature
SIN Sin rejecting good guidance no atonement need for forgiveness Moral rebellion against God causes spiritual death atonement essential for forgiveness
Islam vs. Christianity
SALVATION Good deeds outweigh bad deeds By grace, through faith, in Christ alone
JESUS One of major prophets, but not Son of God affirm virgin birth and miracles One and only Son of God, the only mediator between God and man
Islam vs. Christianity
DEATH OF JESUS Did not die on the cross, but ascended to heaven Judas died on the cross Died a physical death, and was raised bodily 3 days later essential for salvation (1 Cor 15)
THE BIBLE Corrupt, superseded by Quran Authentic, divinely inspired, final authority
Understanding Muslims
A Muslims Worldview
  • Muslims are theocentric god is very much what
    their world revolves around
  • Inshallah if Allah wills
  • In contrast, Americans and Europeans represent a
    very materialist orientation

A Muslims Worldview
  • To Muslims, Christians represent a lascivious
  • Muslim parents mourn when their children become
    Christians because they believe they have
    abandoned any sort of moral restraint
  • Muslim nations are threatened by modern cultural
    influences, such as TV, movies, and music. The
    Hindus of India are responsible for much of the
    material in South Asia

A Muslims Worldview
  • To Muslims, Christians represent a lascivious
  • Muslim young men treat and regard Western women
    almost as prostitutes just look at how they

A Muslims Worldview
  • To Muslims, Christians (Americans) are in-
    consistent regarding the treatment of
  • America's support of terrorist acts of Israel
    against Palestinians the Israel can do no
    wrong mentality
  • More on Israel in a moment

A Muslims Worldview
Concept Muslim Christian
Unity Emphasized Only if pragmatic
Time Respect the past Future orientation
Family Solidarity Individualistic
Adapted from Bill Barrick, Understanding Muslims
A Muslims Worldview
Concept Muslim Christian
Peace Integration, external Contentment, internal
Honor All important Not priority
Status Family, name, age Wealth, accomplishment
Adapted from Bill Barrick, Understanding Muslims
A Muslims Worldview
Concept Muslim Christian
Individualism Subordinate to group Independence a priority
Secularism Totally unacceptable Largely acceptable
Change Undesirable Desirable
Adapted from Bill Barrick, Understanding Muslims
A Muslims Worldview
Concept Muslim Christian
Efficiency Little or no concern Imperative
Adapted from Bill Barrick, Understanding Muslims
A Muslims view of Israel
  • Israel Muslims have historically been enemies
  • Why? Genesis 16
  • Muslims believe Ishmael was the special son of
    Abraham, and that Ishmael was the son offered to
    God as a sacrifice, not Isaac
  • Therefore, all of the promises of the Old
    Testament to the Jews really belong to the Arabs

A Muslims view of Israel
  • Ishmael is the ancient ancestor of most, if not
    all Arabs (Gen. 2513-16)
  • Northern Arabs descendants of Ishmael
  • Southern Arabs descendants of Joktan (Gen.
  • Muhammad claimed to be a descendant of Ishmael

A Muslims view of Israel
  • Muslims have historically controlled Palestine
  • Until Israel announced statehood in 1948
  • Footnote
  • Muslims view that event as infidels (Jews)
    turning a house of peace (place where Allah
    rules) into a house of war (where people are not
    in submission to Allah)

A Muslims view of Israel
  • Since that time, many Muslims believe that the
    only answer is to remove or destroy Israel

Peace for us means the destruction of Israel -
When Israel won the first military conflicts
with the Arabs it was a tremendous defeat for
Allah. Finally, Ayatollah Khomeini in Iran
explained that Israel is a judgment from Allah
for the backslidden condition of the Muslims. The
defeat of Israel, therefore, has become the
primary sign of Allahs pleasure with the
faithful Muslims. When Israel pulled out form
Lebanon... It was heralded as the first Arab
victory in more than fifty years of conflict. It
was a confirmation that Allah finally is pleased
with the violent path of the Iranian backed
fanatical Muslim guerilla HezbAllah (meaning
Allahs party) Barbara Richmond (Christian
A Muslims view of Israel
  • They have declared jihad on Israel AND the United
    States, since we are the main support superpower
    behind Israel

We declared jihah against the US government,
because the US government is unjust, criminal,
and tyrannical. It ahs committed acts that are
extremely unjust, hideous and criminal wheter
directly or through its support of the Israeli
occupation. For this and other acts of
aggression and injustice, we have declared jihad
against the U.S., because in our religion it is
our duty to make jihad so that gods word is the
one exalted to the heights and so that we drive
the Americans away from Muslim countries.
Osama bin Laden
A Muslims view of Israel
  • On February 22, 1998, bin Laden called on all
    Muslims to declare jihad on the U.S.

A Muslims view of Israel
For over seven years the United States has been
occupying the lands of Islam in the holiest of
places, the Arabian Peninsula, plundering its
riches, dictating to its rules, humiliating its
people, terrorizing its neighbors, and turning
its bases in the Peninsula into a spearhead
through which to fight the neighboring Muslim
peoples. We-with Gods help-call on every Muslim
who believes in God and wishes to be rewarded to
comply with Gods order to kill the Americans and
plunder their money wherever and whenever they
fine it. WE also call on Muslim ulema, leaders,
youths, and solider to launch the raid on Satans
U.S. troops and the devils supporters allying
with them, and to displace those who are behind
them so that they may learn a lesson. The ruling
to kill the American and their allies-civilians
and military-is an individual duty for every
Muslim who can do it in any country in which it
is possible to do it, in order to liberate the
al-Aqsa Mosque and the holy mosque Mecca from
their grip, and in order for their armies to move
out of all the lands of Islam, defeated and
unable to threaten any Muslim. Osama bin Laden
(World Islamic Front Statement, Feb. 23, 1998)
Understanding Jihad
  • Jihad is an Arabic word that literally means
    struggle or striving.
  • Contrary to popular opinion, Jihad does not mean
    holy war, although in certain contexts in can
    essentially mean fighting for religious

Understanding Jihad
  • There are two main types of Jihad
  • Greater (inner) jihad This is the internal
    struggle a Muslim has trying to do what Allah
    wants him to do
  • Lesser (outer) jihad This is an external
    struggle, a military or armed struggle against
    the enemies of Islam

Understanding Jihad
  • Those Muslim organizations involved in suicide
    bombings and other acts of terrorism specifically
    refer to their activities as acts of jihad
  • In fact, many of their organizations include the
    name, Jihad in the title. For example, the
    World Islamic Front for Jihad against Jews and

Understanding Jihad
  • Disagreement over Jihad
  • Many Muslims believe that killing any innocent
    people (non-military personnel) in the name of
    jihad is wrong
  • Other Muslims believe that killing certain
    enemies of Islam in self-defense is allowed
    under jihad, but nothing more
  • Still other Muslims believe that killing of any
    one (directly or indirectly) who is against Islam
    and not in submission to Allah is not only
    allowed under jihad, but is commanded by the

Understanding Jihad
  • Why the disagreement? There are two reasons why
    Muslims disagree on the meaning and extent of
  • First, the Quran contradicts itself in regard to
    how Muslims should treat and deal with infidels
    (non-Muslims) and specifically Jews and
  • The earlier Surahs of the Quran teach more
    peaceful relations between Muslims and non-Muslims

Understanding Jihad
  • Fight in the cause of Allah against those who
    fight against you, but do not transgress limits.
    Lo! Allah loves not aggressors. ...And fight them
    until persecution is no more, and religion is for
    Allah. But if they desist stop, then let there
    be no hostility except against transgressors."
    (2190, 193)
  • To not transgress limits- is understood by
    scholars to not harm innocent people, such as
    women and children
  • There is no compulsion in religion. The right
    direction is henceforth distinct from error. And
    he who rejecteth false deities and believeth in
    Allah hath grasped a firm handhold which will
    never break. Allah is Hearer, Knower. (2256)

Understanding Jihad
  • But later Surahs advocate more militant
    activities, including specific and cruel
    instructions on how to kill infidels who refuse
    to submit to Allah

Understanding Jihad
O ye who believe! Take not the Jews and the
Christians for friends. They are friends one to
another. He among you who taketh them for friends
is (one) of them. Lo! Allah guideth not
wrongdoing folk. (551) The only reward of those
who make war upon Allah and His messenger and
strive after corruption in the land will be that
they will be killed or crucified, or have their
hands and feet on alternate sides cut off, or
will be expelled out of the land. Such will be
their degradation in the world, and in the
Hereafter theirs will be an awful doom (533) In
truth the disbelievers are an open enemy to you.
(4101) Relent not in pursuit of the enemy
(4104) O Prophet! Strive against the
disbelievers and the hypocrites! Be harsh with
them. Their ultimate abode is hell, a hapless
journey's end. (973)
Understanding Jihad
Tell those who disbelieve that if they cease
(from persecution of believers) that which is
past will be forgiven them but if they return
(thereto) then the example of the men of old hath
already gone (before them, for a warning). And
fight them until persecution is no more, and
religion is all for Allah. But if they cease,
then lo! Allah is Seer of what they
do.(838-39) Fight against such of those who
have been given the Scripture as believe not in
Allah nor the Last Day, and forbid not that which
Allah hath forbidden by His messenger, and follow
not the Religion of Truth, until they pay the
tribute readily, being brought low (929) O ye
who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who
are near to you, and let them find harshness in
you, and know that Allah is with those who keep
their duty (unto Him). (9123)
Understanding Jihad
Remember thy Lord inspired the angels (with the
message) "I am with you give firmness to the
Believers I will instil terror into the hearts
of the Unbelievers smite ye above their necks
and smite all their finger-tips off them." This
because they contended against Allah and His
Messenger. If any contend against Allah and His
Messenger, Allah is strict in punishment. Thus
(will it be said) "Taste ye then of the
(punishment) for those who resist Allah, is the
penalty of the Fire." O ye who believe! when ye
meet the Unbelievers in hostile array, never turn
your backs to them. If any do turn his back to
them on such a day - unless it be in a stratagem
of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own)- he
draws on himself the wrath of Allah, and his
abode is Hell,- an evil refuge (indeed)! It is
not ye who slew them it was Allah. when thou
threwest (a handful of dust), it was not thy act,
but Allah.s in order that He might test the
Believers by a gracious trial from Himself for
Allah is He Who heareth and knoweth (all things).
That, and also because Allah is He Who makes
feeble the plans and struggles of the
Unbelievers. (812-18)
Understanding Jihad
Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in
fight), smite at their necks At length, when ye
have thoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly
(on them) thereafter (is the time for) either
generosity or ransom Until the war lays down its
burdens. Thus (are ye commanded) but if it had
been Allah.s Will, He could certainly have
exacted retribution from them (Himself) but (He
lets you fight) in order to test you, some with
others. But those who are slain in the Way of
Allah,- He will never let their deeds be lost.
Understanding Jihad
  • Why the disagreement? There are two reasons why
    Muslims disagree on the meaning and extent of
  • Second, Muslims disagree on the interpretation of
    the Quran
  • Some Muslims, which well call fundamentalist
    Muslims, take a literal interpretation to these

Understanding Jihad
  • Others, whom well call liberal Muslims, take a
    symbolic or allegorical interpretation of
    passages of the Quran that command killing in
    the name of Allah
  • These liberal Muslims would also see later
    writings and the consensus of scholars (both of
    which downplay or re-define jihad) as more
    authoritative than a literal reading of the text

Understanding Jihad
  • These two points contradictions in the Quran
    itself and the disagreement on how to understand
    or interpret texts, lead to the two very
    DIFFERENT opinions not only about jihad, but also
    regarding whether Islam is a peaceful religion
    or a militant religion

Understanding Jihad
  • The third jihad
  • The US government recently discovered a secret
    document which calls on Muslims in America to
    engage in a grand jihad.
  • their work in America is a kind of grand Jihad
    in eliminating and destroying the Western
    civilization from within and sabotaging its
    miserable house by their hands and the hands of
    believers so that it is eliminated and Gods
    religion is made victorious over all other

Fundamentalist Islam vs. Liberal Islam
  • While most Muslims would not classify the Islamic
    world under these headings, they are in fact
    indicative of the Muslim world (and helpful in
    understanding Muslims)
  • Mainstream or liberal Muslims (who probably
    make up the majority) will refer to more radical
    Muslims as militant, fundamentalist,
    extremists, etc.
  • Some would even say that these more radical
    Muslims are not Muslim at all, and that they give
    Islam a bad name

Fundamentalist Islam vs. Liberal Islam
  • However, Fundamentalist Muslims see Liberal
    Muslims as worldly and disobedient to Allah
  • Conclusion These two main types of Muslims
    explain so much of the disagreement today over
    what Muslims believe, teach, and support AND
    contribute to the overall disagreement on whether
    Islam is a tolerant, peaceful religion or a
    militant, violent religion
  • Hence, after 9/11 we saw both images of Muslims
    dancing in the streets in triumph around the
    world, and images of American Muslims denouncing
    the attacks and even helping with the clean-up in
    New York

Fundamentalist Islam vs. Liberal Islam
  • BUT Whoever is correct in terms of what true
    Islam is, the fact remains that a significant
    portion of Muslims hold to the more militant,
    fundamentalist form Islam
  • AND these Muslims continue to state that the
    motivation and reason for their jihad actions and
    acts of terrorism are religious In fact, they
    are religious duty.

Fundamentalist Islam vs. Liberal Islam
  • HOWEVER We must be careful not to assume that
    all Muslims believe or support the same things
    (in the same way that we would disagree with much
    of what goes on in the name of Christianity)
  • Based upon the Quran and the Hadith alone, it
    appears that original Islam was more in line
    with the fundamentalist view than with the
    liberal view

Fundamentalist Islam
  • Support of lesser jihad based upon the life of
  • During the battle of Badr in 624, a prisoner was
    taken who formerly insulted Muhammad
  • Muhammad ordered a follower to strike off Nadrs
    head in his presence. Before killing Al Hadr Ibn
    al Harith cried, O Prophet, who will look after
    my children if I should die? Mohammad spat out
    Hellfire as the sword cut through his neck.
    (Muhammad, in Wikipedia, 2004)

Fundamentalist Islam
  • Support of lesser jihad based upon the life of
  • While many Muslims claim that Muhammads military
    activates were acts of self defense because of
    persecution, it is simply untrue that much of the
    killing and violence he performed or ordered to
    perform were not acts of self-defense
  • In addition, self-defense both then and today
    has been redefined to include the creation of a
    Palestinian Muslim state, the annihilation of
    Israel, kicking out all Americans and other
    westerners from Islamic countries, etc.

Jihad in Fundamentalist Islam
  • Several organizations exist today that promote
    jihad activates in the name of Islam
  • Hamas, al-Qaeda, the Chechnyan rebels, Islamic
    Jihad, Al-Aqsa Martyers Brigade, and many others
  • Fighting of this nature has gone on in Israel,
    Turkey, Jordan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq,
    Saudi Arabia, Russia and now in the United

Suicide bombers holy martyrs
  • The most common jihad activity today is the
    suicide bomb
  • While the Quran appears to reject suicide as
    sin, it wholeheartedly encourages and supports
    being a martyr
  • There are thousands of followers of these
    terrorist groups, who participate in training
    camps around the world

Suicide bombers holy martyrs
  • USA Today Article Jack Kelley, Devotion,
    desire drive youths to martyrdom

Suicide bombers holy martyrs
  • Children are recruited as young as Kindergarten
  • The Childrens Club (the Palestinian version of
    Sesame Street) features the song, When I wander
    into Jerusalem, I will become a suicide bomber.
  • In Hamas run Kindergarten classes, signs on the
    wall read The children of the kindergarten are
    the shaheeds (holy martyrs) of tomorrow.

Suicide bombers holy martyrs
  • Dying in jihad is one of only two ways that a
    Muslim can be guaranteed of going to heaven
  • The family of one who has died in a suicide
    attack is typically compensated generously by
    Muslim charity organizations
  • Plus, martyrs are told they will be met in heaven
    by 72 virgins will become their wives

A Biblical response to Islam terrorism
Reaffirm our belief in the Sovereignty of God
  • He is sovereignly in control
  • "For the LORD of hosts has planned, and who can
    frustrate it? And as for His stretched-out
    hand, who can turn it back? (Is. 1427)
  • He is good
  • For the LORD is good His lovingkindness is
    everlasting and His faithfulness to all
    generations. - (Ps. 1005)
  • He is all-knowing
  • Great is our Lord and abundant in strength His
    understanding is infinite. - (Ps.1475)
  • He is all-powerful
  • "For the LORD of hosts has planned, and who can
    frustrate it? And as for His stretched-out
    hand, who can turn it back? - (Is. 1427)

Reaffirm our belief in the Sovereignty of God
  • He works good in the midst of mans wickedness
    and sin
  • And we know that God causes all things to work
    together for good to those who love God, to those
    who are called according to His purpose. - (Rom
  • As for you, you meant evil against me, but God
    meant it for good in order to bring about this
    present result, to preserve many people alive. -
    (Gen. 5020
  • We are completely dependent upon Him for life
    our security

Remind ourselves of the depravity of man
  • the heart is deceitful above all things and
    desperately wicked, who can know it? (Jer.
  • there is none righteous, no not one (Rom. 310)
  • The wicked are estranged from the womb these
    who speak lies go astray from birth. - (Ps 583)
  • "For out of the heart come evil thoughts,
    murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false
    witness, slanders. - (Matt 1519)
  • in whose case the god of this world has blinded
    the minds of the unbelieving so that they might
    not see the light of the gospel of the glory of
    Christ, who is the image of God. - (2 Cor 44)

Re-focus on the reality of spiritual battle
  • Satan is alive and well, introducing false ideas
    about God and Truth and working evil in the name
    of God
  • We are destroying speculations and every lofty
    thing raised up against the knowledge of God, and
    we are taking every thought captive to the
    obedience of Christ, - (2 Cor 105)
  • For even though they knew God, they did not honor
    Him as God or give thanks, but they became futile
    in their speculations, and their foolish heart
    was darkened. - (Rom. 121)

Re-establish a biblical understanding of
  • Government is established by God
  • Every person is to be in subjection to the
    governing authorities. For there is no authority
    except from God, and those which exist are
    established by God. - (Rom. 131)
  • Government exists to punish evildoers and
    restrain wickedness in the world
  • For rulers are not a cause of fear for good
    behavior, but for evil. Do you want to have no
    fear of authority? Do what is good and you will
    have praise from the same for it is a minister
    of God to you for good. But if you do what is
    evil, be afraid for it does not bear the sword
    for nothing for it is a minister of God, an
    avenger who brings wrath on the one who practices
    evil. - (Rom. 133-4)

Recognize Gods special blessing upon Israel
  • The Jews are currently in a state of unbelief,
    having been veiled to the truth
  • For I do not want you, brethren, to be uninformed
    of this mystery-- so that you will not be wise in
    your own estimation-- that a partial hardening
    has happened to Israel until the fullness of the
    Gentiles has come in - (Rom. 1125)
  • However, there is no biblical reason to assume
    that the promise of the Abrahamic covenant in
    regard to the blessing and cursing of Israel has
    been made void
  • And I will bless those who bless you, and the one
    who curses you I will curse. And in you all the
    families of the earth will be blessed. - (Gen

Remember what Jesus said about following Him
  • Remember the word that I said to you, "A slave
    is not greater than his master.' If they
    persecuted Me, they will also persecute you if
    they kept My word, they will keep yours also. -
    (John 1520)
  • Indeed, all who desire to live godly in Christ
    Jesus will be persecuted. - (2 Tim. 312)

Reform our attitudes to be gracious, wise, and
careful in our interactions with Muslims
  • He who gives an answer before he hears, it is
    folly and shame to him. - (Prov. 1813)
  • Let no unwholesome word proceed from your mouth,
    but only such a word as is good for edification
    according to the need of the moment so that it
    will give grace to those who hear. - (Eph. 429)

Resolve to take the Gospel to Muslims
  • Government is not the answer, the Gospel is
  • Only the gospel of Jesus Christ the Truth - has
    the power to expose error, convert the heart, and
    save the sinner (Rom. 116, Heb. 412)
  • For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the
    power of God for salvation to everyone who
    believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.
    - (Rom. 116)
  • For the word of God is living and active and
    sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing as
    far as the division of soul and spirit, of both
    joints and marrow, and able to judge the thoughts
    and intentions of the heart. - (Heb. 412)

Resolve to take the Gospel to Muslims
  • AND they will not hear the message unless we
    take it to them
  • How then will they call on Him in whom they have
    not believed? How will they believe in Him whom
    they have not heard? And how will they hear
    without a preacher? - (Rom. 1014)
  • Therefore, we are ambassadors for Christ, as
    though God were making an appeal through us we
    beg you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to
    God. - (2 Cor. 520)

Reminders for taking the Gospel to Muslims
  • Forgiveness what they deeply desire
  • Assurance what they lack completely
  • Compassion what they need as evidence of
    Christian Faith
  • Time it takes time to expose the errors of
    Islam and communicate the truth of the Gospel
  • Scripture without the Bible, nothing will happen

Dr. Bill Barrick, Understanding Muslims, 5.
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