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Sustaining the Classroom Community final project 4/18/09


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Title: Sustaining the Classroom Community final project 4/18/09

Sustaining the Classroom Community final project
  • Helen Chung

Sustaining the classroom community
  • In order to build classroom community, behavior
    problems must be addressed
  • 5 to 15 of students do not respond to standard
    behavior interventions
  • According to the IDEA 1997, schools must
    introduce functional behavior assessment to
    address serious and persistent problem behavior.
    (Panico, 2009)

What is a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
  • An FBA identifies when, where, and why problem
    behaviors occur, and when, where, and why they do
    not occur. (Sugai, Horner, and Sprague, 1999)
  • There is no consensus on assessment tools, and no
    set format
  • Assessment tools may include records reviews,
    teacher reports and checklists, observations, and
  • An FBA accompanies a Behavioral Intervention Plan
    (BIP) as part of a students IEP

MMSD FBA components
  • Strengths of the student
  • Slow triggers (setting events)
  • Fast triggers (antecedents)
  • Problem behavior, perceived function, and actual

Who can do an FBA
  • Basically, anyone
  • The difficulty lies in the fact that there is a
    dearth of trained personnel available to conduct
    the functional assessments of behavior and to
    develop and implement the behavior intervention
    plans. (Van Acker, Boreson, Gable, and
    Potterton, 2005)

What is a Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP)
  • BIPS are reserved for students with serious and
    persistent behavior problems who do not respond
    to traditional behavioral supports
  • BIPs are designed to promote positive behaviors,
    suppress negative behaviors, and provide supports
    for a student to do so

MMSD BIP components
  • Description of interfering behavior
  • Intensity, frequency, and duration
  • Possible antecedents
  • Desired behaviors to increase, maintain, and/or
  • Positive interventions, accommodations, and/or
  • Consequences which serve to increase desired
  • Student action/behavior, staff interventions, and
    consequences for stage 1 (precursor behaviors),
    stage 2 (behaviors of distress) and stage 3
    (recovery behaviors)

Who can do a BIP
  • A BIP is written as part of a students IEP
  • Therefore, a students IEP team consisting of the
    special education teacher, related service
    providers, and regular education teacher writes
    the BIP
  • As with the FBA that accompanies the BIP, no
    special credentials are required to write one,
    and few are adequately trained

Case managing S/L students
  • In 2007, MMSD speech-language therapists were
    required to case manage all students whose only
    identified disability was S/L
  • S/L only students with academic and/or behavioral
    needs were previously case managed by cross
    categorical (CC) teachers

S/L students w/ behavioral needs
  • Some S/L only students have behavioral needs
  • Students who meet criteria for a disability in
    addition to S/L are eligible for CC case
  • The advantage of CC case management is that CC
    teachers are better trained than SLPs to manage
    behavior, and they see their students for at
    least a couple hours a day instead of the 2 ½ or
    3 hours a month S/L therapists see their students

Case managing S/L only students with behavioral
  • Case managing S/L only students with behavioral
    needs may require creating and implementing a
    functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and
    behavioral intervention plan (BIP) as part of a
    students Individualized Educational Plan (IEP)
  • SLPs are not typically trained to write and
    implement FBAs and BIPs
  • Limitations include the amount of time we have to
    see each student and the number of different
    teachers a middle or high school student has

How do we write an effective BIP?
  • In Behave Yourself, Ambrose Pierce believes that
    too many BIPs have been driven by behaviorist
    theory that believes that behavior is a function
    of the interaction between the behavior and the
    environment. These plans have relied too heavily
    on rewards and punishments
  • He proposes an approach that stresses a social
    cognitive view which believes that behavior is
    the result of reciprocal influences between the
    personal variables (internal) of the individual,
    the environment (external) in which the behavior
    occurs, and the behavior itself. (Kaplan, 2003)

A social cognitive approach to the BIP
  • Internal variables
  • Cognitions (beliefs, expectations, values, etc. .
  • Emotions
  • Competencies (self management, social skills)
  • Physical characteristics

A social cognitive approach to the BIP cont.
  • External variables
  • Antecedents (setting events, cues)
  • Consequences (/- reinforcements)

How internal and external variables interact in
the social cognitive approach
  • Antecedents e.g., a failed test, are
    experienced through an individuals unique
    variables. For example, one student may become
    more determined to do better, another may feel
    defeated and angry
  • Behavior is the individuals response to the
    antecedent e.g., one student will make note of
    errors and study harder the next time, the other
    might crumple his test, say that it was a stupid
    test anyway, and spend the rest of the period
    disrupting class

How internal and external variables interact in
the social cognitive approach cont.
  • The students behavior interacts with the
    environment, producing a consequence. The first
    student might approach his teacher for extra
    help, the other might get sent out for class
  • Consequences are then processed through an
    individuals personal variables, and feedback
    will strengthen, maintain, or weaken the

Core beliefs to guide implementation (Panico,
  1. Human behavior is complex
  2. Misbehavior is not always willful
  3. Long term success is the goal
  4. Teamwork is critical
  5. The student must be involved

Core beliefs to guide implementation cont.
(Panico, 2009)
  1. Flexibility is critical
  2. Optimism is critical
  3. Patience is critical
  4. The plan must be positive
  5. The plan must go beyond reinforcement

Tools to change behavior (Panico, 2009)
  • Reinforcement based tools
  • Belief based tools
  • Skill based tools
  • Needs based tools
  • Environment based tools
  • All are needed to change behavior

Reinforcement based tools
  • Reinforcement based tools manipulate rewards and
  • Contracts, rewards
  • Keep it positive and consistent
  • Include student in deciding whether
    reinforcements have been earned

Belief based tools
  • Belief based tools provide new information, new
    ways of looking at old information, or a broader
    context for evaluating information that positions
    the student to substitute empowering beliefs for
    disabling beliefs
  • Substitute rational statements for irrational
    statements in self talk
  • Behavior change is based on belief change, not
    the other way around

Skills based tools
  • Skills based tools teach a skill or skill set the
    student must master in order to be successful
  • Counting backwards from 10 to control anger
  • Basic academic skills
  • Social skills

Needs based tools
  • Needs based tools identify the basic need
    gratified by a maladaptive or socially
    unacceptable behavior. After the need is
    identified, an adaptive and socially acceptable
    behavior is substituted that meets the need
  • Finding a mentor or joining the track team to
    fill a need to belong instead of joining a gang
  • Most students will need adult assistance to
    identify the need being met by the undesired

Environment based tools
  • Environment based tools seek to change behavior
    through thoughtful adaptations to environmental
  • Seating arrangements, instructional level, test
    accommodations, change in schedule
  • Build a more inclusive classroom community

The Plan to Do Better Process (Panico, 2009)
  • Step 1 Identify and describe the nonproductive
    behavior, including the behaviors
    characteristics and context
  • Step 2 Secure the view, input, and suggestions
    of the students (required) and parents or
    significant adults (recommended)
  • Step 3 Identify and describe the problem
    behaviors function(s) and select the appropriate
    behavior change tool(s)
  • Step 4 Fully develop each of the selected tools
  • Step 5 Develop and describe the behavior plans
    assessment process and schedule

Step 1 Describe the nonproductive behavior
  • Define the behavior that needs to change
  • Use specific language
  • Aggressive behavior should be hits or kicks
  • Disruptive behavior talks out, offers
    irrelevant comments
  • Place the behavior into context
  • Hits, kicks other students in unstructured
    activities during recess
  • Talks out of turn, making comments during math
    class such as this is baby stuff

Step 2 Secure the input of the student,
parents, other significant adults
  • Best way to obtain student input is to ask
  • Behave Yourself includes a list of essential
    questions that include
  • What do you really like about school?
  • Dont like?
  • Can you stop X when you want to stop?
  • What do you get out of doing X?

Step 3 Identify and describe behaviors
function and behavior change tools
  • Behave Yourself has a list of essential questions
    that include
  • Is the student conscious of his behavior
  • Is the behavior under his or her control
  • Is the student aware of the short and long term
  • How does the environment contribute to the
    maintenance of the nonproductive behavior

Step 4 Fully develop each of the selected
behavior change tools
  • Try to develop plans that incorporate several
  • For example, implementing belief based tools to
    change a students belief system will also
    require implementation of skill and reinforcement
    based interventions

Step 5 Develop and describe the behavior change
plans assessment process and schedule
  • A team has to be able to decide if a plan is
  • Decide how assessment feedback will be provided
    to all stakeholders
  • Include the student in the assessment process

Forms for gathering information
  • Panico has included many forms for information
    gathering in Behave Yourself
  • Student interview form
  • Parent/guardian survey
  • Things My Teacher Should Know About Me interest
    inventories for middle and high school
  • Teachers who help me succeed (preferred teacher

  • Panico, Ambrose Behave Yourself! Helping
    Students Plan to Do Better Solution Tree
    Bloomington, IN 2009