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JOB SATISFACTION AND THE PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE OF U.S. MILITARY AND MILITARY AFFILIATED PERSONNEL

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Title: JOB SATISFACTION AND THE PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE OF U.S. MILITARY AND MILITARY AFFILIATED PERSONNEL


1
JOB SATISFACTION AND THE PERCEIVED
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE OF U.S. MILITARY AND
MILITARY AFFILIATED PERSONNEL
Presented By Dr. Deborah A. Diffenauer
2
Outline
  • Background of the study
  • The problem
  • Significance of the problemrelevant issues
  • Purpose of the study
  • Research Questions
  • Theoretical Foundation
  • Research Methods
  • Findings
  • Summary
  • Conclusions
  • Recommendations

3
Background of the Study
  • Career decisions, demographics, problems, and
    issues--interaction with potential employers and
    co-workers
  • Consistency of developed training and education
    programs
  • The work environment--shaped by social and
    cultural changes
  • Satisfaction in chosen occupations
  • Organizational culture and eventual career
    transition

4
Statement of the Problem
  • The problem of the study was to (a) investigate
    demographic characteristics including career
    preparation activities, the level of job
    satisfaction, the range of opposition between
    current and preferred organizational culture, and
    (b) to determine the nature and strength of the
    associated relationships.

5
Significance of the ProblemRelevant Issues
  • Inability to find employment after military
    service
  • Presence of increased trauma systems negatively
    affecting the career development process
  • Military conflicts-past and present

6
SignificanceRelevant Issues Continued
  • Lack of a professional career network or
    transition support system
  • 260,000 homeless military veterans in the United
    States at some point during the course of a year
    (NCHV, 2009)
  • The availability of resources
  • Intense training regimes, prolonged war
    environments and an engrained military culture

7
Purpose of this Study
  • The purpose of the study was to contribute to the
    knowledge regarding the nature and strength of
    relationships between
  • demographic characteristics
  • level of job satisfaction
  • current organizational culture
  • preferred organizational culture
  • perceptions among military and military
    affiliated participants

8
Research Questions
  • 1. Nature and strength of the relationship
    between job satisfaction responses and the
    participant demographics of gender, age, military
    status/affiliations, and exploration of career
    opportunities, current occupation, and preferred
    occupation
  • 2. Nature and strength of the relationship
    between the participants level of job
    satisfaction and the current organizational
    culture in which they work

9
Research Questions Continued
  • 3. Nature and strength of the relationship
    between the participants level of job
    satisfaction and their preferred organizational
    culture
  • 4. Nature and strength of the relationship
    between job satisfaction and current
    organizational culture among active duty military
    compared to military affiliated

10
Research Questions Continued
  • 5. Nature and strength of the relationship
    between job satisfaction and preferred
    organizational culture among active duty military
    compared to military affiliated
  • 6. Nature and strength of the relationship
    between job satisfaction and the incongruence
    (strong opposition) of the current and preferred
    organizational culture

11
Theoretical Foundation
  • Variables that can be used to investigate the
    relationships formed between an individuals
    personal traits, relationships, gender roles,
    career choices
  • Investigation of career compromises, thought
    processes, and specific personality factors
  • Includes several career development theories

12
Career Development Theories
  • Donald Supers Theory of Vocational Choice (1953)
  • Ann Roes Personality Theory (1956)
  • John Hollands Career Typology Theory of Career
    Development (1959)

13
Career Development Theories Continued
  • Lent, Brown and Hacketts Social Cognitive Career
    Theory (SCCT-1994)
  • Alfred Banduras Self-Efficacy Theory (1994)
  • Linda Gottfredsons Theory of Circumscription and
    Compromise (1996)

14
Research Methods
  • Design
  • Participants
  • Instrumentation
  • Demographics Questionnaire
  • Job Satisfaction Survey
  • Organizational Culture Survey
  • Data Collection
  • Data Analysis

15
Data Analysis-Why use Pearsons Chi square/Eta
versus ANOVA?
  • Eta is a measure of the strength of a
    relationship based on the sums of squaressuch as
    computed in an analysis of variance
  • Eta is a useful coefficient outside the context
    of ANOVA
  • Eta equals the square root of the sum of squares
    for an interval variable y between classes
    (columns) divided by the total sum of squares

16
Pearsons Chi square/Eta Continued
  • Coefficient of nonlinear association....for
    linear relationships...equals the correlation
    coefficient (Pearsons r)....for
    nonlinear relationships it is greater...so the
    difference between eta and r is a measure of the
    extent of the nonlinearity of the relationship
  • Used for categorical and interval variables
  • Not significant if X²gt .05 and significant if X²lt
    .05

17
Pearsons Chi square/Eta Continued
  • Eta cannot prove causal direction....only
    measures levels given the researchers
    assumptions....eta has no or sign and varies
    from 0 to 1.0
  • Can be performed using SPSS---descriptivescrossta
    bs---row/column---Statistics---Chi square, Eta
  • Didnt report Eta² in the study because Eta²
    interpreted as the percent of variance in the
    dependent variable explained by the independent
    variable---not necessary to answer the research
    questions---issue of confusion

18
Research Findings
  • 1. A statistically significant relationship was
    found between promotion, and coworker
    satisfaction with participant gender, between
    benefit satisfaction and participant active duty
    status/ military affiliation, between promotion,
    pay, and coworker satisfaction and the
    participants current occupation at the .05
    level, so there was statistical strength shown in
    these relationships

19
Research Findings
  • 2. A statistically significant relationship was
    found between participant responses in job
    satisfaction and current organizational culture,
    support at the .05 alpha level, so there was
    statistical strength shown in this relationship
  • 3. A statistically significant was found between
    the participant responses in job satisfaction and
    preferred organizational culture therefore,
    support was found at the .01 and .05 alpha
    levels, so there was statistical strength shown
    in this relationship

20
Research Findings
  • 4. A statistically significant relationship was
    found between participant responses in job
    satisfaction and current organizational culture
    between active duty military and military
    affiliated therefore, support was found at the
    .05 alpha level, so there was statistical
    strength shown in this relationship
  • 5. A statistically significant relationship was
    found between participant responses in job
    satisfaction and preferred organization culture
    between active duty military and military
    affiliated, support was found at the .05 alpha
    level, so there was statistical strength shown in
    this relationship

21
Research Findings
  • Lastly.
  • 6. A statistically significant relationship was
    found between job satisfaction and the
    incongruence (strong opposition) of the current
    and preferred organizational culture was
    statistically significant, support was found at
    the .01 and.05 alpha levels, so there was
    statistical strength shown in these relationships

22
Conclusions to Research Questions 1-6
  • Significant relationships
  • Descriptive Questionnaire
  • Age Service Branch
  • Gender Status
  • Job Satisfaction Survey
  • Pay Rewards
  • Promotion Operating Procedures
  • Supervision Nature of Work
  • Benefits Communication
  • Coworkers
  • Organizational Culture Survey
  • Clan Market
  • Adhocracy Hierarchy

23
Conclusion 1
  • Overall the participants reported ambivalence
    with job satisfaction in their current
    occupations
  • Most of the active duty military and military
    affiliated participants were found to be
    satisfied with their current occupations based on
    their gender, status, and current occupation
  • There were also relationships between career
    experiences, reward systems, and the military and
    military affiliated occupations

24
Conclusion 1 Continued
  • The status of the participants, whether military
    or military affiliated, had no effect on their
    perceptions of overall job satisfaction however,
    it did have an effect on their perceptions about
    satisfaction with benefits within the
    organization
  • Participants reported that they are more
    motivated or satisfied with relevant reward
    systems and use of their acquired skills
  • Other relevant associations included the
    relationships found between gender and several of
    the job satisfaction subscales

25
Conclusion 2
  • Overall, most participants identified their
    current organizational culture as being
    associated with a hierarchy
  • Most of the active duty military participants, in
    this study, perceived their current culture as
    having a hierarchical structure while their
    veteran cohorts perceived their current culture
    as having more of a clan association

26
Conclusion 3
  • Most participants both active duty military and
    military affiliated participants perceived their
    preferred culture as being a clan culture with a
    preference for a familial structure
  • Familiarity with stable structures and regulated
    work systems, cannot fully operate in
    environments that incorporate free thought and
    flexibility
  • Desire for a flexible and open communication
    system such as in the clan culture is an
    essential element in the preferred culture

27
Recommendations for Future Research
  • Increase the sample size. A larger sample size
    would yield further implications into the
    relationship between job satisfaction, and
    organizational culturethis could be accomplished
    through hand delivery of the survey to the
    selected locations with the researcher speaking
    to the perspective participants prior to
    administration of the survey
  • Make the survey instrument shorter in lengthso
    that the testing time is less than 10 minutes

28
Recommendations for Future Research Continued
  • Use different instruments to assess job
    satisfaction, and organizational culture with
    additional instruments, found or developed,
    producing higher validity and/or reliability
    within this population
  • Perform a qualitative study utilizing the same
    participants to gauge the relevance of
    perceptions of job satisfaction to their current
    and preferred organizational cultures
  • Make the instrument user friendly with simple
    instructions and a generic scoring system

29
Why This Topic.The ProcessWhat I would have
Done Differently
  • Relative lack of available empirical research
    sources on active duty military, veterans and
    their families
  • Began my research by choosing/developing/altering
    survey instruments
  • Choosing my participant grouptake in to account
    resources, time constraints
  • What I would have done differently and why

30
Recommendations for the Profession
  • SoIf I were to do this study again I would..
  • Have a face-to-face meeting with perspective
    course instructors outlining the purpose,
    procedures, and instructions of the proposed
    study
  • Have a face-to-face meeting with perspective
    participants outlining the purpose, procedures
    and instructions of the proposed study
  • Offer incentives to the perspective participants
    for their participation in the study such as
    entry into drawing for a prize, cash or gift card
  • Create a video presentation to be sent to
    students prior to their receiving the survey
    instrument

31
Recommendations for the Profession Continued
  • Develop undergraduate college students skills in
    understanding statistical research methods,
    instruments, language, and the importance of
    conducting research in an academic setting of
    research through college course development and
    curriculum initiativesissue of statistical terms
    and the confusion with occupational or military
    language...example rank the optionsconfusion
    with the term for structure within the military
    (rank of Enlisted grade 1)

32
Recommendations for the Profession Continued
  • Increase statistical demonstration and practice
    with research language, instruments, and
    statistical toolsincorporate research
    development skills
  • Introduce career workshops as education tools...
    to develop strategies for career success after
    military discharge and or college completion
  • Create greater awareness of the required
    participation and support of college course
    coordinators to support academic research
    initiatives at all levelshave a faculty member
    intervene with coordinators/instructors on
    researchers behalf

33
  • Good Luck with Your Research
    Endeavors!
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