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Ideas for an Inclusive Classroom


Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) ... Provide alternative seating therapy balls, bean bags, standing desks or areas ... Post a facial expression chart ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ideas for an Inclusive Classroom

Ideas for an Inclusive Classroom
  • Accommodations for Students with Disabilities
  • Kelly Southall
  • FMEA 2008 Conference
  • January 9th, 2008

Boy is Empowered By His Weakness Los
Angeles Times January 7, 2008
  • Disability is a natural part of the human
  • U.S. Developmental Disabilities Act and the Bill
    of Rights Act, 1993

Person First Language
  • Person first language puts the person before
    the disability, and it describes what a person
    has, not what a person is.

Person First Language
  • Are you myopic or do you wear glasses?
  • Are you freckled or do you have freckles?
  • Is a person handicapped or disabled or does
    she have a disability?
  • Snow, K. 2003

Examples of People First Language
  • Say
  • People with disabilities
  • He has a cognitive disability
  • She has a learning disability
  • I have several students who receive ESE services
  • Instead of
  • The handicapped or disabled
  • Hes mentally retarded
  • Shes learning disabled
  • I have several ESE students

People First Language
  • And no more special needs! That term evokes
    pity, and a persons needs arent special to him,
    theyre normal and ordinary! Keep thinking
    there are many descriptors we need to change.
  • Snow, K. 2003

Federal Laws that Govern Accommodations and
  • No Child Left Behind (NCLB) 2001
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
    (IDEA) 1997 and 2004 Amendments
  • American Disabilities Act (ADA) 1990
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

No Child Left Behind (NCLB) 1997
  • Requires all states to use assessments to
    determine if a school has made adequate yearly
    progress in the proficiency of all students,
    including students with disabilities. The law
    provides for accommodations and alternate
    assessments for students with disabilities who
    need them.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
(IDEA) 1997
  • Governs educational programs for students with
    disabilities. It requires access to general
    curriculum, development of individual educational
    plans (IEPs), due process and procedural

American Disabilities Act (ADA) 1990
  • Ensures accessibility in all areas of life for
    those with disabilities.

Section 504
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
    prohibits discrimination on a disability and
    requires that accommodations be provided to
    students with a disability, even if they dont
    have an IEP and who are not eligible under IDEA

Least Restrictive Environment
  • The least restrictive environment principle
    provides an opportunity for students to attend
    school in the most inclusive setting possible,
    which is most often defined as the general
    education setting with their peers who are
  • U.S. Department of Education, 2002

Continuum of Educational Services
10. Hospital or Institution
Most restrictive
9. Homebound Instruction
8. Residential School
7. Special Day School
Educational Placement
6. Full-Time Special Education Classroom.
Educational Need
5. Special Education Classroom with Part
Time in General Education Classroom.
4. General Education Classroom Placement
with Resource Room Assistance
3. General Education Classroom Placement
with Itinerant Specialist Assistance
Least restrictive
2. General Education Classroom Placement with
Collaborative Teacher Assistance
1. General Education Classroom Placement with
Few or No Supportive Services
Spencer J. Salend Creative Inclusive Classrooms
Effective and Reflective Practices for All
Students, 5e
Accommodations and Modifications
  • Federal and state laws and regulations require
    schools to provide accommodations and
    modifications to make sure that students with a
    disability have access to an appropriate
    education program.

Accommodations vs. Modifications
  • Accommodations are made to the WAY students learn
    and HOW they are tested
  • Modifications are changes made to WHAT students
    are expected to learn

What is inclusion?
  • Inclusion is a philosophy that brings diverse
    students, families, educators and community
    members together to create schools and other
    social institutions based on acceptance,
    belonging, and community (Bloom, Perlmuter,
    Burrell, 1999)

Keys to Successful Inclusion
  • Collaboration, Collaboration, Collaboration
  • Become familiar with the Individual Education
    Plan (IEP)
  • Determine what modifications or accommodations
    are required in your curriculum, instruction or
    physical space
  • Assistance from peers and paraprofessionals
  • Establish and model class rules, procedures and
  • Create a positive classroom environment
  • Monitor progress
  • Provide feedback
  • Reflection

Principles of Differentiated Instruction
  • Planning is based on individual learners
  • Students participate in respectful work
  • Multiple learning strategies are used

Principles of Differentiated Instruction
  • Assessment occurs in a variety of ways
  • Teaching concepts provide focus and a foundation
  • Flexible grouping is essential for student

Assistive Technology
  • FM Listening System
  • Variable Speed Tape/CD Recorders and Players
  • Talking Calculators
  • Personal Digital Assistants
  • Palm Pilots
  • AlphaSmarts
  • Laptops
  • Optical Character Recognition Devices
  • Speech Synthesizers/Screen Readers
  • Alternative Keyboards
  • Graphic Organizers Inspiration, Kidspiration
  • Proofreading Software
  • Speech Recognition Software
  • Word Prediction Software

Universal Design for Learning
  • Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a
    framework for designing curricula that enable all
    individuals to gain knowledge, skills, and
    enthusiasm for learning. UDL provides rich
    supports for learning and reduces barriers to the
    curriculum while maintaining high achievement
    standards for all.

Universal Design for Learning
  • Incorporates three principles of flexibility into
    the design
  • Multiple methods of presentation
  • Multiple options for participation
  • Multiple means of expression

High Incidence Disabilities
  • Learning Disabilities
  • Speech or Language Impairments
  • Cognitive Disabilities
  • Emotional Disturbance

Learning Disabilities
  • The student may have challenges with one or more
    of the following areas
  • Visual Perception
  • Auditory Perception
  • Body and Spatial Relationships
  • Memory
  • Behavior

Accommodations for Students with Learning
  • Establish routines and schedules, with time built
    in for transitions
  • Post the schedule or agenda for the day, so the
    student can check to see what is coming next
  • Allow sufficient time at the end of class or the
    day for the student to write assignments down and
    gather materials
  • Provide graphic organizers with explicit
  • Provide models of what a final product is
    expected to look like

Accommodations for Students with Learning
  • Provide a positive learning climate that fosters
    improved self esteem/confidence
  • Provide a quiet place for independent work if
  • Peer mentoring
  • Cooperative learning activities
  • Provide specific skill instruction

Accommodations for Students with Learning
  • Keep instructions and directions simple, one at a
  • Repeat or rephrase instructions
  • Reduce working time and expectations initially to
    ensure the student is successful
  • Try to ensure that there's a good partnership
    between home and school and keep parents informed
    as to how they can support at home
  • Provide alternative testing strategies vocal,
    dictated etc.

Accommodations for Students with Learning
  • Provide opportunities for extra practice
  • Teach strategies for summarizing
  • Link new information to previously learned
  • Present information in as many modalities as is
  • Provide consistent and ongoing clarification
  • Teach the students 'strategies' not just facts

Emotional Disturbances
  • A condition exhibiting one or more of the
    following characteristics over a long period of
    time and to a marked degree that adversely
    affects a child's educational performance--
  • (A) An inability to learn that cannot be
    explained by intellectual, sensory, or health
  • (B) An inability to build or maintain
    satisfactory interpersonal relationships with
    peers and teachers
  • IDEA, 1997

Emotional Disturbances
  • (C) Inappropriate types of behavior or
    feelings under normal circumstances. (D) A
    general pervasive mood of unhappiness or
    depression. (E) A tendency to develop physical
    symptoms or fears associated with personal or
    school problems. Code of Federal Regulations,
    Title 34, Section 300.7(c)(4)(i)
  • IDEA, 1997

Emotional Disturbances
  • Hyperactivity (short attention span,
  • Aggression/self-injurious behavior (acting out,
  • Withdrawal (failure to initiate interaction with
    others retreat from exchanges of social
    interaction, excessive fear or anxiety)
  • Immaturity (inappropriate crying, temper
    tantrums, poor coping skills)
  • Learning difficulties (academically performing
    below grade level)
  • National Dissemination Center for Children with
    Disabilities, 2004

Accommodations for Students with Emotional
  • Consider Positive Behavioral Support (PBS)
  • Structured environment
  • Predictable rules, routines and procedures
  • Consistent management strategies
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Token economy
  • Contracting
  • Time-out
  • Modeling, discussion and role playing of
    acceptable behaviors and trying situations
  • Provide relaxation choices
  • Teach self-monitoring

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD/ADHD)
  • Begins in early childhood
  • Symptoms are severe and persistent
  • May include hyperactivity
  • Demonstrates impulsivity
  • May be easily frustrated
  • Appears inattentive
  • Rushes through assignments with careless mistakes
  • Fidgets
  • Gets out of seat at inappropriate times

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD/ADHD)
  • Individuals with ADD/ADHD may be
  • Friendly and social
  • Creative
  • Willing to take a risk of do something unusual
  • Fast moving and enjoy interactive games
  • Bossy (strong leadership skills)

  • Try these things
  • Provide alternative seating and standing desks
  • Provide frequent breaks
  • Establish acceptable behaviors for all procedures
    in the classroom
  • Provide peer support ask three, then me
  • Post and repeat all directions and assignments
  • Provide activities that encourage movement
  • Stress balls
  • Assign jobs and allow students to assist with
    set up and class routines
  • Assist with self-monitoring strategies to remain
    on task

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
  • Autism is a developmental disability
    significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal
    communication and social interaction, generally
    evident before the age of 3, that adversely
    affects educational performance.
  • IDEA

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
  • Aspergers Syndrome
  • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
  • Retts Disorder
  • Pervasive Development Disorders

Characteristics of Students with Autism
  • May repeat phrases (echolalia)
  • May not initiate conversation or engage in
    normal conversation
  • Will not understand sarcasm or irony
  • Difficulty with abstract thinking
  • May have exceptional ability to memorize trivia

Characteristics of Students with Autism
  • Prefers to be alone
  • May not initiate play or form friendships with
  • Usually dislikes being touched
  • May engage in improper hugging or sexual touching
    of self and others
  • May engage in self-stimulating behaviors such as
    rocking, swinging, hand flapping and self hitting
  • May be awkward in both posture and fine and gross
    motor control (Proprioceptive Dysfunction)

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Suggestions
  • Reinforce and model appropriate social behaviors
  • Provide alternative seating therapy balls, bean
    bags, standing desks or areas
  • Post agendas, rubrics and checklists for
    assignments and procedures
  • Do not take personally what a student with autism
    says or does
  • Allow peers to assist with organizational tasks
    and daily functioning Encourage working in groups
  • Emphasize developing communication skills
  • Help the student learn to verbally express
    feelings of discomfort
  • Provide Sensory Breaks (shoe boxes filled w/rice,
    beans, etc)
  • Provide a place for the student to reorganize

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Suggestions
  • Provide headphones, earplugs, nose plugs, etc.
    for sensitivities
  • Teach to the students strengths
  • Be flexible by allowing multiple methods of
    presentation, multiple options for participation,
    multiple means of expression (UDL)
  • Do not rely on the student to deliver messages
  • Provide a visual schedule to review when the
    student arrives
  • Break down assignments
  • Post a facial expression chart
  • Music and music therapy help calm the student and
    reduce stimulating behavior

  • The Advocacy Center for Persons with
    Disabilities, Inc.
  • http//
  • Misunderstood Minds
  • http//
  • Learning Disabilities and ADHD
  • http//
  • Center for Applied Special Technology Based on
    the Principles of Universal Design for Learning
  • http//
  • The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) is the
    largest international professional organization
    dedicated to improving educational outcomes for
    individuals with exceptionalities, students with
    disabilities, and/or the gifted.
  • http//
  • VSA arts of Floridas mission is to create a
    society where people with disabilities can learn
    through, participate in enjoy the arts
  • http//
  • Good Classroom Teaching for All Kinds of Learners
  • http//

  • The Family and Professional Site for the Special
    Needs Community
  • http//
  • National Center for Learning Disabilities
  • http//
  • National Dissemination Center for Children with
  • http//
  • The mission of the Access Center is to provide
    technical assistance that strengthens State and
    local capacity to help students with disabilities
    effectively learn in the general
    education curriculum http//
  • TASH is an international association of people
    with disabilities, their family members, other
    advocates, and professionals fighting for a
    society in which inclusion of all people in all
    aspects of society is the norm.
  • A nonprofit institute for understanding
    differences in learning
  • http//

Thank you!
Contact Information